Putting the Pieces Together Learning to Use Inquiry Approaching by afr15630

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                     Putting the Pieces Together: Learning to Use Inquiry Approaching in
                                         Elementary Science Teaching

                                                    Betty J. Young, Ph.D., Professor of Education
                                                              University of Rhode Island

                                               Paul Bueno de Mesquita, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology
                                                             University of Rhode Island

                                                    Roxanne Tisch, Graduate Research Assistant
                                                                CAREERS Project
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                                                           Ross Dean, Research Assistant
                                                                 CAREERS Project

                                                       Change Associated with Readiness,
                                                     Education and Efficacy in Reform Science
                                    The research funded by the National Science Foundation Teacher Professional
                                                  Continuum program in DRK-12 (Award # 0455685).
                         CAREERS Model
Change Associated with Readiness, Education, and Efficacy in Reform Science
             “Learning to Teach Elementary Science”
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Purpose
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Present 3 contrasting cases of elementary preservice
  teachers learning to teach elementary science.

Compare teaching practices during their science
  methods course with other indicators: attitudes,
  beliefs, and knowledge.

Invite you to discuss ways to consider the multiple
  factors in relation to one another.
Methodology: Participants
   27 juniors in a selective teacher education
    program
   Enrolled in science methods course
   Emphasis on inquiry pedagogy
   Capstone assignment is to teach a lesson that
    includes exploration and a high degree of
    openness in an elementary classroom
   Consented to participate in longitudinal
    CAREERS study                                   Quic kT ime™ and a
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                                  Data Sources
                                       Background
                                        Science Autobiography
                                        “What is science?” QuickWrite
          QuickT ime™ and a             College level science
                                         courses/grades
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                                        Efficacy in Science Teaching
                                         (STEBI)
                                        Nature of Science Beliefs (SUSSI)
                                        Elementary Science Content Test
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                                           Data Sources
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                Videotaped Science Lesson
                                      Inquiry Instructional Components
                                      Content Accuracy
                                      Depth of Science Questions &
                                      Teacher Talk


                 Reflective                     Interview
                            (post student teaching)
Student Attitudes
                        Negative Attitudes and Experiences about Teaching
                           Science of 36 Preservice Methods Teachers

                      40%


                      35%


                      30%
Percent of Comments




                      25%


                      20%


                      15%


                      10%


                      5%
                                                                                                                                           Positive Attitudes and Experiences about
                      0%
                                                                                                                                          Teaching Science of 36 Preservice Methods
                            Cannot Do Well in   High Anxiety Subject   Lack Science Knowledge   Science Is Boring
                                Science
                                                                                                                                    40%
                                                       Types of Comments N=111


                                                                                                                                    35%


                                                                                                                                    30%
                                                                                                              Percent of Comments




                                                                                                                                    25%


                                                                                                                                    20%


                                                                                                                                    15%


                                                                                                                                    10%


                                                                                                                                    5%


                                                                                                                                    0%
                                                                                                                                            W ant to   Informal     Hands-on      Love d     Enthusiastic Real Life   Other
                                                                                                                                            Share       Science      Lessons    Challe nge s  Teachers Connections
                                                                                                                                          Content and Experience s
                                                                                                                                          Enthusiasm
                                                                                                                                                                  Types of Positive Comments (N=169)
       Jacob: What is Science?
  Attitudes about teaching science
”When I think of science, I think about the nature of the world
and how things work. My definition of science would be the
explanation of what the natural things do and why. Also, why
things work in a certain way. The nature of science is
exploring what needs to be explained.” (PRE)


ŅPrev  ious to the course, I was generally nervous about teaching
                             .
science for many reasons To me, teaching science seemed
difficult because of my own experiences with science classes in
grade school and high school. I found that classes could either be
very boring ortoo difficult.Ó(FR)


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            Josephine: What is Science?
          Attitudes about teaching science
”At first I wasn’t too excited about helping out during science
lessons but as time went on I really started to enjoy the
experience.” (SA)

I honestly don’t feel prepared to teach the material because I
don’t think I know it that well.” (SA)

“As I prepare to teach science, I am nervous about my
knowledge of the content. (SA)

Before taking this science methods class, I thought of science
as a dull and boring subject that had no meaning and no
connection to my life. I felt that reading textbooks and talking
about experiments didn’t really help me learn the material.
Only made me frustrated and bored.To be honest, I was not                    Quic kTime™ an d a
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excited about this class and I dreaded teaching science to my
future students. (FR)
              Ariane: What is Science?
          Attitudes about teaching science
 ŅI a remember a time in fourth grade when
      lso
                Ó
 I received a ŅD my first quarter (in science).
 My mother was extremely upset being a
 teacher herself. She asked me why a D and
    s
 AÕ in all of my other classes and I told her I
        t
 didnÕfeel like doing the work and it was not
 important.Ó(PRE)

 ŅWith the help from my parent s I was able to get through fourth
 grad e science but that one D had led the way to the negative
 attitude that I carried about science throug h the rest of my
 schooling years.Ó(SA)


ŅI bel that there was a ŅIhate scienceÓsnowball effect going on
     ieve
and even my own science teachers did not truly enjoy and love
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what they were teaching.Ó(FR)
                                          Methodology:
                                            Coding
                                         Video analysis using StudioCode
                                          software
                                         Development of Code Input Windows
                                         Establishing inter-rater reliability
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                                         Development of rubric to rate quality of
                                          elements
       Methodology:
Sample Code Input Window
  Methodology:
Sample Timeline
Instructional Rubric

Opening
Exploration
Closing
          Scoring of Instructional Components (Opening, Exploration, and Closing)
                      for Preservice Methods Students Science Lessons
        4.00




        3.50




        3.00
Score




        2.50




        2.00                                                                                                               Opening Score

                                                                                                                           Exploration Score


        1.50                                                                                                               Closing Score

                                                                                                                           Overall Score


        1.00
               1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14    15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24    25    26       27
                                                                   Participant
Video Clips!!
Analysis of
Questioning &
Teacher Talk
Percentage of Lesson
Depth of Knowledge
                                     Mean Frequency of Science Questions
                                          and Teacher Talk by Grade

                            450

                            400
                                   97
Combined Mean Frequencies




                            350            102

                            300                     85                        76
                                                           48
                            250

                            200                                    56
                                   324
                            150            286
                                                   245    232                 248
                            100                                   169

                            50

                             0
                                  Gr 1    Gr 2    Gr 3   Gr 4    Gr 5    T o ta l
                                         Teacher Talk      Science Question
 Percentage of Science Questions
        Corresponding to
Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Levels
            1%



          23%
                      Level   I - Recall
                      Level   II - Skill/Concept
                      Level   III - Strategic
                76%   Level   IV - Extended
Inquiry Questions
Science Content
Knowledge
Content Test
GPA--Overall & in Science
                       Number of Lessons (2007 Methods
                     Students) Displaying Percent Accuracy
                              of Science Concepts
                     9

                     8

                     7
Number of students




                     6

                     5

                     4

                     3

                     2

                     1

                     0
                         50-59   60-69   70-79   80-89   90-100
                                     Accuracy (%)
      Accuracy of Lesson Science
                                                         Accuracy


100




90




80




70




60




50




40
      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12    13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27
Accuracy Examples
    Other Indicators

Natureof Science
Science Teaching Efficacy
          Nature of Science
         5



        4.5



         4



        3.5
Score




         3



        2.5
                                                                                                               Creativity

                                                                                                               Sci method
         2
                                                                                                               Culture

                                                                                                               Observation
        1.5



         1
              1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27
                                                                 Participant
                       Personal Science Teaching
                                Efficacy
        4.00




        3.50




        3.00
Score




        2.50




                                                                                                                          Pre
        2.00



                                                                                                                          Post

        1.50




        1.00
               1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14    15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23     24   25   26   27
                                                                   Participant
               Science Teaching Outcomes
               Expectancy
        4.50




        4.00




        3.50




        3.00
Score




        2.50
                                                                                                                     Pre



        2.00
                                                                                                                     Post



        1.50




        1.00
               1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14    15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23     24   25   26   27
                                                                   Participant
                  Jacob Lesson Reflection



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ŅI was ama ed of how the students made impressive conclusions
            z
after they performed the experiment. Before I taught the lesson, I
was uncertain if the students would be able to grasp the concepts
without me explicitly teaching the material.Ó(FR)
Ņ inquiry-based science, I wa able to gauge how the students
 With                             s
work within a group, howstudents make hypotheses, test
predictions, record data and voice their conclusions.Ó(FR)
Post Student Teaching Interview: Jacob

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                                       about my fears in science,
                                       and definitely one my
                                       fears is walking into a
                                       district where they have
                                       no curriculum. I've heard
                                       that or they don't have
                                       materials. You know, the
                                       kits would be great.”
               Ariane’s Post
               Student Teaching
               Interview
Q: What are some important things you learned in
science methods ?
“The questioning - learning how to restate
questions for the children instead of just
answering them, trying to further their
investigation. All learning is becoming questions.”
                    Josephine’s Post
                    Student Teaching
                    Interview

Q: If you compare the lesson you did this semester in science
with the one you did last year, how is it different or how have
you grown?
“Um it's different in the fact where I think it's more inquiry,
where I think last year I THOUGHT it was inquiry and it might
have been in a little way but I don't think it was as inquiry as
it should have been or could have been.”
                                          Implications for Practice
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 Importance of lesson closure
 Experience alone is not
  enough…reflection is needed
 Teachers can underestimate
  complexity of content
    Conclusions & Challenges
   No one variable tells the whole story.
   How can we consider the pieces of the
    puzzle in a multivariate manner to
    reach some conclusions about teacher
    education at preservice level and
    beyond?
   Which variables (or combinations)
    contribute more/less to successful
    inquiry science teaching?
Discussion
                                          Overall Conclusions
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            Preservice teachers had the most difficulty with the
             “making meaning” or summary parts of the lesson.

            They used many of the inquiry instructional
             components “mechanically.” Often the placement or
             follow-through related to the inquiry methods were
             inappropriate or missing.

            Some of the preservice teachers misjudged the
             complexity of the topics they selected. As students’
             responses to open-ended questions emerged, some
             teachers struggled with content.
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Next Steps….
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   Examine changes over time (5 years)

http://www.uri.edu/hss/education/careersweb/index.htm

								
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