EMERALD SHIRE COUNCIL DRAFT PEST MANAGEMENT PLAN Emerald Shire

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EMERALD SHIRE COUNCIL DRAFT PEST MANAGEMENT PLAN Emerald Shire Powered By Docstoc
					EMERALD SHIRE COUNCIL

                                  DRAFT

PEST MANAGEMENT PLAN

                             2005-
                             2005- 2009




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009   1
Executive Summary

This plan has been prepared to comply with the requirements of the Land Protection
(Pest and Stock Route Management) Act 2002. The Emerald Shire Council is
dedicated to limiting the economic, environmental and social impacts of weeds and
pest animals. This will be achieved by the eradication of as many species as possible,
reducing the extent of major weeds, and the integrated, coordinated control of pest
animals. Strategies have been developed for both weeds and pest animals that are
present in the shire.

Weeds are classified as either eradication or control targets. Eradication targets must
be destroyed wherever they occur. Control targets will be removed from strategic
areas in a phased control program.

Animals will be managed according to their behaviour, declaration status and best
practice for control. Wild dogs, feral pigs and foxes will be controlled by using
coordinated 1080 baiting programs. Locusts will be managed as a cooperative effort
between landholders, the Emerald Shire Council and the Department of Natural
Resources and Mines, depending on the severity of the situation. Other pest animals
will remain the responsibility of landholders, with technical assistance from shire
staff.




2                                                Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
Contents
                                                                                 Page
Executive Summary                                                                  1
Contents                                                                           2
Introduction                                                                       3
Stakeholders Involved in Strategic and Operational Pest Management Actions         4
within the Emerald Shire
Desired Outcomes and Strategies                                                   5
  1. Stakeholders are informed, knowledgeable, and have ownership of weed
  and pest animal management
      Awareness                                                                   6
      Education and Training                                                      6
      Availability of Information                                                 8
  2. All stakeholders are committed to and undertake coordinated management
  of weeds and pest animals
      Long Term Commitment                                                          9
      Compliance and Enforcement                                                   10
  3. Reliable information is available as a basis for decision-making
      Data Collection and Assessment                                               11
      Pest Biology and Pest Impacts                                                12
      Community Attitudes                                                          13
  4. Strategic directions are established, maintained, and owned by all
  stakeholders
      Planning                                                                     14
      Strategy Management and Coordination                                         15
      Resources                                                                    16
      Holistic Management                                                          17
  5. Introduction, spread, and establishment of weeds and pest animals is
  prevented
      Prevention                                                                   18
      Early Detection and Eradication                                              19
      Containment                                                                  20
  6. Integrated systems for managing the impacts of established weeds and pest
  animals are developed and widely implemented.
      Adoption of management techniques                                            21
      Population and impact management                                             22
      Environmentally significant areas                                            23
      Development of management practises                                          24
      Incentives                                                                   25
  7. Strategic Weed Management Strategy – Emerald Shire
      Strategy                                                                     26
      Eradication Targets                                                          27
      Control Targets                                                              33
  8. Strategic Pest Animal Management Strategy – Emerald Shire
      1080 Baiting Program                                                         39
      Locust Control Program                                                       45
      Other Species                                                                49




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                          3
Introduction

The Central Highlands consists of the five shires of Emerald, Bauhinia, Belyando,
Jericho and Peak Downs. This area encompasses the top of three catchments, the
Fitzroy, Lake Eyre and Burdekin. As weeds generally spread rapidly downstream, the
Central Highlands is strategically placed for its pests to have an effect over a huge
area of Queensland. Therefore any pest management effort directed to the central
highlands has an exponential effect on the rest of the state. Unfortunately, the Central
Highlands is heavily infested by weeds, and impacted by feral animals. It is regularly
plagued by locusts, and also by mice and native rats.

The pest situation within the Emerald shire remains controllable. However this could
be jeopardised if there is a lack of commitment to pest control by some stakeholders,
and a failure to properly plan and coordinate pest management activities. The effort
of conscientious land managers will be compromised by those who fail to meet their
pest management obligations.

To address this, the Emerald Shire Council has developed a new strategy for the
management of weeds present in the shire. This strategy integrates existing pest
management objectives, strengthened with the inclusion of new control and
eradication targets.




4                                                 Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
   Stakeholders Involved in Strategic and Operational Pest
       Management Actions within the Emerald Shire

        Stackholder/Agency                             Actions/responsibilities
Dept. Natural Resources & Mines                Provide support, planning and technical
                                               advice to all stakeholders involved in pest
                                               management within the shire, and as per
                                               roles and responsibilities outlined within
                                               the Memorandum of Understanding
                                               between the Department of Natural
                                               Resources and Mines and LGA
Department of Main Roads                       Control pests on Main Roads within the
                                               shire. Involved in any relevant activities
                                               on their land.
Queensland Parks & Wildlife                    Controlling pests on National Parks and
Service/Environment Protection Agency          State Forests within the shire. Involved in
                                               any relevant activities on their land.
Queensland Rail                                Controlling pests on Rail corridors and
                                               Railway controlled land within the shire.
                                               Involved in any relevant activities on
                                               their land
Sunwater                                       Controlling pests within irrigation
                                               channels and Sunwater controlled land
                                               within the shire. Involved in any relevant
                                               activities on their land
Central Highlands Natural Resource             Provide support, coordination and
Management Group                               leadership, including funding
                                               opportunities when available, to the shire.
Landholders                                    Controlling pests on their lands. Involved
                                               in any activities on their land
Ergon Energy                                   Controlling pests along power lines
                                               within the shire. Involved in any
                                               activities on their land.




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                             5
Desired Outcomes and Strategies

The following six sections outline the desired outcomes that the Emerald Shire
Council has adopted to give strategic direction to pest management within the shire.
Each outcome is divided into strategies, which will be the method by which the
desired outcomes are achieved. These strategies are designed to be an integrated and
comprehensive approach to managing both weeds and pest animals throughout the
shire.

The desired outcomes are designed to address the principles of pest management, as
described in the act. The principles are:

• Integration
Pest management is an integral part of managing natural resources and agricultural
systems.

• Public awareness
Public awareness and knowledge of pests must be raised to increase the capacity and
willingness of individuals to manage pests.

• Commitment
Effective pest management requires a long-term commitment to pest management by
the community, industry groups and government entities.

• Consultation and partnership
Consultation and partnership arrangements between local communities, industry
groups, State government agencies and local governments must be established to
achieve a collaborative approach to pest management.

• Planning
Pest management planning must be consistent at local, regional, State and national
levels to ensure resources target priorities for pest management identified at each
level.

• Prevention
Preventative pest management is achieved by –
(a) preventing the spread of pests, and viable parts of pests, especially by human
     activity; and
(b) early detection and intervention to control pests

• Best practice
Pest management must be based on ecologically and socially responsible pest
management practices that protect the environment and the productive capacity of
natural resources.

• Improvement
Research about pests, and regular monitoring and evaluation of pest control activities,
is necessary to improve pest management practices.




6                                                 Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
1.    Stakeholders are informed, knowledgeable, and have
      ownership of weed and pest animal management

1.1 AWARENESS

Strategic objective:
To increase community, industry, agribusiness, and government awareness of pests
and their impacts.

Success criteria:
The degree to which public awareness programs close gaps in public knowledge.



              Strategic Actions                          Success Indicators

publish fact sheets about pests declared       number of fact sheets published
under model local laws
Organise awareness-raising activities          number of awareness activities organised
                                               for both weeds and pest animals
Erecting pest awareness signs at critical      number of pest awareness signs erected
locations
linking pest management with other local number of actions linked to other local
government communication plans            government communication plans
develop a pest awareness program          as appropriate
tailored for local audiences highlighting
key
issues such as:
• roles and responsibilities of
    stakeholders
• pests declared under model local laws
• the potential for introduced plants
    (including garden plants) to become
    weeds
• the potential for introduced animals to
    become pests
• locations of vehicle wash-down
    facilities




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                          7
1.   Stakeholders are informed, knowledgeable, and have
     ownership of weed and pest animal management

1.2 EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Strategic objective:
To enhance stakeholder knowledge of pest impacts and improve skills in pest
management.

Success criteria:
The degree to which individuals and stakeholders pursue education and training in
pest management.



           Strategic Actions                            Success Indicators

Accredited training of local government     •   number of pest management courses
officers (LGOs), for example:                   attended
• nationally accredited competency-         •   LGO      accredited  to    national
    based training in weed and vertebrate       competency standards
    pest management
• workplace health and safety training
• training in ground operation controls
    for pesticide application (AC/DC
    licence)
• Agsafe training courses such as
    'Principles of pest management' and
    'Chemical handling, storage, and
    transport'
• GIS mapping programs
• Compliance
LGO participation in relevant local         number of workshops, conferences, and
government training workshops,              forums attended.
conferences, and forums




8                                                Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
1.    Stakeholders are informed, knowledgeable, and have
      ownership of weed and pest animal management

1.3 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION

Strategic objective:
To ensure information about weeds and pest animals is available to all stakeholders.

Success criteria:
The extent to which appropriate information is available to stakeholders.



              Strategic Actions                          Success Indicators

making the LGAPMP available to the             number of places where the LGAPMP is
community for viewing and comment              available for viewing
(s. 35(1))
making district maps available to the          number of places where statutory maps
community (s. 96) (e.g. for the                are available for viewing
destruction of stray dogs)
making printed weed and pest animal            number of pest factsheets          and
information available to stakeholders          information packages distributed
through outlets such as libraries,
catchment centres, tourist information
centres, government offices.
use media such as local newspapers,            number of media uptakes
radio, television, and web sites to
disseminate pest information to the
community
making other maps available to the             number of non-statutory maps made
community, of containment lines, and           available
survey programs




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                           9
2.   All stakeholders are committed to and undertake
     coordinated management of weeds and pest animals

2.1 LONG TERM COMMITMENT

Strategic objective:
To establish long-term stakeholder commitment to weed and pest animal
management.

Success criteria:
The proportion of stakeholders working in partnership on long-term pest management



            Strategic Actions                           Success Indicators

Establish a working group of key          percentage     of    key     stakeholders
stakeholders to develop, implement, and   represented on the working group
review the LGAPMP and annual action
plans (s. 27(1))
Establish partnerships for local weed and number of new partnerships established
pest management

Establish, through consultation, roles and   percentage of key stakeholders holding
responsibilities for each stakeholder,       responsibility for LGAPMP actions
including contributions to annual action
programs




10                                               Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
2.    All stakeholders are committed to and undertake
      coordinated management of weeds and pest animals

2.2 COMPLIANCE/ENFORCEMENT

Strategic objective:
To ensure compliance with the Act in weed and pest animal management.

Success criteria:
The extent to which stakeholders comply with and enforce the Act.


              Strategic Actions                          Success Indicators

create a register of enforcement activities    number of enforcement actions
(s. 86(1))                                     documented
create a register of authorised local          number of authorised officers, local
government compliance officers                 government delegations, and compliance
                                               actions
                                               included in register
develop procedures for communicating           Procedures developed and implemented
with state and Australian Government           where necessary
land managers and their lessees about
pest management
develop procedures for assessing and           number of pest species declared under
declaring pest species under model local       local law
laws




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                           11
3.    Reliable information is available as a basis for decision
      making

3.1 DATA COLLECTION AND ASSESSMENT

Strategic objective:
To collect, use, and make available data relevant to weed and pest animal
management.

Success criteria:
The extent to which data is collected and used in pest management.



             Strategic Actions                              Success Indicators

map all Class 1 and priority Class 2 declared   percentage of Class 1 and priority Class 2
pests                                           declared pests mapped
contribute local pest data to the NR&M          number of species for which data is
Annual Pest Assessment (statewide               contributed
mapping of all declared species)

support NR&M pest status assessments            number     of   NR&M       pest   status
by disseminating distribution and impact        assessments so supported, with complete
information about existing and potential        data provided
pests
facilitate information sharing between          whether information sharing between
stakeholders (e.g. adjoining local              stakeholders is in place
governments, regional NR&M bodies,
and other state agencies)
monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of       percentage of pest control activities for
control activities                              which monitoring and evaluation data is
                                                recorded
collect administrative information about        percentage of operational pest control
pest control activities such as the use of      activities for which administrative
chemicals                                       information is
                                                recorded




12                                                   Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
3.    Reliable information is available as a basis for decision
      making

3.2 PEST BIOLOGY AND PEST IMPACTS

Strategic objective:
To further the understanding of the biology, ecology, and impacts of weeds and pest
animals.

Success criteria:
The level of stakeholder understanding of pest biology, ecology, and impacts,
including the costs of action and non-action.



              Strategic Actions                           Success Indicators

consider pest behaviour (biology and           percentage of priority pests determined
ecology), pest impacts (economic, social,      with reference to available information on
and environmental), and pest control           behaviour, impacts, and control costs
costs in the local declaration and
prioritisation of pest species
Determine the local impacts of pests           percentage of priority pests for which
                                               local impact information is recorded
contribute information to NR&M for the         amount of available information provided
quantification of state-wide pest impacts      to NR&M and its research, industry, and
on economic activities, natural                extension partners
ecosystems, and human and animal health




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                           13
3.   Reliable information is available as a basis for decision
     making

3.3 COMMUNITY ATTITUDES

Strategic objective:
To further the understanding of community attitudes to weed and pest animal
management.

Success criteria:
The extent to which community attitudes to pest management are understood



            Strategic Actions                            Success Indicators

Assist NR&M in gathering information         number of NR&M surveys of community
on community awareness and attitudes         attitudes for which local assistance is
(e.g. surveys at agricultural shows, field   provided
days, and other local events)

link the findings of local pest              number of questions relating to pest
management surveys with those of other       management in local government
local government attitudinal surveys         attitudinal assessment surveys




14                                                Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
4.    Strategic directions are established, maintained, and
      owned by all stakeholders

4.1 PLANNING

Strategic objective:
To create a planning framework for weed and pest
management.

Success criteria:
The number of pest management plans at different levels incorporated into the
planning framework.


              Strategic Actions                           Success Indicators

ensure consistency between the                 number of related pest management plans
LGAPMP and related pest management             featuring local pest management issues
plans
• Queensland Weeds Strategy (s. 26(b))
• Queensland Pest Animal Strategy (s.
    26(b))
• South-East Queensland
    Environmental Weeds Strategy
• WONS species strategies
• state agency pest management plans
• regional pest management plans
• pest species management plans
• property pest management plans
develop property pest management plans         percentage of high priority pest situations
for high priority pest situations              with property pest management plans
include the large landholding state            percentage of state agencies with large
agencies in planning                           local landholdings participating in the
                                               LGAPMP




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                            15
4.   Strategic directions are established, maintained, and
     owned by all stakeholders

4.2 STRATEGY MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION

Strategic objective:
To implement, evaluate, and review integrated weed and pest animal strategies.

Success criteria:
The degree of coordination in implementing, evaluating, and reviewing pest
management plans.



            Strategic Actions                             Success Indicators

review the annual action plan three           percentage of annual action programs
months before the end of each financial       given timely review
year
(s. 33(2))
complete each new LGAPMP three                As appropriate
months before the expiry of its
predecessor
(s. 29(b))
Implement LGAPMP actions for priority         percentage of priority weed and pest
weed and pest animal management               animal actions implemented
(s. 26(c); s. 29(2)(b); s. 32)
seek cooperation from surrounding local       number of surrounding local governments
governments and other stakeholders in         involved in cross-border pest
implementing LGAPMPs and annual               management
action programs                               actions
form a working group to implement the         percentage of key stakeholders
LGAPMP                                        represented on the working group
develop strategies for managing matters       number of matters of conflict identified
of conflict, for example, cultural heritage   and resolved




16                                                 Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
4.    Strategic directions are established, maintained, and
      owned by all stakeholders

4.3 RESOURCES

Strategic objective:
To efficiently and adequately resource weed and pest animal management.

Success criteria:
The proportion of pest management actions that are adequately resourced.



              Strategic Actions                           Success Indicators

commit to adequately resourcing local          percentage of local pest management
pest management actions                        actions adequately resourced
• submit local government precepts             precepts duly submitted to the Minister
(annual payments) to the Minister of           for Natural Resources
Natural
Resources for services such as:
– plague pest control
– barrier fences
– research
– extension
commit to continuing allocation of             as appropriate
landholder resources to existing projects,
such as:
– Strategic Weed Eradication and
Education Program
– WONS
charge fees to private landowners for pest     value of income derived from service
management services where appropriate          provision
seek funding and other resources from,         value of resources obtained from non-
for example:                                   local government sources
– volunteers
– industry and private enterprise
– Natural Heritage Trust
– state agencies
share resources and knowledge with other       • number of cooperative projects
stakeholders




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                        17
4.   Strategic directions are established, maintained, and
     owned by all stakeholders

4.4 HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT

Strategic objective:
To integrate pest management planning with other government, property, community,
and industry planning.

Success criteria:
The extent to which pest management actions are integrated with planning at different
levels.



            Strategic Actions                             Success Indicators

ensure consistency between the                 number of resource management plans
LGAPMP and resource management and             that include pest management actions
other
relevant plans (Principle: Integration), for
example:
– regional natural resource management
plans
– catchment and sub-catchment plans
– conservation management plans
– regional coast management plans
– water resource operations plans
– vegetation management plans
– native title plans
– local government corporate plans
– local government planning schemes
– stock route network management plans
require pest management actions, such as:      percentage of other local government
– prevention of weed seed spread               plans that include pest management
– planting of non-invasive species             actions
– fencing of refuse sites
to be included in other local government
planning and development schemes
(e.g. locating and establishing refuse sites
and water features and bodies)




18                                                 Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
5.    Introduction, spread, and establishment of weeds and
      pest animals is prevented

5.1 PREVENTION

Strategic objective:
To prevent the introduction of new weeds and pest animals.

Success criteria:
The extent to which the introduction of new pests is prevented.



              Strategic Actions                          Success Indicators

use Weed Hygiene Declarations for:             percentage of key stakeholder groups
– stock entering stock routes                  using Weed Hygiene Declarations
– movement of harvesters and
construction equipment
– movement of fodder, soil, and turf
prevent the introduction of weeds along        percentage of transport corridors with
transport corridors, for example, by           weed prevention programs
ensuring that road construction contracts
include weed prevention conditions
prioritise pest species for prevention of      number of Class 1 and new Class 2 pest
entry to the local government area by          species targeted for prevention of entry
using published information, such as:
– distribution maps from pest species
guidelines
– local pest priorities
– adjoining local government pest
priorities
– potential pest species distribution maps
– Annual Pest Assessment maps
promote wash-down facilities in strategic      number of wash-down facilities available
locations                                      and promoted

• ensure weed prevention conditions are        percentage of infrastructure development
included in contracts, such as for:            contracts that include weed prevention
– telecommunications                           conditions
– amenities (e.g. pipelines)
– estate development
• investigate the ways that weeds and pest     • number of entry methods identified
animals enter the local area




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                          19
5.   Introduction, spread, and establishment of weeds and
     pest animals is prevented

5.2 EARLY DETECTION AND ERADICATION

Strategic objective:
To prevent the local establishment of new pests.

Success criteria:
The extent to which the local establishment of new pests is prevented.


            Strategic Actions                              Success Indicators

prioritise pests for early detection and       number of Class 1 pest species targeted
eradication                                    for eradication
implement and promote pest monitoring          percentage of the local government area
or survey programs (e.g. an annual             covered by such programs
survey of roadsides or other critical areas)

develop a rapid response program               percentage of Class 1 and 2 rapid
together with the state government for         response programs featuring stakeholder
handling new infestations of Class 1 and       cooperation, and number of key
2 pests                                        stakeholder groups with roles in these
                                               programs
use of emergency quarantine for Class 1,       number of quarantine notices issued
and where appropriate, Class 2 pests


establish a monitoring and identification      number of reports of plague pests
network for weeds and plague pest
animals (e.g. locusts, mice, field rats)




20                                                  Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
5.    Introduction, spread, and establishment of weeds and
      pest animals is prevented

5.3 CONTAINMENT

Strategic objective:
To minimise the spread of weeds and pest animals to new areas.

Success criteria:
The extent to which established pests are prevented from spreading.


              Strategic Actions                       Success Indicators

target priority Class 2 pests for   number of Class 2 pests targeted for
containment                         containment
contain local Class 2 pests in core Class 2 pest contained in core infestation
infestation areas                   area




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                21
6.   Integrated systems for managing the impacts of
     established weeds and pest animals are developed and
     widely implemented.

6.1 ADOPTION OF MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

Strategic objective:
To adopt and promote best practice in weed and pest animal management.

Success criteria:
The extent to which best practice is adopted.


            Strategic Actions                           Success Indicators

Adopt timely and effective integrated       percentage of priority pest operations
best practice management for priority       based on best practice
pest
species that considers:
– timing
– integrated techniques
– rehabilitation
– non-target damage
– costs
– prevention
– animal welfare
– workplace health and safety
– monitoring
– new research
– operational procedures
– chemical registration requirements
Distribute best practice publications to    number of outlets for best practice
relevant stakeholders, for example:         publications
– at information outlets
– as part of pest survey programs
– at agricultural shows and events

Prevent access to refuse sites by pest number of refuse sites made inaccessible
animals (e.g. feral pigs)              to pest animals




22                                               Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
6.    Integrated systems for managing the impacts of
      established weeds and pest animals are developed and
      widely implemented.

6.2 POPULATION AND IMPACT MANAGEMENT

Strategic objective:
To reduce pest populations and impacts.

Success criteria:
The extent to which the populations and impacts of established pests are reduced


              Strategic Actions                          Success Indicators

coordinate plague pest animal                  number of complaints received about
management with stakeholders                   plague pests
coordinate impact reduction programs for       number of such programs coordinated for
established pest animals, for example:         established pests, and number of
– baiting                                      participating
– trapping                                     land managers
– harbour removal

distribute biological control agents           number of different biological control
                                               agents distributed
maintain problem animal reduction              number of complaints received about
programs, for example:                         problem animals
– fencing
– refraining from feeding wildlife
– constructing poultry enclosures
– removing waste




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                        23
6.   Integrated systems for managing the impacts of
     established weeds and pest animals are developed and
     widely implemented.

6.3 ENVIRONMENTALLY SIGNIFICANT AREAS

Strategic objective:
To protect environmentally significant areas from weeds.

Success criteria:
The degree of protection afforded to environmentally significant areas by weed
     management programs



           Strategic Actions                            Success Indicators

identify and prioritise environmentally    number of such areas identified and
significant areas for weed management      prioritised for weed management
involve local communities in site-based    number of priority weed management
management of priority weeds in            programs implemented for environmentally
environmentally significant areas          significant areas




24                                              Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
6.    Integrated systems for managing the impacts of
      established weeds and pest animals are developed and
      widely implemented.

6.4 DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTISES

Strategic objective:
To develop new, and improve existing, weed and pest animal management practices.

Success criteria:
The extent to which local pest management practices are developed and improved.



              Strategic Actions                               Success Indicators

                                                      •   number of research needs
identify inadequacies in existing pest                    identified
management                                            •   number of improvements
• identify areas for future research                      recommended
• contribute to developing local best                 •   number of new contributions to
practice                                                  local best practice

assist research projects                           number of research projects assisted

ensure the adaptability               of       pest number of adaptive          management
management practices                                practices developed




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                               25
6.   Integrated systems for managing the impacts of
     established weeds and pest animals are developed and
     widely implemented.


6.5 INCENTIVES

Strategic objective:
To offer incentives to stakeholders for practicing pest management.

Success criteria:
The extent to which incentives enhance pest management.

It is generally accepted that incentives create a dependence on government in order to
       initiate pest control. This is unacceptable, and therefore the only incentive
       offered is improved production, aesthetic amenity and personal health




           Strategic Actions                            Success Indicators

assess the effectiveness of existing and    number of land managers using existing
potential incentives (and disincentives)    incentive programs
for pest management
revise, or introduce suitable new, weed     Number of         incentives      revised     or
and pest animal incentives                  introduced.




26                                               Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

BELLYACHE BUSH
Jatropha gossypiifolia

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
A native of tropical America, bellyache
bush is sometimes grown as a garden
plant. It has escaped and become
naturalised in various areas of north
Queensland. A number of smaller
infestations  occur   throughout     the
remainder of Queensland. It is common along riverbanks and roadsides.

It is generally acknowledged that the shallow root system and canopy cover of bellyache bush
precludes growth of other plants, often out competing native vegetation and reducing pasture
growth. Dense infestations may occur on river flats and other areas of good, loamy soil. It has
taken over extensive sections of river frontage in several locations reducing biodiversity and
increasing mustering costs.

The fruits of the plant are poisonous to humans and animals. The toxic substance is a
toxalbumin which, when eaten, leads to symptoms of gastro-enteritis and eventual death of
some animals. There have been many stock deaths reported due to bellyache bush poisoning
mainly in times of severe drought.

Distribution and Mapping:
Bellyache bush has very limited distribution within Emerald Shire. There is only one
significant infestation area, at the Gemfields. All infestations have been mapped.

Operational Objective:
Eradicate all infestations of bellyache bush in Emerald Shire by 2008.

Yearly Operational Actions:

Action                                    Time          Days   Who     Milestone
Request landholders to spray all          Annually       3     SRS     All bellyache bush treated
Bellyache Bush plants
Control the plants on stock routes and    When           2     SRS     All bellyache bush treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         As required    2     SRS     Inspection completed and follow
 treated and ensure that effective                                     up treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As required    3     SRS     Assistance given from
identify areas on their property                                       landowners
containing Bellyache Bush
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        April 2006     2     SRS     Produce up to date maps of
location of infestations in the shire.                                 bellyache bush distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing        2     SRS     All landowners requiring
to landowners                                                          technical advice were
                                                                       approached
Attend training , identification and      Where          2     SRS     Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary            Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where          2     SRS     Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                        27
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

GIANT RATS TAIL GRASS
Sporobolus pyramidalis and Sporobolus natalensis

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Giant rats tail (GRT) grass is an aggressive grass that can reduce pasture productivity and
out compete desirable pasture grasses. Introduced from Africa during the 1960's as a
contaminant in pasture seed, it has adapted well to large areas of Queensland. Two species
of this introduced rats tail grass Sporobolus pyramidalis and Sporobolus natalensis are
declared weeds in Queensland. These two species are collectively referred to as GRT grass.

GRT grass can be difficult to identify, as it is very similar to some native and other exotic
weedy Sporobolus species. GRT can set seed throughout the frost-free period of the year and
is capable of producing up to 85,000 seeds/m2/year with initial seed viability of about 90%.
Established stands of GRT have large soil seed banks (up to 20,000 seeds/m2). It is
estimated that a significant proportion of this seed can remain viable for up to 10 years.

Distribution and Mapping:
GRT has been confirmed at one site in Emerald Shire. Mapping completed.

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate GRT from Emerald Shire by 2010

Operational Actions:

Action                                    Time         Days     Who      Milestone
Request landholders to spray all GRT      When          3       SRS      All Giant Rats Tail grass treated
plants                                    identified
Control the plants on stock routes and    When          2       SRS      All GRT grass treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually      2       SRS      Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective        When                           treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if   necessary
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As            3       SRS      Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing GRT
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        April 2006    2       SRS      Produce up to date maps of GRT
location of infestations in the shire.                                   distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing       2       SRS      All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                            advice were approached
Request the use of weed hygiene           Where         1       SRS      Weed hygiene declaration forms
declaration forms                         necessary                      used
Attend training , identification and      Where         2       SRS      Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary             Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where         2       SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




28                                                          Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

CHINEE APPLE
Ziziphus mauritiana

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Chinee apple (or Indian jujube) is a large
shrub or small spreading tree up to 8 m high
and 10 m in canopy diameter. The plants
are densely branched, from ground level in
some cases.

Stands of chinee apple grow as open
forests, or form thorny thickets along
waterways. Branches are zig-zag in shape and have a leaf and a thorn at each angle.
Leaves are rounded, growing on alternating sides of the branches, glossy green above and
almost white underneath. Flowers are small and inconspicuous, greenish-white, and emit an
unpleasant smell. The edible fruits are similar in size and structure to a cherry, but pale yellow
or orange when ripe.

Distribution and Mapping:
Emerald town area and surrounds was covered with stands of Chinee apple. Due to ongoing
control and the spread of the town the chinee apple is almost eradicated.
The majority of plants grow in backyards in Emerald.

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate all infestations of chinee apple in the Emerald Shire by 2008.

Operational Actions:
Action                                    Time         Days   Who     Milestone
Request landholders to spray all          Annually      1     SRS     All Chinee Apple treated
Chinee Apple plants
Control the plants on stock routes and    When          2     SRS     All Chinee apple treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually      1     SRS     Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                    treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As            2     SRS     Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Chinee Apple
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        April 2006    2     SRS     Produce up to date maps of
location of infestations in the shire.                                chinee apple distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing       2     SRS     All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                         advice were approached
Attend training , identification and      Where         2     SRS     Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary           Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where         1     SRS     Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                        29
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

PRICKLY ACACIA
Acacia nilotica

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Prickly acacia was introduced into
Queensland for shade and fodder
early this century. Now it can be
found throughout the state, with
widespread infestations in areas of
north west and central west
Queensland.

Once established along bore drains
and watercourses, the trees spread
out onto adjacent grassland. Thorny
thickets interfere with mustering, movement of stock and access to water. Trees along bore
drains use valuable water, make maintenance of bore drains more costly, and provide seed to
further increase the spread of prickly acacia. Pasture decreases as the tree size increases,
because little grows under the canopy as the tree out competes pasture for water.

Distribution and Mapping:
There are two infestations of prickly acacia in the Emerald Shire. One is a significant
infestation at the Gemfields on the miner’s common. This infestation is being actively
managed, and has been substantially reduced. This infestation has been mapped. The other
is a small infestation on Lake Maraboon. This infestation has not been mapped.

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate prickly acacia from Emerald Shire by 2010.

Operational Actions:
Action                                    Time         Days     Who      Milestone
Request landholders to spray Prickly      Annually      2       SRS      All Prickly Acacia treated
Acacia plants
Control the plants on stock routes and    When          2       SRS      All Prickly Acacia treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually      2       SRS      Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                       treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As            2       SRS      Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Prickly Acacia
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        April 2006    2       SRS      Produce up to date maps of Prickly
location of infestations in the shire.                                   Acacia distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing       2       SRS      All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                            advice were approached
Request the use of weed hygiene           Where         1       SRS      Weed hygiene declaration forms
declaration forms                         necessary                      used
Attend training , identification and      Where         2       SRS      Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary             Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where         1       SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




30                                                          Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

MOTHER-OF-MILLIONS
Bryophyllum species

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Mother of millions are escaped ornamental plants from
Madagascar. Five species are commonly naturalised in
Queensland; three of these are increasing over
substantial areas.

Mother of millions is highly toxic to stock and because of
its succulent features is well adapted to dry areas. As
the name suggests one plant can reproduce a new
general from masses of embryoids (plantlets) that are
formed on the leaf edges. This makes these plants hard
to eradicate. Follow up controls are essential.

These plants, and especially their flowers, are poisonous to stock and occasionally cause a
significant number of cattle deaths. When cattle are under stress or in unusual conditions they
are more likely to eat strange plants. Shifting cattle to new paddocks, moving stock through
infested rubbish dumps and reduction of availability of feed due to flood or drought, can all
contribute to poisoning. Since the plant flowers from May to October, during the dryer months
of the year, the scarcity of feed may cause cattle to consume lethal amounts of mother of
millions.

Distribution and Mapping:
Mother-of-millions is widespread in Emerald Shire. Mapping is incomplete.

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate isolated infestations, and contain and reduce large infestations, as identified by
mapping.

Operational Actions:

Action                                    Time         Days   Who     Milestone
Request landholders to control all        Annually      2     SRS     All Mother of Millions treated
Mother of Million plants
Control the plants on stock routes and    When          4     SRS     All Mother of Millions treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually      4     SRS     Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                    treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As            3     SRS     Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Mother of Millions
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        June 2006     4     SRS     Produce up to date maps of Mother
location of infestations in the shire.                                of Millions distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing       3     SRS     All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                         advice were approached
Attend training , identification and      Where         2     SRS     Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary           Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where         1     SRS     Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                        31
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

HARRISIA CACTUS
Eriocereus spp.

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Harrisia cactus can form dense infestations that will
reduce pastures to a level unsuitable for stock. Harrisia
cactus will choke out other pasture species when left
unchecked. The spines are a problem for stock
management, interfering with mustering and stock movement. Harrisia cactus produces large
quantities of seed that is highly viable and easily spread by birds and other animals. As well
as reproducing from seed, Harrisia Cactus has long trailing branches that bend and take root
wherever they touch the ground. Any broken off portions of the plant will take root and grow.

Harrisia cactus is mainly a pest of brigalow and associated softwood country. However,
infestations are now appearing in box and ironbark stands and also in pine forests. The
cactus is shade tolerant and reaches its maximum development in the shade and shelter of
brigalow scrub, though established infestations can persist once scrub is pulled.

Distribution and Mapping:
Harrisia cactus has a limited distribution in Emerald Shire, the main infestations are located in
the Bogantungan area, and around the Comet area. Mapping is complete.

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate Harrisia Cactus from the Emerald Shire by 2014.

Operational Actions:

Action                                    Time         Days     Who      Milestone
Request landholders to spray all          Annually      2       SRS      All Harrisia cactus treated
Harrisia cactus plants
Control the plants on stock routes and    When          3       SRS      All Harrisia Cactus treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually      4       SRS      Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                       treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As            3       SRS      Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Harrisia Cactus
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        Feb 2006      4       SRS      Produce up to date maps of
location of infestations in the shire.                                   Harrisia Cactus distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing       3       SRS      All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                            advice were approached
Attend training , identification and      Where         2       SRS      Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary             Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where         1       SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




32                                                          Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

HYMENACHNE
Hymenachne amplexicaulis

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Hymenachne is used as a ponded pasture species for cattle
production but it can escape cultivation and invade waterways
including drains, lagoons, creeks and rivers. Hymenachne can
increase flooding by reducing the flow capacity of the drainage
networks. Under flood conditions, rafts of plant material build up
at fences and bridges, collecting other floating debris. The
combined weight may cause such structures to collapse.

Water flow to irrigation equipment can be reduced due to the restrictive action of the roots,
thus increasing pumping times and costs. Hymenachne infestations are a physical barrier for
aquatic and semi-aquatic animals, restricting their territorial movements and breeding
activities. Fishery biologists believe that carrying capacity and fish populations available for
both commercial and recreational uses are being significantly reduced. The mats of weed
also degrade the quality of swimming and make fishing impossible. Hymenachne also
reduces access to waterways for recreation and wildlife.

Distribution and Mapping:
There is one large infestation along Winton Creek. This infestation has been mapped.
Isolated infestations occur in stock dams in the Shire.

Operational Objectives:
Control / contain and reduce all infestations within Emerald Shire.
Prevent entry into the Nogoa River.

Operational Actions:
Action                                    Time        Days   Who      Milestone
Request landholders to control            Annually    2      SRS      Control on all Hymenachne
Hymenachne
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually     2     SRS      Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                    treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As           2     SRS      Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Hymenachne
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        March        1     SRS      Produce up to date maps of
location of infestations in the shire.    2006                        Hymenachne distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing      1     SRS      All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                         advice were approached
Attend training , identification and      Where        2     SRS      Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary          Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where        1     SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                        33
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

RUBBER VINE
Cryptostegia grandiflora

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Rubber vine generally invades waterways first, where the
seeds germinate in moist silt layers after rain. The plant
smothers riparian vegetation and forms dense, sometimes
impenetrable thickets. This decreases biodiversity and
prevents access to both stock and native animals, whilst
harbouring feral animals.

Infestations expand outward from waterways, hillsides and pastures, resulting in loss of grazing land
and increased difficulty in mustering stock. The plant is poisonous to stock, though seldom eaten. Most
deaths due to rubber vine occur after stock have been stressed, or when other feed is scarce. Rubber
vines ability to spread and colonise areas quickly has lead to it becoming a threat to many other areas of
northern Australia. Due to this ability rubber vine is listed as a Weed of National Significance.

Rubber vine flowers at any time of year if sufficient moisture is available. Usually, June and July are the
only non-flowering months. Plant stem diameter must be approximately 20 mm before flowering can
occur. Seed pod formation occurs from spring to late autumn, with peak seed production corresponding
to maximum flowering. Eventually, pods dry out and split open, with pod splitting occurring
approximately 200 days after formation. Seeds are scattered by wind, but also carried downstream by
water. Approximately 95% of seed is viable, although germination requires favourable temperature and
soil moisture conditions.

Distribution and Mapping:
Significant infestations are located at Bogantungan, the Gemfields, Sandhurst Creek, Bull Creek and
Rumlea. Mapping is incomplete.
Operational Objectives:
Eradicate all infestations outside of the containment area by 2012
Containment area: (Billaboo, Terrace Creek, Forest Park) Contain, control and reduce existing
infestations.
Operational Actions:
Action                                     Time          Days        Who      Milestone
Request landholders to control all         Annually      4           SRS      All Rubber Vine controlled
Rubber Vine plants
Control the plants on stock routes and    When               3       SRS      All Rubber vine treated
road reserves                             identified
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually           4       SRS      Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                            treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As                 4       SRS      Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Rubber vine
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        April 2006         6       SRS      Produce up to date maps of
location of infestations in the shire.                                        Rubber vine distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing            3       SRS      All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                                 advice were approached
Seek out all available Government /       Ongoing            2       SRS      Liaise with Project Officer
CHNRMG and other funding                                             PO       CHNRMG
assistance
Attend training , identification and      Where              2       SRS      Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary                  Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where              1       SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




34                                                               Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

PARKINSONIA
Parkinsonia aculeata

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Parkinsonia can form dense, and often impenetrable
thorny thickets along watercourses and bore drains.
This restricts access of stock to drinking water and
can make mustering virtually impossible. The ability of
seeds to float means flooded country is particularly
susceptible to invasion by parkinsonia. Some
infestations in the Gulf of Carpentaria Region and Fitzroy catchment are now up to several kilometres
across. Such infestations provide a harbour for feral pigs, which can predate on livestock, damage
crops, and seriously degrade the environment. Parkinsonia has been recognized as a Weed of National
Significance.

Parkinsonia is fast growing and may flower in early summer of its second or third year of growth. Once
established, flowering can occur opportunistically to exploit variable seasonal conditions. Pods mature in
late summer, float on water and are hence readily dispersed by floodwaters. Seeds have a thick and
extremely hard coat and so remain viable for many years to allow germination under favourable
conditions. Seeds require wet soil conditions for several days to induce germination.

Distribution and Mapping:
Parkinsonia is the most serious weed present in the Emerald shire. It is present along the majority of
watercourses in the shire. Mapping has been completed at a local and regional scale.

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate all infestations from the Emerald shire by 2014.

Operational Actions:

Action                                    Time          Days     Who      Milestone
Control the plants on stock routes and    When               4   SRS       All Parkinsonia treated
road reserves                             identified
Request landholders to control all        Annually           4   SRS       All Parkinsonia plants controlled
Parkinsonia plants
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually           4   SRS       Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                         treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance to          As                 4   SRS       Assistance given from landowners
identify areas on their property          required
containing Parkinsonia
Prepare up to date maps/surveys of        April 2006         6   SRS       Produce up to date maps of
location of infestations in the shire.                                     Parkinsonia distribution
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing            3   SRS       All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                              advice were approached
Seek out all available Government /       Ongoing            2   SRS       Liaise with Project Officer
CHNRMG and other funding                                         PO        CHNRMG
assistance
Attend training , identification and      Where              2   SRS       Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary              Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where              1   SRS       Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                             35
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

PARTHENIUM
Parthenium hysterophorus

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Parthenium readily colonises weak pastures with
sparse ground cover. It will colonise disturbed,
bare areas along roadsides and heavily stocked
areas around yards and watering points.
Parthenium weed can also colonise brigalow,
gidgee and softwood scrub soils. Its presence reduces the reliability of improved pasture
establishment and reduces pasture production potential. In 1992, it was estimated that
parthenium weed cost the beef industry $16.5 million per year, including reduced beef
production and control costs. Parthenium weed costs cropping industries several million
dollars per year also. Parthenium weed is also a health problem as contact with the plant or
the pollen can cause serious allergic reactions such as dermatitis and hay fever.

Parthenium weed normally germinates in spring and early summer, produces flowers and
seed throughout its life and dies around late autumn. However, with suitable conditions
(germinating rain, available moisture, mild soil and air temperatures), parthenium weed can
grow and produce flowers at any time of the year. In summer, plants can flower and set seed
within 4 weeks of germination particularly if stressed.

Distribution and Mapping:
Widespread. Accurate mapping is difficult.

Operational Objectives:
Control and containment
Prevent spread to uninfested areas and shires.

Operational Actions:
Action                                    Time        Days     Who      Milestone
Continue to Undertake roadside            Annually     5       SRS      Roadside spraying completed
spraying program
Spray plants on stock routes and road     Ongoing      5       SRS      All Parthenium treated
reserves
Council to inspect areas previous         Annually     4       SRS      Inspection completed and follow up
 treated and ensure that effective                                      treatments finished
follow up treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Arrange biological control collection     When         2       SRS      Collection days arranged and
days and distribution                     available                     attended
Promote awareness and use of the          Ongoing      3       SRS      Vehicles washing down and being
Emerald wash down facility                                              inspected for Parthenium
Provide technical advice and support      Ongoing      3       SRS      All landowners requiring technical
to landowners                                                           advice were approached
Seek out all available Government,        Ongoing      2       SRS      Liaise with Project Officer
CHNRMG and other funding                                       PO       CHNRMG
assistance
Attend training , identification and      Where        2       SRS      Training workshops completed
development workshops                     necessary            Staff
Utilize powers under the Land             Where        1       SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
protection Act 2002 to enforce control    necessary
where necessary




36                                                         Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

SWORD PEAR
Acanthocereus pentagonus

Status:
Declared under local law – Class
2

Background:
Sword pear is a perennial green
cactus that grows to 4m in height.
It has elongated, multi-jointed
stems. The plant initially grows
upright, but mature plants clamber
and trail over the ground. Flowers
are white and funnel-shaped, 14-
20cm long, and open at night.
Fruit are 5cm in diameter, bright
red and fleshy, and are covered in
spines. Sword pear prefers heavy
brigalow soils.

Distribution and Mapping:
Sword pear is only located at Fernlees, south of Emerald

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate Sword Pear by 2012.

Operational Actions:

Action                             Time         Days   Who     Milestone
Clear vegetation infested with     Jan to May    4     SRS     Vegetation cleared as per permit
sword pear
Control the plants on stock        When          2     SRS     All sword pear treated
routes and road reserves           identified
Council to inspect areas           Annually      2     SRS     Inspection completed and follow
previous treated and ensure                                    up treatments finished
that effective follow up
treatments is carried out, if
necessary
Request landholder assistance      As            3     SRS     Assistance given from
to identify areas on their         required                    landowners
property containing sword pear
Prepare up to date                 April 2006    2     SRS     Produce up to date maps of
maps/surveys of location of                                    sword pear distribution
infestations in the shire.
Provide technical advice and       Ongoing       2     SRS     All landowners requiring
support to landowners                                          technical advice were
                                                               approached
Attend training , identification   Where         2     SRS     Training workshops completed
and development workshops          necessary           Staff
Utilize powers under the Local     Where         1     SRS     Issue a Pest control notice
law act where necessary            necessary




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                  37
PRIORITY PEST WEED SPECIES

WILLOWS CACTUS
Cereus uruguayanus

Status:
Declared under local law – Class 2

Background:
Willows cactus is a perennial green cactus that grows up to
5metres in height. It has one stem and can have 7to 9 ribs on it.
Fruit can be around 250 grams. Fruit colour can vary from a
yellow to a reddish purple.The cactus seems to like brigalow
soil, but will adapt to most soils.


Distribution and Mapping:
Willows cactus is located at the Willows and Gemfields areas

Operational Objectives:
Eradicate willows cactus.

Operational Actions:

Action                              Time          Days   Who      Milestone
Request landholders to control      annually       4     SRS      All Willows cactus controlled
all Willows cactus plants
Council to inspect areas            annually       2     SRS      Inspection completed and
previous treated and ensure that                                  follow up treatments finished
effective follow up treatments is
carried out, if necessary
Control the plants on reserves      When           4     SRS      All Willows cactus treated
                                    identified
Request landholder assistance       As required    3     SRS      Assistance given from
to identify areas on their                                        landowners
property containing Willows
cactus
Prepare up to date                  April 2006     2     SRS      Produce up to date maps of
maps/surveys of location of                                       Willows cactus distribution
infestations in the shire.
Provide technical advice and        Ongoing        2     SRS      All landowners requiring
support to landowners                                             technical advice were
                                                                  approached
Attend training , identification    Where          2     SRS      Training workshops completed
and development workshops           necessary            Staff
Utilize powers under the Local      Where          1     SRS      Issue a Pest control notice
law act to enforce control where    necessary
necessary




38                                                       Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

WILD DOGS
Canis familiaris and Canis familiaris dingo

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
The dingo is a primitive canid related to wolves and
coyotes. The dingo was not a part of the ancestral
fauna of Australia.

Though its origins are not clear, it is thought to have
arrived in Australia 3500-4000 years ago. It is the
largest mammalian carnivore remaining in mainland
Australia, and as such fills an important ecological
niche. Females weigh about 12 kg and males 15 kg.

Wild dogs have a significant impact on agriculture
and the economy. They are recognised as a pest of
grazing industries, and as a potential threat to
people. The most common form of control is baiting
with sodium fluoroacetate (1080).

Distribution:
Distribution is widespread throughout the Central Highlands, particularly in the more
mountainous country. Maps have been prepared of syndicate areas for baiting.

Operational Objectives:
Baiting is conducted in a coordinated and regular manner, ensuring the efficiency and
effectiveness of baiting programs.

Operational Actions:

Action                               Time          Days    Who         Milestone
Mapping and notification of          As             2      SRS,        All syndicates mapped
syndicates and bait dates            required              LPO         and notified
complete.                            annually
Baiting conducted every six          As required    10     SRS         Baiting dates set
months                                                                 Baiting conducted
Aerial baiting conducted where       As required     1     SRS,        Aerial baiting
required.                                                  LPO         conducted




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                               39
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

FERAL PIGS
Sus scrofa

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Feral pigs have been present in Australia since
their arrival with the first fleet. Since then, they
have spread across the continent. Feral pigs are
widespread throughout the central highlands;
although high numbers occur around cropping
areas, especially grain crops like sorghum,
where there is adequate water.

Distribution:
Distribution is widespread throughout the Central Highlands, Maps prepared of syndicate
areas for baiting.

Operational Objectives:
Baiting is conducted in a coordinated and regular manner, ensuring the efficiency and
effectiveness of baiting programs.

Operational Actions:

Action                             Time                Days    Who           Milestone
Mapping and notification of        As required         2       SRS,          All syndicates mapped
syndicates and bait dates          annually                    LPO           and notified
complete.
Baiting conducted every six        As required         5       SRS           Baiting dates set
months                                                                       Baiting conducted
Aerial baiting conducted where     As required         1       SRS,          Aerial baiting
required.                                                      LPO           conducted




40                                                         Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

EUROPEAN FOX
Vulpes vulpes

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Next to wild dogs, the fox is the largest
land-dwelling carnivorous mammal in
Australia. Foxes are adapted to a variety
of different habitats, ranging from
deserts     to    urban      environments.
However, foxes are not found in tropical
Australia. Competition with dingoes,
climatic preferences and food supply
likely determine their distribution.

Fox predation is considered the greatest threat to the long-term survival of many small
marsupial species in Australia. Long-term studies have shown that rock wallaby and
malleefowl populations are probably regulated by fox predation. Predation on birds and
reptiles appears seasonal.

Foxes breed once a year. Over a period of 2-3 weeks in early winter females come into
oestrus for 2-3 days. Males appear to be fertile throughout winter and early spring. The fox's
gestation period is 51-53 days. Cubs are generally born in burrows but litters have been found
in hollow trees, rock crevices, under houses or in stick-rake piles. The average litter size
ranges from four to a maximum of ten.

Distribution:
Distribution is widespread throughout the Central Highlands

Operational Objectives:
Baiting is conducted in a coordinated and regular manner, ensuring the efficiency and
effectiveness of baiting programs.

Operational Actions:

Action                               Time          Days   Who         Milestone
Mapping and notification of          As required   2      SRS,        All syndicates mapped
syndicates and bait dates            annually             LPO         and notified
complete.
Baiting conducted every six          As required   10     SRS         Baiting dates set
months                                                                Baiting conducted
Aerial baiting conducted where       As required   1      SRS,        Aerial baiting
required.                                                 LPO         conducted




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                               41
42   Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

AUSTRALIAN PLAGUE LOCUST                                 Chorotoicetus terminifera
MIGRATORY LOCUST                                         Locusta migratoria
SPUR-THROATED LOCUST                                     Austracris guttulosa

Status:
Declared Class 2

Background:
Locusts are a common and devastating pest of the central highlands. Swarms form most
years, depending on the season. Plagues are common and are increasing in frequency and
severity. This is due to an increase in favourable habitat created by the development of land
for cropping and grazing.

Distribution and Mapping:
Distribution is dependant upon suitable environmental conditions, particularly rainfall. Locust
have most detrimental effect in cropping areas, which are present throughout the central
highlands.

Operational Objectives:
Bands do not mature to form swarms
Damage to primary production is minimised
Swarms do not migrate outside of the central highlands

Operational Actions:

Action                                   Time     Days    Who          Milestone
Mobilize plague pest committee in        Threat   2       ESC          Committee mobilized
event of plague                          event            LPO          and ready
                                                          SRS
Ensure availability of misters           Threat   2       SRS          Misters available for
                                         event            LPO          use




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                   43
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

FERAL CATS
Felis catus

Status:
Declared Class 2
 NOTE: Legislation describes a feral cat
 as one that is not fed and kept by
 someone. The word ‘kept’ specifically
 means that the cat is housed in a
 domestic situation.

Background:
A descendant of the African wild cat (Felis silvestris lybica), the common 'house' cat (Felis
catus) has now been domesticated for about 4 000 years. Although the domestic cat has a
long history of association with man, it retains a strong hunting instinct and can easily revert
to a wild (feral) state when abandoned or having strayed from a domestic situation. Semi-
feral cats live around dump sites, alleys or abandoned buildings, relying on humans by
scavenging rubbish scraps and sheltering in abandoned structures. The true feral cat does
not rely on humans at all, obtaining its food and shelter from the natural environment.

The feral cat differs little in appearance from its domestic counterpart; however, when in good
condition, the feral cat displays increased overall muscle development, which is especially
noticeable around the head, neck and shoulders, thus giving the animal a more robust
appearance. The average body weight of male feral cats is from 3 kg to 6 kg, while that of
females varies from 2 kg to 4 kg. Body weights vary with condition, with some extremely large
specimens having been documented. Australian feral cats are predominantly short-haired,
with coat colours that range between ginger, tabby, tortoiseshell, grey and black. White
markings may be present on the feet, belly, chest and throat; completely white feral cats are
extremely rare.

Distribution:
Distribution is widespread throughout the Central Highlands

Operational Objectives:
Landowners are encouraged to control cats by trapping or shooting

Operational Actions:
Action                          Time          Days     Who      Milestone
Provide technical advice to     Ongoing       1        SRS      Landholders to undertake cat
landholders                                                     control.
Conduct monitoring program      When          3        LPO,     Baseline data recorded for cat
                                necessary              SRS      population density and
                                                                distribution.




44                                                     Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

EUROPEAN RABBIT
Oryctolagus cuniculus

Status:
Declared Class 2
 NOTE: In Queensland the introduction,
 possession and selling of rabbits is not
 permitted (maximum penalty $30 000).

Background:
Rabbits are one of Australia’s major agricultural and environmental animal pests costing
between $600 million and $1 billion annually. They compete with native animals, destroy the
landscape and are a primary cause of soil erosion by preventing regeneration of native
vegetation. Rabbits have played a role in the reduced numbers and extinction of many native
animals by competing for food and burrow space. In drought times rabbits climb trees to
forage on the foliage and often ringbark trees in their search for moisture.

Rabbits affect the quantity and quality of pasture available for other animals. Nutritious plants
are selectively grazed, and in times of drought rabbits can consume the majority of the
vegetation available. It is documented that the grazing ability of seven to ten rabbits is
equivalent to one sheep. Rabbit grazing and burrowing reduces vegetation and leads to soil
erosion. The exposed bare soil is washed or blown away making areas less productive. Soil
that is washed away then builds up and causes increased silting of aquatic ecosystems.

Distribution:
Rabbits are widespread but in limited numbers.

Operational Objectives:
Landholders are encouraged to control rabbits using pindone poison, trapping and shooting.

Operational Actions:
Action                                   Time       Days    Who     Milestone
Provide technical advice to              As         1       SRS     Landholders undertake
landholders                              required                   rabbit control




Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009                                                  45
PRIORITY PEST ANIMAL SPECIES

RODENTS


Status:
Declared Class 2

Background: Australia has both native and introduced rodents. Introduced rodents
include the house mouse or field mouse, the black rat and the brown rat. All three species
inhabit sheds and buildings. Mice generally form plagues when environmental conditions are
good. Native rats can also cause plagues in the central highlands. These rats require a
damage mitigation permit from the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service if they are to be
controlled, as they are protected under the Nature Conservation Act 1992


Distribution:
Distribution is widespread throughout the Central Highlands, particularly around cropping
areas where rodent numbers are high.

Operational Objectives:
Damage to primary production is minimised

Operational Actions:
Action                               Time       Days       Who           Milestone
Mobilise Plague Pest Control         As         1          ESC           Committee mobilised
Committee                            required                            as required.




46                                                     Emerald Shire Pest Management Plan 2005-2009