Capacity, Management, Operations Maintenance Program by xfz11675

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									               HRSD
Capacity, Management, Operations
    & Maintenance Program




      Photo Credit to Joe Fudge/Daily Press, 11/29.05




                                                        January 2006
                                                        January 2006

                                                         Revised 07/20/06
                                       Table of Contents


1.0   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2.0   HAMPTON ROADS SANITATION DISTRICT OVERVIEW
      2.1 Background
            2.1.1   History
            2.1.2   HRSD’s Mission, Vision, Values
            2.1.3   Awards
            2.1.4   Service Area Description
            2.1.5   A Unique Regional Approach
            2.1.6   Capacity, Management, Operations & Maintenance (CMOM) Goals
      2.2   Organization
            2.2.1   Governance
            2.2.2   Organizational Charts
            2.2.3   Department Descriptions
            2.2.4   Staffing
            2.2.5   Trust Consultant
      2.3   Infrastructure Description
            2.3.1   Wastewater Treatment Plants
            2.3.2   Interceptor System
3.0   CAPACITY ASSESSMENT
      3.1   Long Range Planning
            3.1.1   Development Plan
      3.2   Short Range Planning
            3.2.1   Facilities Management Plan (FMP)
            3.2.2   Capital Improvement Program (CIP)
      3.3   Routine Assessment
            3.3.1   Hydraulic Model
            3.3.2   Water Consumption
            3.3.3 Master Metering Program
            3.3.4   Reliability
      3.4. Consent Orders



                                               i
4.0   MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
      4.1   HRSD Management Overview
            4.1.1   Quality Organization
                    A.   Annual Planning Process
                    B.   Strategic Planning
                    C.   Quality Improvement Planning Process
            4.1.2   Finance and Administration Department
                    A.   Accounting and Finance Division
                         •   Rates
                    B.   Customer Information Services (CIS) Division
                         •   Hampton Roads Utility Billing Service (HRUBS)
                    C.   Human Resources Division
                    D.   Procurement Division
                    E.   Information Technology Division
            4.1.3   Engineering Department
                    A.   Design and Construction Division
                    B.   Real Estate
                    C.   Facility Support Division
            4.1.4   Treatment Department
                    A.   Safety Division
            4.1.5   Water Quality Department
                    A.   Central Environmental Laboratory (CEL) Division
                    B.   Industrial Waste Division (IWD)
                    C.   Technical Services Division (TSD)
                    D.   Water Reuse Division
            4.1.6   Interceptor Systems Department
                    A.   Interceptor Operations Division
                         •   North Shore and South Shore Operations
                    B.   Interceptor Services Division




                                                ii
              C.   Planning and Analysis Division
                   •   Chief of Planning and Analysis and Planner
                   •   Reliability Section
                   •   GIS Section
4.2   Training Programs
      4.2.1   Technical Training Programs
              A.   Apprenticeship Program
              B.   College
      4.2.2   Organizational Development Program
      4.2.3   Quality Improvement Program
              A.   Leadership Training
              B.   Team Training
              C.   Quality Improvement Training
      4.2.4   Skills Training Program
4.3   Skills Certification
4.4   Safety Training Program
4.5   Pollution Prevention Programs
4.6   Safety Programs
      4.6.1   Safety Division
      4.6.2   Safety Team
      4.6.3   Safety Procedures
      4.6.4   Safety Equipment
      4.6.5   Safety Responsibilities
      4.6.6   Safety Performance Measures
4.7   Utility Information Management Systems
      4.7.1   Treatment Department Information Management Systems (TIMS)
      4.7.2   Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS)
      4.7.3   Pretreatment Information Management Systems (PIMS)
      4.7.4   Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS)




                                             i
4.8   Engineering Programs
      4.8.1   Collection and Transmission System Plans Program
      4.8.2   Annual Inspection Program
      4.8.3   Sewer System Design Program
      4.8.4   Sewer Construction Program
      4.8.5   Construction Inspection Program
      4.8.6   Real Estate
      4.8.7   Continuing Sewer System Assessment Program
      4.8.8   Infrastructure Rehabilitation Program
      4.8.9   System Capacity Assurance Program
      4.8.10 Standards and Preferences
4.9   Sanitary Sewer Overflow Reporting and Notification Program
      4.9.1   Un-permitted Discharge Reporting Program
      4.9.2   Sanitary Sewer Overflow Notification Program
      4.9.3   Sanitary Sewer Overflow Reporting System (SSORS)
4.10 Financing and Cost Analysis Program
      4.10.1 Operations and Maintenance Cost Analysis Programs
      4.10.2 Budget and Customer Rate Setting Analysis
      4.10.3 Capital Improvement Program Funding
4.11 Equipment and Tools Management Programs
      4.11.1 Equipment and Tool Repair and Spare Parts Inventory Management
             Programs
      4.11.2 Vehicle Repair Management Program – Automotive Shop
      4.11.3 Supplies Management Program
4.12 Customer Information Programs
      4.12.1 Call Center
      4.12.2 Complaint Management Program
      4.12.3 Public Information Programs - Communications
      4.12.4 Environmental Education Programs - Communications
4.13 Legal Support Programs
      4.13.1 Inter-Jurisdictional Agreement Program



                                          ii
                    A.   Interest Participation Agreement, Lease Purchase Agreement and Relo-
                          cations
            4.13.2 Pretreatment Legal Support Program - IWD
            4.13.3 Grease Control Legal Support Program – IWD
            4.13.4 Service Laterals Legal Support Program – IWD
            4.13.5 Septic Tank Haulers Legal Support Program – IWD
            4.13.6 Grit and Grease
            4.13.7 Miss Utility Program
      4.14 Water Quality Monitoring Program
            4.14.1 Routine Water Quality Monitoring Program
            4.14.2 Investigative Water Quality Monitoring Program
            4.14.3 Water Quality Monitoring for Spill Impact
            4.14.4 Industrial Waste
      4.15 Contingency Plan for Sewer and Treatment System
            4.15.1 Contingency Planning Process
                    A. Hurricane Plan
                    B. Security Task Force
                    C. Public Notification Plan
                    D. Agency Notification Plan
                    E. Emergency Flow Control Plan
                    F.   Emergency Operations and Maintenance Plan
                    G. Preparedness Training Program
                    H. Water Quality Monitoring Plan
5.0   OPERATION PROGRAMS
      5.1   Pump Station Operation Programs
            5.1.1   Routine Operating Programs
            5.1.2   Emergency Operating Programs




                                              iii
5.2   Pretreatment Programs
      5.2.1   Industrial User Permitting Program
      5.2.2   Inspection and Sampling Program
      5.2.3   Enforcement Program
5.3   Corrosion Control Programs - Reliability
      5.3.1   Inspection Program
      5.3.2 Control Measures Program
              A.   Cathodic Protection
                   •   Impressed Current Systems
                   •   Sacrificial Anode Systems
              B.   Elimination of Air Entrainment
                   •   Design Practices
                   •   Operating Practices
      5.3.3   Monitoring Program
              A.   CCTV Inspection
      5.3.4   Performance Measures
5.4   Infiltration and Inflow (I/I)
      5.4.1   Plan for Elimination of Excessive Infiltration and Inflow (I/I)
      5.4.2   Equipment and Programs Used to Assist in Elimination of I/I
              A.   Rain Gages
              B.   Shallow Wells
              C.   Smoke and Dye Testing
      5.4.3   Remote Meters
              A.   Open Channel Meters
              B.   Ultrasonic Flow Meters
              C.   Pressure Recorders
              D.   Telemetry
5.5   Grease Trap Inspection and Enforcement Programs
      5.5.1   Permitting Program
      5.5.2   Inspection Program
      5.5.3   Enforcement Program
      5.5.4   Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG)


                                             iv
      5.6   New Connection Tap-In Program
            5.6.1   Installation of New Service Taps
      5.7   Flow Monitoring Field Operation Programs - MMP
            5.7.1   Permanent Stations
            5.7.2   Temporary Stations
      5.8   Septic Tank / Grit and Grease Haulers Program
            5.8.1   Permitting Program
            5.8.2   Inspection Program
            5.8.3   Enforcement Program
            5.8.4   Performance Measures
      5.9   “Call Before You Dig” Program – Miss Utility
            5.9.1   Enforcement Program
            5.9.2   Performance Measures
6.0   MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS
      6.1   Pump Station Preventative Maintenance
            6.1.1   Electrical Maintenance
            6.1.2   Mechanical Maintenance
            6.1.3   Physical Maintenance
      6.2   Force Main Preventative Maintenance
            6.2.1   Air Release Valves
            6.2.2   Valve Exercise Program
            6.2.3   Cathodic Protection
            6.2.4   Constructed Grades
      6.3   Gravity Line Preventative Maintenance
            6.3.1   Routine Cleaning
            6.3.2   Root Control Program
            6.3.3   Manhole Preventative Maintenance
            6.3.4 CCTV
            6.3.5   Smoke and Dye Testing
            6.3.6   Optical Brighteners




                                               v
     6.4   Maintenance of Way
           6.4.1   Maintenance of Rights-of-Way and Easements
           6.4.2   Monitoring of Street Paving
           6.4.3   Monitoring of Street Closures
           6.4.4   Line Location for Third Parties
     6.5   Unscheduled Maintenance
           6.5.1   Response to Complaints
           6.5.2   Communication Plan


Appendix


Bibliography




                                                 vi
1.0    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
        Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), a political subdivision of the Common-
wealth of Virginia, provides wastewater treatment services to 17 counties and independent cit-
ies in southeast Virginia. Our service area of 3,100 square miles has a population of 1.6 million.
HRSD now operates nine major treatment plants in Hampton Roads and four small facilities on
the Middle Peninsula. These 13 plants can treat up to 231 million gallons of wastewater each
day. We also operate and maintain a regional interceptor system of more than 500 miles of
pipelines and 82 pump stations.

       A Commission of eight members who are appointed by the Governor for four-year
terms controls HRSD’s business interests. Administration is under the direction of a General
Manager, supported by five department directors and their staff.

        Since HRSD's inception, there has been one overriding mission—to protect and enhance
the environment through quality wastewater treatment. HRSD has received national, state and
local recognition for environmental excellence, including numerous awards for plant perform-
ance and outstanding regulatory compliance.
        The proper and efficient management, operation and maintenance of our facilities are
essential to HRSD’s ability to protect public health and the environment. We take all reason-
able steps necessary to eliminate or minimize Sanitary System Overflows (SSOs) and to pro-
vide adequate system capacity. This document provides an overview of the many elements of
our Capacity, Management, Operations and Maintenance (CMOM) program, and explains how
our various departments and divisions work together to achieve our CMOM goals.
HRSD’s Capacity, Management, Operations & Maintenance Goals:
     • Manage, operate and maintain the HRSD collection system in the most effective
        manner
     • Investigate any capacity constrained areas of the collection system and develop pro-
        grams to address those constraints
     • Proactively prevent sewer overflows
     • Respond to overflow events effectively to protect public health and the environment
     • Work with the jurisdictions we serve to achieve these goals

These CMOM goals are consistent with HRSD’s long-standing guiding principles:
       • Operate our facilities to comply with all permit limits, laws, rules and regulations
       • Prevent system failures and expend all energies to minimize adverse environmental
         impact in the event a system failure occurs
       • Provide prompt, courteous service to customers
       • Encourage all HRSD employees to grow to their personal and professional potential
       • Strive to be the leading agency in wastewater resource management in the country
       • Strive to improve as a good neighbor, public educator, contributing member of the
         community and steward of the environment

        HRSD’s Commission and staff are dedicated to the attainment of these goals. Our his-
tory of environmental excellence and our long record of accomplishments reflect our commit-
ment to proper management, operations and maintenance. Our approach is summarized in the
pages that follow and documented in the numerous manuals and written procedures that guide
our organization.


                                                1
2.0     HAMPTON ROADS SANITATION DISTRICT OVERVIEW

        Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), a political subdivision of the Common-
wealth of Virginia, provides wastewater treatment services to 17 counties and independent cit-
ies in southeast Virginia. Our service area of 3,100 square miles has a population of 1.6 million.
HRSD now operates nine major treatment plants in Hampton Roads and four small facilities on
the Middle Peninsula. These 13 plants can treat up to 231 million gallons of wastewater each
day. We also operate and maintain a regional interceptor system of more than 500 miles of
pipelines and 82 pump stations.

       A Commission of eight members who are appointed by the Governor for four-year
terms controls HRSD’s business interests. Administration is under the direction of a General
Manager, supported by the directors of HRSD’s five departments (Engineering, Finance and
Administration, Interceptor Systems, Treatment and Water Quality) and their staffs.

       The HRSD quality management approach, which encourages innovation and teamwork,
has resulted in creative and productive thinking that has distinguished HRSD over the years.
The departments operate as cohesive teams, using assets and resources in the most effective
manner possible. This facilitates the achievement of the CMOM program goals.

        This overview chapter provides background information, explains the organizational
structure and describes HRSD’s infrastructure.
2.1.   Background
       HRSD’s history; mission, vision and values; awards; service area; unique regional ap-
proach; and CMOM goals are highlighted in this section.

2.1.1   History
                               In 1934, the Virginia General Assembly created the Hampton
                       Roads Sanitation Disposal Commission with instructions to plan the
                       elimination of pollution in Hampton Roads. Recommendations were
                       made to the General Assembly, which resulted in the Sanitary Districts
                       Law of 1938, along with "an Act to provide for and create the Hampton
                       Roads Sanitation District." This Act (62) required qualified voters within
                       the District to decide, in a general election on November 8, 1938, if they
                       favored creation of such a District. This referendum failed to gain a ma-
                       jority by about 500 votes out of nearly 20,000 votes cast and led to a re-
                       vision of the Act. Another referendum was held on November 5, 1940,
                       which resulted in a majority vote for the creation of the Hampton Roads
                       Sanitation District. The District was named after Hampton Roads, a
four-century-old ship anchorage located near the convergence of the James, Elizabeth, and
Nansemond Rivers, before they flow into the Chesapeake Bay in southeastern Virginia.

       The Enabling Act provides for HRSD to operate as a political subdivision of the Com-
monwealth of Virginia for the specific purpose of water pollution abatement in Hampton Roads
by providing a system of interceptor mains and wastewater treatment plants.

       HRSD began operations on July 1, 1946, using facilities acquired from the United
States Government. The Warwick County Trunk Sewer, HRSD's first construction project, be-


                                                2
gan on June 26, 1946, and was funded by HRSD's $6,500,000 Primary Pledge Sewer Revenue
Bonds dated March 1, 1946. The Army Base Treatment Plant was HRSD’s first treatment plant
and began operation on October 14, 1947. The population of HRSD’s service area has in-
creased from nearly 288,000 in 1940 to approximately 1.6 million in 2005, and the system has
expanded over the years to meet the needs of a growing region.

2.1.2 HRSD’s Mission, Vision, Values (9, p. III-1)
      Our mission is to prevent pollution, protect public health, and support community de-
velopment by providing wastewater collection, treatment, and related services.

       Our vision is to provide competitive, world class wastewater facilities and services
with positive environmental, regulatory, public and political impacts.

       Our values maintain that every individual has the responsibility to act with proper re-
gard for others and to embrace the following values:

       Our Environment: We care about our environment.
       • We operate our facilities to comply with all permits, laws, rules, and regulations.
       • We promote environmental rules and regulations based upon sound science.
       • We provide needed facilities in a timely fashion.

       Our Customers and Employees: Our customers and employees are important to us.
       • We treat everyone with courtesy, dignity, and respect.
       • We show understanding and fairness.
       • We have open communications.
       • We provide safe facilities.
       • We provide good working conditions for our employees.

       Quality Service: Quality service is our standard.
       • We meet or exceed the expectations of our customers.
       • We provide effective and efficient service.
       • We promote excellence and continuous improvement.
       • We provide helpful and cooperative assistance.
       • We promote innovative and imaginative solutions.
       • We promote fiscal responsibility.

       Integrity: Integrity creates trust.
       • We expect honesty and truthfulness.
       • We expect conscientiousness and dependability.
       • We expect maturity and self-discipline.
       • We expect responsibility and accountability.
       • We expect loyalty and commitment to HRSD.

       Growth: Personal growth is the foundation for improvement.
       • We promote education, training, and experience.
       • We promote knowledge and skills.
       • We promote leadership.
       • We empower employees.
       • We promote professionalism.


                                               3
        Teamwork: Teamwork is essential for continuous improvement.
        • We promote problem solving through teamwork.
        • We promote a win-win philosophy in our work.

        Stewardship: We are responsible for HRSD.
        • We base decisions on the best interest for the whole organization.
        • We are responsible for our future success.

2.1.3 Awards
      HRSD strives not just to meet but to exceed environmental requirements at all levels.
Our award-winning performance and innovation continue to garner national honors.

       Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean
Water Agencies (NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. HRSD
treatment plants have received 163 of these prestigious awards for outstanding compliance with
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits since 1986, when NACWA
(then AMSA) established the program.

        Recent awards include:
        • American Council of Engineering Companies of North Carolina (ACEC)
           2004 Honors Award for Engineering Excellence for the York River Reclamation Facility
        • Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies (AMSA)
           Excellence in Management Award
        • NACWA 2004 Peak Performance Awards (12)
           Every eligible treatment plant won an award for outstanding permit compliance
        • Government Financial Officers Association of the United States and Canada
           (GFOA) Certificate of Achievement for Excellence in Financial Reporting (20 con-
           secutive years)
        • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Partner Award
        • Water Environment Federation (WEF)
           International Operations Challenge Competition Second Place (2004)
        • Water Reuse Association
           2003 Outstanding Project of the Year for the York River Treatment Plant Industrial
           Reuse Project

        Highlights of HRSD’s Past Honors include:
        • 2003 AMSA Public Information and Education Award for Ocean Lakes Environ-
           mental Education Program
        • 2002 AMSA Operations Award for Small Communities Program
        • 2002 AMSA Public Information and Education Award for Boater Education Program
        • 2002 WEF International Operations Challenge Champions
        • 2001 AMSA Public Information and Education Award for 60th Anniversary Com-
           memorative Calendar
        • 2001 AMSA Public Information and Education Award for Celebrate Farming Day
        • 2001 United Way Hero Award recognizing HRSD North Shore (Peninsula) staff for
           greatest goal increase
        • 2001 Virginia Resources Authority Award of Excellence Finalist in recognition of
           best practices in infrastructure planning, design, and financing

                                               4
        •   2001 Virginia Tech Award of Appreciation recognizing HRSD for 25 years of commit-
            ment, service, and support for the annual Short School for Treatment Plant Operators
        •   1999 Norfolk Environmental Commission Award of Excellence for Environmental
            Stewardship
        •   1996 Municipal Treasurers’ Association of the United States and Canada Certifica-
            tion of Excellence Award
        •   1995 EPA National First Place for Outstanding Pretreatment Program
        •   1994 AMSA Operations Award for Interceptor Systems Training Program
        •   1992 American Academy of Environmental Engineers Grand Prize
        •   1992 American Consulting Engineers Council Grand Award for Engineering Excellence
        •   1992 AMSA Public Information and Education Award for 50th Anniversary Booklet
        •   1992 National Association of Management and Technical Assistance Centers Pro-
            ject of the Year for Technology Transfer—Biosolids Ash
        •   1991 AMSA Research and Technology Award
        •   1991 Governor’s Environmental Excellence Award for Resource Conservation
        •   1990 American Academy of Environmental Engineers Honor Award for Research
        •   1990 American Consulting Engineers Council of Metropolitan Washington, Grand
            Conceptor Award for Outstanding Engineering Achievement
        •   1989 EPA National First Place for Outstanding Biosolids Project.

2.1.4    Service Area Description
         HRSD’s service area includes 17 cities and counties of southeast Virginia, an area of
3,100 square miles with a population of 1.6 million. To ensure responsive assistance and the
ability to meet future needs, we work closely with the localities we serve:

               Cities                              Counties
               Chesapeake                          Gloucester
               Hampton                             Isle of Wight
               Newport News                        James City
               Norfolk                             King and Queen
               Poquoson                            King William
               Portsmouth                          Mathews
               Suffolk                             Middlesex
               Virginia Beach                      York
               Williamsburg




                                               5
6
2.1.5   A Unique Regional Approach
        The state legislation that created HRSD in 1940 established a regional approach to
wastewater treatment unlike any other in the United States. The General Assembly endowed
HRSD, which is a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Virginia, with the responsibil-
ity to “provide for the public health and welfare.”

       There are no contracts between HRSD and the localities we serve. A city or county that
wishes to become a part of the district must petition the Circuit Court to become a member of
HRSD. The legislature ultimately amends the Enabling Act to include new jurisdictions.

        Our unique regional structure requires collaboration with multiple entities to ensure
proper management, operations, and maintenance. We work with the Virginia Department of
Environmental Quality (DEQ) to set standards for the amount of wastewater and infiltration
and inflow (I/I) the member localities can provide to HRSD. HRSD also works closely with
each jurisdiction. Regular monthly or quarterly meetings are held with many of the localities to
discuss operational issues. HRSD representatives attend meetings of the region’s utility direc-
tors and participate in a variety of regional initiatives. These include the Hampton Roads Part-
nership, the Hampton Roads Chamber of Commerce, The Virginia Peninsula Chamber of
Commerce and a host of committees organized by the Hampton Roads Planning District
(HRPDC).

       Our unique approach extends to our oversight of industries and small businesses that
provide waste to HRSD. Our Industrial Waste Division (IWD) is empowered to regulate these
businesses and industries and has the authority to impose fines, if necessary. HRSD surcharges
for industrial waste that comes into its system and invoices these businesses accordingly. All
businesses must comply with HRSD’s pretreatment requirements and undergo regular inspec-
tions.

        To ensure adequate capacity, new development that is to connect to the HRSD system
goes through a certification process. The localities, DEQ and HRSD review the connections be-
fore allowing them. The Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations (20) provide guidance on
what materials are allowed and what may be prohibited in HRSD’s system. Through our In-
dustrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations and our interceptor policies, HRSD has the author-
ity to enforce actions for excessive grit and grease; infiltration and inflow; storm water
connections; and water from other sources such as sump pumps, air conditioning and landfills.
Our Engineering Department has a Real Estate Division that oversees HRSD’s easements and
controls building and structures of any kind placed over of our pipelines. Laterals to houses are
maintained through localities.




                                               7
2.1.6   Capacity, Management, Operations & Maintenance (CMOM) Goals
        • Manage, operate and maintain the HRSD interceptor system in the most effective
          manner
        • Investigate any capacity constrained areas of the collection system and develop pro-
          grams to address those constraints
        • Proactively prevent sewer overflows
        • Respond to overflow events effectively to protect public health and the environment
        • Work with the jurisdictions we serve to achieve these goals

        These CMOM goals are consistent with HRSD’s long-standing guiding principles:
        • Operate our facilities to comply with all permit limits, laws, rules and regulations
        • Prevent system failures and expend all energies to minimize adverse environmental
           impact in the event a system failure occurs
        • Provide prompt courteous service to customers
        • Encourage all HRSD employees to grow to their personal and professional potential
        • Strive to be the leading agency in wastewater resource management in the country
        • Strive to improve as a good neighbor, public educator, contributing member of the
           community and steward of the environment


2.2    Organization
       HRSD’s structure facilitates our commitment to proper management, operations and
maintenance. This section explains our organization, the role of each component and how
Commissioners and staff at all levels of the organization work together to attain the CMOM
goals.

2.2.1 Governance
        HRSD’s governance is prescribed by its enabling legislation, which was passed by the
Virginia General Assembly. The HRSD Commission, an eight-member board appointed by the
Governor of Virginia, provides control and direction and ensures public accountability. The
Commission meets monthly to set policy, approve expenditures and decide budget matters. The
Commission is also responsible for selecting the General Manager and supervising the per-
formance of this individual. Commissioners, who must reside in the various localities in
HRSD’s service area, are appointed for four-year terms and may be reappointed. The Commis-
sion elects a chair and a vice-chair annually.

2.2.2  Organizational Charts
       An organizational chart that shows the overall structure of HRSD and a more detailed
organizational chart of the Interceptor Systems Department appear on the following pages.




                                              8
                                                                                     General Manager
                                                                                        E. Henifin



                                                        Executive Secretary                                      Communications Division
                                                            J. Heilman                                           Chief – N. Munnikhuysen




Engineering Department          Finance & Administration Dept.                Interceptor Systems Dept.                    Treatment Department             Water Quality Dept.
Director – B. Husselbee         Director – J. Maniscalco                       Director – R. Schlobohm                     Director – D. Waltrip           Director – N. LeBlanc




   Design & Construction Div.         Accounting & Finance Div.                    Planning & Analysis Div.                     North Shore Division               Water Reuse Division
        Chief – G. Hart                   Chief – R. Wood                              Chief – J. Bernas                         Chief – R. Baumler                  Chief – K. Harr


         Project Managers                                                                   GIS Section                              Treatment Plants
                                       Customer Info. Services Div.                                                                                              Industrial Waste Division
                                          Chief – M. Durkin                                                                         Boat Harbor, James              Chief – R. Johnson
                                                                                                                                    River, Nansemond,
                                                                                        Reliability Section                         Wsbg., York River
   Facility Support Division
       Chief – R. Raike                                                                                                                                                North Shore IWD
                                      Information Technology Div.
                                          Chief – D. Corrado                                                                    South Shore Division
                                                                                              Planner                           Chief – M. McLemore
         Automotive Shop
                                                                                                                                                                       South Shore IWD
                                       Human Resources Div.
                                                                                   Interceptor Operations Div.                       Treatment Plants
                                                                                     Chief – T. McPherson                           Army Base, Atlantic,
          Electrical Shop
                                                                                                                                      Ches-Eliz, VIP
                                                                                                                                                                   Laboratory Division
                                        Procurement Division                                                                                                        Chief – P. Hogg
                                                                                         North Shore Ops
       Instrumentation Shop                                                                                                                Recycling


                                                                                         South Shore Ops                                                          Technical Services Div.
                                                                                                                                                                      Chief –J. Pletl
          Machine Shop                                                                                                                      Safety

                                                                                    Interceptor Services Div.
                                                                                       Chief – C. Stephan
          Carpentry Shop
                                                                                                                               Small Communities Div.
                                                                                                                                   Chief – J. Pyne
                                                                                       Interceptor Engineer,
                                                                                            North Shore
          Physical Plant
          Maintenance
                                                                                       Interceptor Engineers,
                                                                                            South Shore

                                                                                              9
                                                                                                   Interceptor Systems Department


                                                                                                              General Manager



                                                                                                                 Director of
                                                                                                            Interceptor Systems

                                                   Admin Clerk              Admin Coord
                                                    Vacancy




               Chief of Planning                                                                                            Chief of Interceptor                                                                Chief of Interceptor
                 & Analysis                                                                                                    Operations                                                                            Services



GIS Manager      Reliability             Planner                                   SS Int Supt                                                                             NS Int Supt                                      NS Int Engr
                  Manager

                                                                                                        SS Ops Coord                                      NS Ops Coord
    GIS        Reliability Supv
   Analyst                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SS Int Engr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (2)
  GIS Intern           IS Specialist                  Chief Foreman                 PS Supv                   IS Supv                              Chief Foreman            PS Supv        IS Supv
   Future

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Inspector
                      Reliability Tech                     Foreman (3)           Technicians (5)                Technicians (4)                         Foreman (3)                        Technicians (3)
                                                                                                                                                                         Technicians (5)
                            (5)                           Technicians (3)         Assistants (5)                 Assistants (3)                        Technicians (3)                      Assistants (4)
                                                                                                                                                                          Assistants (3)
                                                           Heavy Equip                                           Heavy Equip                            Heavy Equip                         Heavy Equip
                                                           Operators (6)                                           Operator                             Operators (6)                         Operator
                                                           Assistants (5)                                                                               Assistants (6)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Inspector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Future
                                                                                                                                                                                           Ms Utility Locator
                                                                                                                Ms Utility Locator
                                                            Equipment                                                                                   Equipment
                                                           Specialist (2)                                                                                                                  Miss Utility Clerk
                                                                                                               Miss Utility Clerk                      Technician (2)


                                                                                                                                                      Grounds Keeper




                                                                                                                       10
2.2.3  Department Descriptions
       HRSD’s five departments (Engineering, Finance and Administration, Interceptor Sys-
tems, Treatment and Water Quality) operate as cohesive teams, using assets and resources in
the most effective manner possible. This facilitates attainment of CMOM goals. This section
provides an overview of each department. More detailed information is provided in Chapter 4.

        Treatment, the largest department, is responsible for discharge permit compliance, op-
eration and maintenance of HRSD’s treatment plants. Each large plant has its own manager and
is run independently as a part of the overall system. The Small Communities Division (respon-
sible for four small treatment plants and 23 pump stations on the Middle Peninsula) and Safety
Division are a part of the Treatment Department, also.

         Interceptor Systems maintains and operates about 500 miles of interceptor pipe and 82
pump stations to deliver wastewater from municipal collection systems to our plants. The Inter-
ceptor Operations Division employees on the north shore and south shore provide day-to-day
monitoring, preventative maintenance and response to problems to minimize or prevent leaks
and overflows. As our communities grow, the Interceptor Services Division responds to
changes such as road construction projects, which often affect HRSD facilities and pipelines.
The Planning and Analysis Division evaluates the needs of the area and determines the new fa-
cilities required to expand services. This division prepares various long and short range plans
and negotiates with the localities to provide for their needs. The Geographic Information Sys-
tems (GIS) section manages HRSD’s GIS and provides mapping and related services. The Sys-
tems Reliability Section conducts HRSD’s Infiltration/Inflow Elimination Program, which
eliminates storm water and ground water from the system. They also inspect the pipelines and
make replacements or renovations before problems occur.

        The Engineering Department is responsible for design, construction and specialized
maintenance. The Design and Construction Division works with contractors to ensure work is
performed in a manner consistent with HRSD’s quality standards, fiscal policies and environ-
mental commitment. The Facility Support Division provides electrical, automotive and carpen-
try services, operates a machine shop, and includes Physical Plant Maintenance.

        The Water Quality Department ensures that water discharged by industries and busi-
nesses into the treatment systems and the treated wastewater that is returned to the environment
is safe and clean. The Technical Services Division oversees a number of environmental issues,
including environmental monitoring programs, and performs all reporting required by our per-
mits. Ensuring industrial permit compliance according to regulations, the Industrial Waste Di-
vision monitors wastewater through toxic and surcharge surveys and sampling. They conduct
regular inspections at industrial sites, issue permits to new industries and investigate violations.
The Central Environmental Laboratory Division is staffed to provide quality laboratory tests for
internal analysis and regulatory control. Our state-of-the-art Central Environmental Laboratory
uses the latest technology to monitor treatment processes, industrial discharges into our system
and the condition of local waterways. Environmental monitoring and analytical services are
also performed at cost for government agencies as part of our Municipal Assistance Program.

        Employees of the five divisions of our Finance and Administration Department en-
sure responsive customer service and a sound financial foundation. Customer Information Ser-
vices Division employees answer ratepayers’ questions, send bills and post payments. Hampton
Roads Utility Billing Service (HRUBS) is a bill printing and payment processing service pro-

                                                11
vided at no cost to participating municipalities. Instead of receiving multiple bills, customers
receive one bill through HRUBS.

        The Accounting and Finance Division handles fiscal affairs such as preparing state-
ments, budgets, management reports and payroll. The Procurement Division manages the pur-
chase of equipment, supplies and services. The Information Technology Division is responsible
for information systems management. It is the job of the Human Resources Division to main-
tain employee records, handle employee recruiting and orientation and administer the employee
benefits program.

2.2.4   Staffing
        HRSD has 694 approved positions in the 2006 budget. The individuals who fill them
perform a variety of duties essential to our mission. The Human Resources Division maintains
current job descriptions for all positions. The job descriptions define the nature of the work to
be performed, minimum requirements for the position, necessary qualifications or certifica-
tions, common examples of the type of work and licenses required. Interceptor Systems De-
partment job descriptions (42) are available in the CMOM library.

       HRSD has a low employee turnover rate of about eight percent (including retirements).
This means we are fortunate to have a highly experienced staff. The average employee tenure is
13 years. Vacancies typically are filled within 44 calendar days if only internal advertising is
deemed necessary. HRSD’s Organizational Development Program, which includes a formal
mentoring process, was developed to help ensure a well-qualified pool of applicants for man-
agement positions.

2.2.5  Trust Consultant
       The HRSD Commission is required, under the Master Trust Indenture (15), to use a
consultant to inspect a representative portion of the treatment and interceptor system operated
by HRSD at least once each fiscal year and to submit to the Commission a report containing the
consultant’s:

        •   findings whether the portion of the system so inspected has been maintained in good
            repair, working order and condition;
        •   recommendations as to the proper maintenance, repair and operation of the treat-
            ment and interceptor system operated by HRSD during the ensuing fiscal year; and
        •   estimate of the amount of money necessary for such purposes. (1)

       The engineer consultant also provides consultation and advice and performs evaluations
and studies on matters relating to HRSD planning, design, construction, operation, mainte-
nance, water quality, management and staffing.

        The consultant will be permitted to provide engineering design and construction ser-
vices for small projects generally not exceeding $50,000 in fees, but will not be permitted to
provide such services for larger projects unless determined by the Commission to be in the best
interest of HRSD or to meet a critical need. However, the engineer will be permitted to com-
plete projects already underway upon becoming the Trust Consulting Engineer. The engineer
will not be permitted to act as a consultant to other parties on matters relating to HRSD activi-
ties where the engineer may be required to review such matters for HRSD.


                                               12
        The Trust Consulting Engineer services have been provided in the past by different en-
gineering firms. CH2M Hill has been the Trust Consulting Engineer since July 1, 1992. CH2M
Hill’s various assignments and fee authorizations for the 13-year period are listed in Attach-
ment III – Trust Consulting Engineer Task Authorizations provided in Section V – Attachments
of RFP for Professional Engineering Services for the Trust Consulting Engineer (25). This list
is typical of the type of assignments to be encountered.

        The engineer selected must demonstrate a high level of qualifications and experience in
the following areas:
        1.   Master planning of interceptor and wastewater treatment facilities for a large met-
             ropolitan area
        2.   Design of large and extended force main interceptor systems
        3.   Design of pumping stations
        4.   Design of large complex wastewater treatment plants
        5.   Design of biological nutrient removal treatment plants
        6.   Design of chlorination, dechlorination and alternative disinfection methods
        7.   Design of biosolids thickening, dewatering, utilization and disposal systems
        8.   Design of packed tower scrubbers and other odor control facilities
        9.   Design of reclaimed water treatment and distribution facilities
        10. Construction administration and management for large complex wastewater facili-
             ties
        11. Operation and maintenance of complex interceptor systems and treatment plants

2.3    Infrastructure Description
       HRSD operates nine major treatment plants in Hampton Roads and four small facilities
on the Middle Peninsula. These 13 plants can treat up to 231 million gallons of wastewater
each day. We also operate and maintain a regional interceptor system of more than 500 miles of
pipelines and 82 pump stations. This section provides an overview of the facilities we manage,
operate, and maintain.

2.3.1   Wastewater Treatment Plants
        HRSD operates nine major award-winning treatment plants in Hampton Roads and four
smaller plants on the Middle Peninsula. Our plants and their achievements are profiled in this
section.

       HRSD is recognized as a leader in the industry, with an impressive record of environ-
mental permit compliance. HRSD must comply with Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (VPDES) permit limitations. The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality issues
the permits, which are reviewed, revised (if necessary) and reissued every five years.

        One of HRSD’s greatest contributions to the wastewater industry is the innovative Vir-
ginia Initiative Process, used at both the Virginia Initiative Treatment Plant (Norfolk) and Nan-
semond Treatment Plant (Suffolk). HRSD and the engineering firm CH2M Hill developed and
patented this technology, which is offered free of charge to other wastewater agencies. The
process, a type of biological nutrient removal, is an environmentally sound technique that
eliminates much of the nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater.

       Our reputation for not only meeting but exceeding environmental regulations prompted
the Middle Peninsula Planning District Commission to ask HRSD to serve the major population

                                               13
centers of the area. Protecting the quality of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries is critical to
the livelihood and recreational activities of these small communities. HRSD agreed to operate
and maintain four treatment plants, 23 pump stations and the collection systems. We have initi-
ated the extensive improvements needed to meet safety regulations; comply with regulatory re-
quirements, and ensure responsive, reliable customer service.

         HRSD has agreed, in some cases, to assume responsibility for operating small treatment
facilities in our service area. In 2001, Chesapeake turned over the Hickory Plant, which treated
wastewater from four public schools. The design capacity was 43,000 gallons per day. HRSD
operated the facility until flow could be diverted into our interceptor system after the construc-
tion of the South Battlefield Boulevard pipeline. HRSD also operated Queen Anne’s Court in
Isle of Wight County, a small package plant that was experiencing difficulties, until a pump
station was built to transfer the flow to our lines.

        In most instances, wastewater is treated and returned to local waterways. Rather than
dispose of highly treated effluent, HRSD encourages reclaiming this resource through addi-
tional treatment processes, where environmentally and economically justified, to replace the
potable water now meeting nonpotable demands (e.g., landscape irrigation and many industrial
uses). Water reclamation (also called water reuse) maximizes the existing drinking water sup-
ply and results in more effective stewardship of precious water resources.

       When operationally and economically feasible, HRSD recycles biosolids—nutrient-rich
organic matter resulting from extensive treatment processes. Recycling helps eliminate landfill
disposal of this resource. There are many beneficial uses for biosolids, which must meet strin-
gent federal and state standards for safety. Biosolids collected locally are processed into Nutri-
Green® compost, applied to land as fertilizer, or incinerated into ash. Through HRSD’s Pre-
treatment Program, businesses and industries reduce toxics and other pollutants entering
HRSD’s system, helping to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.




                                                14
                                           ARMY BASE TREATMENT PLANT
                                           401 Lagoon Rd.
                                           Norfolk, VA 23505

                                           The first plant in the HRSD system, Army Base is also the plant
                                           that has garnered the greatest number of Gold awards for
                                           outstanding permit compliance. This facility has had no permit
                                           exceptions since 1986—18 consecutive years of exemplary
                                           environmental protection and a record unlikely to be matched in the
                                           nation.



Receiving Stream: Elizabeth River                     Operation Startup: 1947 (11-MGD primary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 18 MGD                        Average Daily Flow (2004): 12.74 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                    Solids Management: Incineration (ash
phosphorus removal                                    recycled for construction fill)

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                    Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite                     dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations:
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 1.4 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary
Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Army Base has earned these prestigious awards
for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for 19 con-
secutive years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) – 1997, 2002
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998,
1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1986

U. S. EPA Region 3 Awards
        1989 Operations and Maintenance Excellence

Virginia Water Pollution Control Association/Virginia State Water Control Board Awards
       1989 Excellence in Operations and Maintenance




                                                     15
                                             ATLANTIC TREATMENT PLANT
                                             645 Firefall Dr.
                                             Virginia Beach, VA 23454




Receiving Stream: Atlantic Ocean                         Operation Startup: 1983 (36-MGD secondary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 36 MGD                           Average Daily Flow (2004): 30.29 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary                    Solids Management: Land application

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium hypochlorite          Disinfection Process: Chlorination

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Chlorination: 2.5 mg/L (monthly average); 4.0 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: ---- (ocean outfall)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Atlantic has earned these prestigious awards
for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for 19 con-
secutive years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) – 1997, 2002
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999,
2000, 2001, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1990, 1991, 2003

U. S. EPA National Awards
       1987 1st Place for Outstanding Operations and Maintenance
       1989 1st Place for Beneficial Reuse of Nutri-Green®
U. S. EPA Region 3 Awards
       1987 Operations and Maintenance Excellence
       1989 Wastewater Management Excellence for Reuse of Nutri-Green®
Virginia Water Pollution Control Association/Virginia State Water Control Board
       1987 Excellence in Operations and Maintenance
Water Pollution Control Federation Award
       1986 George Burke Safety Award

                                                        16
                                                BOAT HARBOR TREATMENT PLANT
                                                300 Terminal Ave.
                                                Newport News, VA 23607




Receiving Stream: James River (lower)                 Operation Startup: 1948 (12-MGD primary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 25 MGD                        Average Daily Flow (2004): 15.48 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                    Solids Management: Incineration (ash
phosphorus removal                                    recycled for construction fill)

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                    Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite                     dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 1.3 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary
Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Agencies (NACWA) to
recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Boat Harbor has earned these prestigious awards for out-
standing compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for 19 consecutive
years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) - 1997
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999,
2000, 2002, 2003, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1990, 1992, 2001

Virginia Water Environment Association
       1989 Excellence in Operations and Maintenance

Virginia Water Pollution Control Association/Virginia State Water Control Board
       1990 Excellence in Operations and Maintenance

                                                     17
                                                 CHESAPEAKE-ELIZABETH
                                                 TREATMENT PLANT
                                                 5332 Shore Dr.
                                                 Virginia Beach, VA 23455

                                                 A major renovation project is underway at this plant, which
                                                 was built in 1965.

                                                 Chesapeake-Elizabeth has earned 18 prestigious national
                                                 awards for exceptional environmental achievements through
                                                 outstanding permit compliance.



Receiving Stream: Chesapeake Bay                      Operation Startup: 1968 (8-MGD primary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 24 MGD                        Average Daily Flow (2004): 21.04 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                    Solids Management: Incineration (ash recycled
phosphorus removal                                    for construction fill)

Disinfection Method: Gaseous chlorine and             Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
sulfur dioxide (containment facilities)               dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations:
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 2.4 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Chesapeake-Elizabeth has earned 18 of these
prestigious awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permits.
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000,
2001, 2002, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1991, 1997, 1998, 2003




                                                     18
                                                 JAMES RIVER TREATMENT PLANT
                                                 111 City Farm Rd.
                                                 Newport News, VA 23602




Receiving Stream: James River (lower)                Operation Startup: 1967 (5-MGD secondary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 20 MGD                       Average Daily Flow (2004): 15.17 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                   Solids Management: Nutri-Green®
phosphorus removal                                   compost

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                   Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite                    dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 0.6 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. James River has earned 15 of these prestigious
awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) - 1997
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1990, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1989, 1991, 1992, 2000, 2002




                                                    19
                                                 NANSEMOND TREATMENT PLANT
                                                 6900 College Dr.
                                                 Suffolk, VA 23435




Receiving Stream: Hampton Roads/James                  Operation Startup: 1983 (10-MGD secondary)
River (lower)

Capacity (Design Flow): 30 MGD                         Average Daily Flow (2004): 20.58 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary plus biological          Solids Management: Incineration at another
nutrient removal (BNR)                                 plant site (ash recycled for construction fill),
                                                       Nutri-Green® compost, and land application

Disinfection Method: Gaseous chlorine and              Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
sulfur dioxide (containment facilities)                dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 2.4 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary
Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Nansemond has earned these prestigious
awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for
19 consecutive years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) - 1999
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1986, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2002,
2003, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1988, 1989, 1992, 1994, 2001

Virginia Water Pollution Control Association
       1988 Outstanding Safety Program
Virginia Water Environment Association
       George Burke Safety Award – 1988, 1991

                                                      20
                                            VIRGINIA INITIATIVE TREATMENT
                                            PLANT (VIP)
                                            4201 Powhatan Ave.
                                            Norfolk, VA 23508

                                            Honored for 13 consecutive years for outstanding permit
                                            compliance, this treatment plant also has won prestigious
                                            engineering awards for its patented biological nutrient removal
                                            process. Now used throughout the nation, the cost effective,
                                            environmentally sound VIP process placed HRSD at the forefront
                                            of environmental innovation.


Receiving Stream: Elizabeth River                    Operation Startup: 1948 (20-MGD primary,
                                                     formerly the Lamberts Point Plant)

Capacity (Design Flow): 40 MGD                       Average Daily Flow (2004): 28.41 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary plus                   Solids Management: Incineration (ash recycled
biological nutrient removal (BNR)                    for construction fill)

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                   Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite                    dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations:
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 2.4 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. VIP has earned these prestigious awards for
outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for 13 consecu-
tive years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) – 2000
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1993, 1995

1989   American Academy of Environmental Engineers Honor Award for Research for VIP
1990   AMSA Research and Technology Award for VIP Process
1991   American Academy of Environmental Engineers Grand Prize for Design of VIP
1992   American Consulting Engineers Council, Grand Award for Engineering Excellence
       for Professional Engineering Design – VIP




                                                    21
                                           WILLIAMSBURG TREATMENT PLANT
                                           300 Ron Springs Rd.
                                           Williamsburg, VA 23185




Receiving Stream: James River (lower)                 Operation Startup: 1971 (9.6-MGD secondary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 22.5 MGD                      Average Daily Flow (2004): 14.47 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                    Solids Management: Incineration (ash recycled
phosphorus removal                                    for construction fill)

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                    Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite                     dechlorination)

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 2.4 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies
(NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Williamsburg has earned these prestigious
awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for
18 consecutive years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) – 1999, 2004
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1987, 1990, 1991, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994

U. S. EPA National Awards
        1987 Finalist for Outstanding Operations and Maintenance
U. S. EPA Region 3 Awards
        1987 1st Place for Operations and Maintenance Excellence
Virginia Water Pollution Control Association/Virginia State Water Control Board
        1987 1st Place for Excellence in Operations and Maintenance



                                                     22
                                                       YORK RIVER TREATMENT PLANT
                                                       515 Back Creek Rd.
                                                       Seaford, VA 23696


                                                       The site of Virginia’s first industrial water reuse
                                                       project, this HRSD treatment plant has been honored
                                                       for 17 consecutive years for outstanding compliance
                                                       with its environmental permits. Site: 146 acres




Receiving Stream: York River                       Operation Startup: 1983 (15-MGD secondary)

Capacity (Design Flow): 15 MGD                     Average Daily Flow (2004): 12.76 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                 Solids Management: Nutri-Green® compost
phosphorus removal

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                 Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus dechlorination)
hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.2 mg/L (monthly average); 1.3 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L (monthly average)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) to recog-
nize exceptional environmental achievements. York River has earned these prestigious awards for outstanding compliance
with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for 17 consecutive years.
Platinum (5 consecutive years of no permit violations) - 1997
Gold (no permit violations for the year) – 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 2001, 2002, 2004

U. S. EPA National Awards
        1991 2nd Place for Outstanding Operations and Maintenance
U. S. EPA Region 3 Awards
        1991 Operations and Maintenance Excellence
Virginia Water Pollution Control Association/Virginia State Water Control Board
        1991 Excellence in Operations and Maintenance
Virginia Water Environment Association
        1997    George Burke Safety Award


                                                          23
Middle Peninsula Treatment Plants
   King William Treatment Plant
Receiving Stream: Moncuin Creek to York River

Accepted into HRSD: August 1999 (Due to low flow, this facility is not in operation. Flow is be-
ing transported to West Point for treatment. Consequently, this plant is not eligible for permit
compliance awards.)

Capacity (Design Flow): 0.025 MGD              Average Daily Flow (2000): 0.004 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary                  Solids Management: Landfill

Disinfection Method: Ultraviolet light         Disinfection Process: Ultra Tech UV system

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
       BOD: 10 mg/L (monthly average); 15 mg/L (weekly maximum)
       TSS: 15 mg/L (monthly average); 22.5 mg/L (weekly maximum)
       pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
       Fecal coliform: 200 with 1,000 maximum/100 mL (geometric mean)
       Phosphorus: ----
       Dissolved oxygen: 5.0 minimum (1/day)
       Nitrogen (TKN): 3 mg/L, 0.28 KG/D (monthly average); 4.5 mg/L, 0.43 KG/D
       (weekly average)

   Mathews Treatment Plant
Receiving Stream: Put-In Creek                         Accepted into HRSD: July 1999

Capacity (Design Flow): 0.1 MGD                        Average Daily Flow (2004): 0.05MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary with                     Solids Management: Landfill
phosphorus removal

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium                     Disinfection Process: Chlorination (plus
dechlorination                                         hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Dechlorination: 0.039 mg/L (monthly average); 0.043 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        Phosphorus: 2 mg/L, 0.8 KG/D (monthly average)
        Ammonia: 3.5 mg/L (monthly average and maximum)
        Dissolved Oxygen: 4.0 minimum (1/day)


                                                 24
Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water
Agencies (NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Mathews has
earned these prestigious awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits each year since it became eligible in 2003.

Gold (No permit violations for the year) – 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 2003


   Urbanna Treatment Plant
Receiving Stream: Urbanna Creek to                     Accepted into HRSD: July 1999
 Rappahannock River

Capacity (Design Flow): 0.1 MGD                        Average Daily Flow (2004): 0.06 MGD

Level of Treatment: Secondary                          Solids Management: Landfill

Disinfection Method: Ultraviolet light                 Disinfection Process: Trojan 1000 UV sys-
tem

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 30 mg/L (monthly average); 45 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Phosphorus: ----
        Ammonia: 7.3 mg/L (seasonal monthly average and maximum, May through October)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water
Agencies (NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Mathews has
earned these prestigious awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits each year since it became eligible in 2003.

Silver (fewer than six violations) – 2003, 2004




                                                  25
   West Point Treatment Plant
Receiving Stream: Mattaponi River to York River           Accepted into HRSD: July 1999

Capacity (Design Flow): 0.6 MGD                           Average Daily Flow (2004): 0.56
MGD

Level of Treatment: Enhanced primary (trickling filter)   Solids Management: Landfill

Disinfection Method: Liquid sodium hypochlorite           Disinfection Process: Chlorination

Effluent Discharge Limitations
(reported monthly to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality):
        BOD: 36 mg/L (monthly average); 54 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        TSS: 36 mg/L (monthly average); 54 mg/L (weekly maximum)
        pH: 6.0 S.U. (minimum) to 9.0 S.U. (maximum)
        Fecal coliform: 200/100 mL (geometric mean)
        Phosphorus: no limit (but sampling is required)
        Ammonia: 32.2 mg/L, 73.13 KG/D (monthly average and maximum)

Awards Summary

Permit Compliance Awards
Peak Performance Awards are presented annually by the National Association of Clean Water
Agencies (NACWA) to recognize exceptional environmental achievements. Mathews has
earned these prestigious awards for outstanding compliance with National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits each year since it became eligible in 2003.

Gold (No permit violations for the year) – 2004
Silver (fewer than six violations) – 2003




                                              26
2.3.2   Interceptor System
        As shown in the graphic below, in HRSD’s service area, wastewater leaving a house or
business typically flows through a gravity pipeline toward the street, where it enters the city’s
or county’s collection system and continues to a pump station that is generally owned by the
locality. At this point, the wastewater is pumped into a large interceptor pipeline owned by
HRSD.


                                           Manhole

               Home


          City Collection
          System
                               City
                                                              HRSD
                              Pump
                                                               PRS
                              Station


                                               HRSD Interceptor
                                               System

                                                         HRSD
                                                     Treatment Plant




        Because the terrain in Hampton Roads is so flat, our system consists primarily of force
mains, which are pumped under pressure to deliver wastewater to the treatment plants. Pipes
under pressure are not vulnerable to inflow and infiltration (I/I). HRSD owns some large grav-
ity mains in a few older areas of Hampton Roads and some associated wet well lift pump sta-
tions. Overall, approximately 90 percent of HRSD’s interceptor system is comprised of force
mains. The remaining 10 percent consists of large gravity mains. Maps of the system are pro-
vided on the pages that follow.

        The interconnectivity of our pipelines allows HRSD to divert flows among our same-
shore treatment plants. (There is no connection between the north and south shores.) This di-
version capability allows for much flexibility as treatment plants near capacity. We can divert
flows in different directions to enable the plants to utilize capacity to the fullest potential. If a
line break occurs, we normally are able to isolate the break by valving off both sides and taking
the flows in different directions to our plants, thus eliminating massive overflows.

        Our system also utilizes a unique feature—pressure reducing stations (PRSs). These
PRSs are in-line pump stations that enable us to reduce the pressure in our force mains. Our
force mains are designed around operating criteria that have been in existence for more than 30
years. These criteria define an energy grade line for each of our plant systems that effectively
sets the maximum pressures that we will allow in our system. This applies to normal flow



                                                 27
scenarios and can be exceeded if our member localities are providing excessive amounts of I/I
into our system.

        A SCADA system allows us to monitor many different parameters within our intercep-
tor system. We have some flow and pressure meters in our system, and are in the process of
implementing a Master Metering Program (MMP). This MMP will include many flow meters
that will enable us to determine how much flow is coming from each of the localities we serve
and how much I/I is present in the flow.




                          HRSD North Shore Interceptor System


                                             28
HRSD South Shore Interceptor System




           29
3.0     CAPACITY ASSESSMENT

         HRSD’s capacity assessment and planning programs are closely linked. Our long-range
planning looks at the capacity required in the future. Our short-range planning begins by looking
at the current capacity and what should be constructed in the short-term to meet the long-range
goals. Also linked with capacity assessment are the use of our hydraulic model and data from our
in-place metering and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, which indi-
cate the level of capacity available. This chapter describes HRSD’s planning and assessment ac-
tivities, which are important to achieving our CMOM goals and to our collaboration with local
jurisdictions to eliminate or minimize overflows.


3.1     Long-Range Planning
        HRSD’s long-range planning program is a fluid process that attempts to keep abreast of
the needs of the localities we serve. Our goal is to provide the service the localities require when
they need it. Because the localities’ needs change, HRSD attempts to look well into the future to
determine the facilities that will be required by the jurisdictions at ultimate build out. We look at
existing pipelines and facilities, and then ensure that each new addition fits into the overall large
puzzle. The key tool for this process is the Development Plan (48), which is described below.

3.1.1   Development Plan
        The Development Plan is a projection of the HRSD interceptor system and treatment
plant improvements needed to accommodate future wastewater flows generated by residential,
commercial, industrial and other growth within the HRSD service area. The plan projects re-
quired interceptor system and treatment plant improvements over the present and three future
phases, with the final phase representing the ultimate development of the area. The three individ-
ual future phases are not tied to particular dates, but rather to projected populations and/or ex-
pected wastewater flows. This method eliminates confusion resulting from anticipated projected
populations and expected wastewater flows not corresponding to future target dates. This ap-
proach also provides HRSD with flexibility to adapt to changing growth trends. The Develop-
ment Plan is developed and presented according to each individual interceptor system serving the
local jurisdictions within HRSD.

        The 2000 Plan was developed as a joint effort between HRSD and our Trust Consultant,
CH2MHill, Inc. CH2MHill collected census data and other population information from the local
planning districts and prepared projections of residential, commercial, industrial, military, tourist
and other populations for each census tract or traffic zone within HRSD. HRSD updated the Col-
lection System Maps to designate the individual HRSD and local jurisdiction pump station ser-
vice areas discharging directly into the interceptor system. CH2MHill prepared Collection
System Map Overlays to superimpose the census tract and traffic zone areas over the pump sta-
tion service areas. HRSD then used the overlays to break down the census tract and traffic zone
population information into individual pump station service area populations. We subsequently
used the present day population information to generate water consumption flows from each in-
dividual pump station service area based on actual water consumption records. Any flow differ-
ences between the projected and existing flows were balanced and resolved to correct the census
tract and traffic zone flow allocations.



                                                 30
        The corrected present day water consumption flows were used to calibrate the Interceptor
System Model for the present phase condition. Future phase populations were used to generate
corresponding wastewater flows, and new interceptor lines were identified and approximately lo-
cated to provide future service to new areas. The Interceptor System Model was run for numer-
ous trials for each future phase to evaluate capacity, optimize the configuration and boundaries
of individual interceptor systems, select and optimize the sizing of new interceptor lines, deter-
mine the need and location of new pressure reducing stations, and determine other required im-
provements.

       The first section of the Development Plan addresses system development in the South
Shore municipalities served by the Army Base, Atlantic, Chesapeake-Elizabeth, Nansemond, and
VIP interceptor systems. The second section addresses the North Shore and Middle Peninsula
portions of HRSD served by the Boat Harbor, James River, Williamsburg, York River, Urbanna,
King William, West Point and Mathews interceptor systems.

       The plan contains the following elements:
       • Population projections
       • Water consumption projections
       • Projected interceptor system and treatment plant expansion improvements
       • Interceptor system policies
       • Plan for elimination of infiltration/inflow
       • Industrial wastewater regulations

        Existing and projected population data were obtained from the Hampton Roads Planning
District and the Middle Peninsula Planning District and verified by each jurisdiction. Wastewater
flows were then calculated from the population data. These existing wastewater flows were used
to verify the existing conditions in Phase I. Projected flows were used to estimate future condi-
tions shown in Phases II and III. Phases II and III provide for the orderly expansion of facilities
to serve projected needs for the next five to fifteen years.

        Phase IV was developed based on an ultimate build out projection of the area, and is used
to determine the ultimate facilities needed to serve all areas within HRSD boundaries in the fu-
ture. The facilities shown in Phase IV are for HRSD use and planning. Current city/county plan-
ning may not show all areas developing in the next 20 years, and they may never be developed.
Phase II and III are intermediate phases providing for the orderly expansion of facilities to serve
the ultimate condition.

        Each phase of the plan defines when facilities are needed based on flows then occurring
within the area. Whether an area is growing faster or slower than predicted makes no difference
to the plan because only the actual flows or subsequent pressures indicate when an improvement
is needed. Therefore, one area can be in Phase II and another in Phase IV of the plan.

       HRSD policies outlining the design and operation of the interceptor systems are also in-
cluded in this plan.



                                                31
3.2     Short-Range Planning
        HRSD’s short-range planning covers the period of one to eight years and is primarily
guided by the Development Plan. We ensure that all short term plans fit ultimately into the long
term goals. The Development Plan tells us what facilities are planned and their approximate lo-
cation. The Facilities Management Plan that is prepared annually looks at when a project needs
to be constructed and better defines the actual location. The next step is to include the project in
our five-year Capital Improvement Program (CIP), which plans the funding for the project.

        HRSD uses several tools to help plan for our short term needs. We use our GIS mapping
to help track SSOs. Showing the locations of spills on a map may help identify a trend that indi-
cates the need to rehabilitate a particular pipeline. We also track the location of our pump sta-
tions that are running a standby pump to meet flow requirements in wet weather. These locations
shown graphically point out areas of excessive I/I. We can then work with the locality to identify
areas in their system that may need rehabilitation. When our Master Metering Program is in
place, the flow data will also help identify areas of high I/I. Our Facility Management Plan de-
scribed below is also a process that is used to identify capacity related issues and put them into
the CIP for action.

3.2.1 Facilities Management Plan (FMP)
       HRSD serves the local jurisdictions by providing needed wastewater interceptor and
treatment facilities in a timely manner. Providing these facilities requires HRSD to monitor
growth, needs and changing conditions. The Facilities Management Plan is used as a reference
document to monitor growth, needs and changing conditions, and to present a flexible time
schedule for providing new facilities.

         The Facilities Management Plan 2005 evaluates the existing conditions in HRSD's interceptor
systems and wastewater treatment plants, and projects future conditions and needs for the next
eight years. It is used to supplement the Development Plan 2000 and to determine when the fa-
cilities identified in the Development Plan are actually needed. These facilities are then placed in
the five-year Capital Improvement Program for implementation.

        The required implementation time for a new project can be lengthy. Completion of engi-
neer selection, preliminary engineering report preparation, project design, regulatory review and
approval acquisition, advertisement, bid, construction and project start up requires approximately
two years for a pump station or interceptor line and approximately six years for a treatment plant.
Therefore, by looking eight years into the future, HRSD is given a six-year lead time to under-
take a pump station or interceptor line project and a two-year lead time to undertake a treatment
plant project. Thus, the Facilities Management Plan provides for planning and implementing new
projects well before existing facilities exceed their intended capacity.

         The Interceptor Systems Computer Model is used to evaluate the existing capacity of the
interceptor system and the treatment plants for the Facilities Management Plan. Actual water
consumption flows for the previous year are used in the evaluation, which indicates whether any
part of the interceptor system or any treatment plants are reaching capacity. If necessary, the Fa-
cilities Management Plan presents a plan to divert flows, construct a parallel or new interceptor



                                                32
line, construct a pressure reducing station, or expand a treatment plant. The model is also used to
analyze the diversion capabilities existing within the interceptor system, taking into account the
capacities of the interceptor system and treatment plants.

        In the Facilities Management Plan, the actual flow, hydraulic loadings, total suspended
solids (TSS) loadings and biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings for each treatment plant
are shown graphically along with the projections of these items based on the most recent rate of
growth predicted by the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC) and the Mid-
dle Peninsula Planning District Commission. The growth trends for each interceptor system are
reviewed annually and updated as needed to simulate the actual growth as closely as possible for
planning purposes. The BOD and TSS loading design capacity, in addition to the more conven-
tional hydraulic design capacity, are also checked.

        Due to the uniqueness of the HRSD Interceptor Systems, several plants on each shore are
interconnected. This allows diversion of flows from one plant to another to assist in maintenance
or if problems arise; therefore, there are times when some pipes may be under capacity. Our long
range Development Plan ensures that capacities of pipes are provided to meet the localities’
needs. When pipes are over capacity, we may have the option of diverting flows in different di-
rections to relieve the situation. If not, HRSD will plan to build parallel pipes or pumping sys-
tems as necessary to ensure we have the capacity that is needed.

3.2.2   Capital Improvement Program (CIP)
        HRSD prepares a Capital Improvement Program each year. The CIP is a planning tool
that identifies individual capital projects currently underway or proposed to be undertaken short
term (over the next five years) and long term (over the following five to fifteen years). The CIP
summarizes each project and provides the name, description, justification, cost estimate, funding,
schedule and priority.

        The CIP document is not a commitment by HRSD to undertake or provide specific im-
provements by specific dates. Projects may be deleted, delayed or otherwise modified signifi-
cantly. New projects not included in the CIP document may be proposed and authorized at any
time. Therefore, the CIP is submitted to the HRSD Commission for concurrence as a general
guide for undertaking HRSD capital projects, not for formal approval or adoption. The Commis-
sion formally authorizes individual projects through their approval and appropriation of funds for
engineering agreements, construction contracts or other activities for the project.

        A capital project involves expenditures to acquire or add assets of a relatively permanent
nature, such as property or equipment. The CIP is typically for large capital projects for major
new facilities or expansions and improvements requiring engineering and/or construction ser-
vices such as:

        •   Studies preceding or likely to result in new facilities
        •   New administrative facilities, expansions, major improvements and major renovations
        •   New pump stations and major improvements
        •   New pipelines, replacements and major rehabilitations
        •   New treatment plants, expansions and major improvements.



                                                33
        A Facilities Maintenance Plan is prepared as a separate, companion document to the CIP
to identify large facility maintenance projects such as coatings, concrete repair, paving, roof re-
placements and window replacements. The Facilities Maintenance Plan will provide a five-year
projection with current fiscal year projects included in either the current fiscal year improvement
budget or the CIP.

        The CIP document is submitted to the Commission each March as part of the overall
budget package. Preliminary action occurs in April, and final action is taken in May. Depart-
ments may propose new projects at any time by submitting a Project Request to the Engineering
Department. New projects are usually evaluated for their need and priority only when preparing
the CIP. However, the General Manager may decide at any time to initiate an existing or new
project due to an emergency or other condition justifying immediate action.


3.3     Routine Assessment
        As new connections are made to the system, new developments are planned, or new busi-
nesses express an interest in service, we update our plans and run the ForceMain hydraulic model
to evaluate the effects on HRSD’s system. All Interceptor Systems Department engineers can run
the hydraulic model and evaluate the results.

3.3.1  Hydraulic Model
       HRSD utilizes the ForceMain hydraulic model by McKim & Creed. This model can
simulate both gravity and force main sewers. It completely models the HRSD interceptor sys-
tem, including wet-well pump stations, pressure reducing stations, pressure control valves and
siphons. The model is linked to our GIS system and eventually will be interactive with it.

        HRSD uses the model to simulate several scenarios. The actual setup of the system, util-
izing actual water consumption, is used to check any changes planned—either for emergencies
such as breaks or to help divert flow from one treatment plant to another because of plant prob-
lems. It is used to determine how new connections will affect the system and the amount of ca-
pacity remaining. The model can simulate average and peak conditions. By using data that will
be obtained when the Master Metering Program is complete, the model will show the effects of
excessive I/I.

        The model is also used for planning purposes. HRSD determines the ultimate build out
condition of the system and models that scenario to determine the size of the pipes and where
they will be constructed. Then 10- and 20-year scenarios are modeled to determine what facili-
ties may be needed based on projected flows. An annual update of the operating model is utilized
to view current conditions based on actual flows and then to look at what facilities are needed for
the long-term plan.

        HRSD provides data from the model to all the member localities for their use in evaluat-
ing their collection systems.




                                                34
3.3.2   Water Consumption
        HRSD bills each customer based on metered water consumption. Each customer is coded
to a pump station that eventually pumps into the HRSD system. The actual water consumption is
averaged for a year and the average is then coded as input into the HRSD hydraulic model. We
assume all the water consumption is returned to the sewer system and the model. The model util-
izes a peaking factor to simulate allowable I/I and a safety factor. Metered flow in the interceptor
system can compare the water consumption flow versus the actual flow to determine the amount
of excessive I/I.

3.3.3    Master Metering Program
         The Master Metering Program (MMP) is the long-term and short-term monitoring of
flows and pressures at various locations throughout the HRSD interceptor system. A Master Me-
ter is a precision flow or pressure meter installed in the HRSD interceptor system to provide reli-
able data.

        To efficiently manage resources, the program has been developed to automate a number
of the data-related functions involved with master metering. The goals of the MMP are to:
        • Benchmark and monitor the I/I progress of jurisdictions
        • Monitor and assess the capacity and integrity of the HRSD Interceptor System
        • Calibrate the “Force Main” model of the HRSD Interceptor System

       The MMP process begins with data collection by a meter in the system. The data is
transmitted via UHF radio to a Data Relay Site (DRS), where the radio signal is transferred to the
Data Management Center (DMC) via a T1 data transmission line. The data can also reach the
DMC by use of cellular technology. HRSD personnel can access from the DMC raw data that
has been time and date stamped. The data collected at the DMC can be:

        •   Stored
        •   Retrieved
        •   Displayed
        •   Used to perform calculations
        •   Used to calibrate HRSD interceptor system model
        •   Used for predictive maintenance, alarming, historical referencing and troubleshooting
            of the interceptor system

         The MMP allows HRSD to pursue a systems approach in managing its treatment plant,
pump station and pipeline operations with specific emphasis on the abatement of I/I. Abatement
of I/I, application of good assets management practices, systems thinking, and the elimination of
overflows are essential elements of a regulatory compliance program. The MMP helps locate ar-
eas where I/I needs to be reduced to recover pipeline capacity, avoid system overflows and en-
hance the treatment plant process.

        The pressure in a force main varies directly with flow; therefore, pressure can be used as
an I/I indicator. The MMP monitors the pressure at various locations in the HRSD interceptor
system. In the HRSD pressure policy, HRSD establishes a maximum pressure (head) condition
dependent upon the location of the jurisdiction’s connection to the HRSD interceptor system and



                                                35
the operating elevation of the treatment plant serving the connection, which is an important
pump station design factor.

        To achieve the goals of the MMP, HRSD has begun to:

        •   Install pressure and flow meters throughout the interceptor system
        •   Remotely collect and manage data
        •   Integrate SCADA and environmental data into the data management software of the
            MMP
        •   Share the data with other appropriate entities

3.3.4   Reliability
        The Interceptor System is a complex manifold of gravity and force main pipelines spread
through many jurisdictions. The age of many pipes in the interceptor and collection systems
makes monitoring them for deterioration, blockages, cracks and collapses a necessity. Part of the
Interceptor Systems team includes an eight-person Reliability Section. Established in 1989, the
section was tasked with two primary functions: to abate infiltration/inflow (including the elimi-
nation of overflows) and to enhance integrity of the interceptor system.

       Through flow monitoring, smoke testing and other investigative methods, the section has
worked very closely with HRSD member jurisdictions to reduce I/I. The increased emphasis on
eliminating SSOs has also highlighted the need for long-term monitoring, continuing internal in-
spection and evaluation of pipeline condition and capacity assessment.

        A major initiative within the section has been gathering data remotely. This allows
analysis of I/I data from a variety of field equipment such as open channel flow meters, closed
conduit flow meters, system pressure transducers, instrumented rain gages and groundwater level
monitors. The data collected from these meters is used by Interceptor Systems to accurately as-
sess the capacity of the gravity lines and force mains within a studied service area. Pump run
times can be collected through other metering at pump stations, such as SCADA. These pump
runtimes, along with SSOs collected in a specified service area, provide the Reliability Section
another tool to assess I/I during rainfall events.

        As part of enhancing the integrity of HRSD’s network of gravity mains, the section's
closed circuit television (CCTV) program inspects all HRSD gravity pipelines (more than
280,000 feet) on a five-year cycle. Another aspect of maintaining interceptor system integrity is
monitoring impressed current cathodic protection systems, which protect eight HRSD pipeline
river crossings from corrosion.

        Much of the section’s work is focused on inspections, data collection, failure prediction
and analysis (including trend analysis) and identification of maintenance or repair projects
needed to improve the reliability of the interceptor system. The Reliability Section is proactive in
bringing interceptor system deficiencies to light so decisions can be made concerning system re-
pairs and improvements.




                                                36
3.4      Consent Orders
         HRSD is currently a third party to consent orders (4) between the City of Norfolk and the
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and between the City of Hampton and the
DEQ. Both consent orders are to eliminate SSOs. Because HRSD’s system is in good condition,
there is very little that HRSD is being ordered to complete. Most pipeline rehabilitation is being
required of the cities. Unfortunately, both cities send excessive I/I to the HRSD interceptor sys-
tem, which causes overflows. HRSD is installing flow and pressure meters in the system to de-
termine the amount of flow being sent to our plants. We can then evaluate the data to identify the
amount of improvement that will be seen from rehabilitation work. Norfolk has completed a
sanitary sewer evaluation study (SSES) of their system and prepared a long-term control plan
(LTCP). They are now under a five-year order to complete the first phase of their plan. Hampton
is in the process of evaluating their system and will then prepare their LTCP.
       EPA has indicated they want the entire Hampton Roads area under consent orders by the
end of September 2007. We are currently working with regional utility directors to plan the best
approach.

        The Industrial Waste Division (IWD) of HRSD’s Water Quality Department oversees the
military facilities in the Hampton Roads area. These large bases have sewerage collection sys-
tems that contribute large amounts of I/I to our system. Because these bases are considered in-
dustrial, IWD controls what they discharge to our system. They are currently issuing
administrative orders to the bases to have them perform sanitary sewer evaluation studies of their
systems and then develop plans to correct any problems within their systems.




                                               37
4.0     MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

        The HRSD quality management approach, which encourages innovation and teamwork,
has resulted in creative and productive thinking that has distinguished HRSD over the years. The
directors of HRSD’s five departments (Engineering, Finance and Administration, Interceptor
Systems, Treatment and Water Quality) and the General Manager comprise HRSD’s leadership
group, the Quality Steering Team (QST). The General Manager establishes objectives and pro-
vides guidance to the five departments. The departments operate as cohesive teams, using assets
and resources in the most effective manner possible. This chapter describes various HRSD man-
agement programs that facilitate attainment of our CMOM goals and provides information about
the divisions of each department and their functions.


4.1     HRSD Management Overview
        HRSD has established a mission, vision, goals and values that express our support for
quality improvement. We realize that a motivated, knowledgeable and skilled workforce is vital
to our success. HRSD has demonstrated its commitment to training and continuous improvement
by implementing a strategic planning process, creating an apprenticeship program (the first in
our industry), funding continuing education, developing numerous programs to enhance quality
and build leadership skills and initiating an organizational development program to help our em-
ployees achieve their professional goals.

4.1.1  Quality Organization
       HRSD implemented its Quality Improvement program more than twelve years ago. Our
Leadership and Management Program (LAMP), which has been embraced at all levels of the or-
ganization, made a lasting change to HRSD.

       The QST, HRSD’s leadership group, guides HRSD’s quality improvement program.
Three facilitator groups (Quality, Roadmap, and Workplace) comprised of trained facilitators
from each department work together as ad-hoc teams to further the advancement of quality. The
Quality Manager leads the facilitators.

        Quality facilitators from each department act as internal consultants to assist the organi-
zation in implementing and maintaining the quality improvement and strategic planning proc-
esses The facilitators are trainers and change agents. They assist the QST in developing and
deploying the annual quality improvement plan to all parts of the organization.

       Roadmap facilitators work to implement problem-solving teams. The facilitators train
employees on the Roadmap Process to Problem Solving; work with management, team leaders
and members to assist with problems associated with teams; facilitate meetings as necessary; and
evaluate the team process.

      Workplace facilitators, representing each department, train employees on quality im-
provement principles, and direct employees to sources of help in quality improvement matters.




                                                38
A.   Annual Planning Process
         HRSD’s Annual Planning process is a combination of both Strategic Planning
     and Quality Improvement Planning. Blending Strategic Planning and Quality Im-
     provement Planning into one process gives the organization direction while con-
     stantly improving what we do.

        HRSD uses Strategic Planning to guide the direction of our business. Strategic
     Planning defines the five-year business oriented goals and establishes a Strategic
     Plan to accomplish these goals. The Strategic Plan is reviewed at HRSD’s Annual
     Planning Day (typically in September) and updated as necessary. Updates are
     documented in the HRSD Annual Plan.

         HRSD uses the Quality Improvement Planning Process to continually improve
     HRSD’s internal processes through teamwork. Quality Improvement projects are
     identified at HRSD’s Annual Planning Day and at individual department planning
     days. The Action Plans associated with these Quality Improvement projects are also
     documented in the HRSD Annual Plan.

        Strategic Planning and Quality Improvement are done under the guidance of
     HRSD’s Mission, Vision, Values and Quality Policy. The following graphic shows
     how the Strategic Planning and Quality Improvement Planning processes relate and
     work together to create the HRSD Annual Plan.


              Annual Planning Process
              Strategic Planning & Quality Improvement Planning
                                                 VALUES

                        Vision                   Mission   Quality Policy


                       Functional Goals



                     Strategic Objectives


                      Strategic Planning                         Quality
                         Action Items                          Improvement
                                                                Project(s)

                      Strategic Planning                   Quality Improvement
                         Action Plans                             Project
                                                              Action Plan(s)


                                                 Annual Plan




                                            39
     HRSD’s Annual Planning Day encompasses the following general activities:

     1.   The Strategic Plan is reviewed and updated as necessary (see Section IV.C. of
          HRSD’s Annual Plan (9, p. IV-2) for specific actions). The updated Strategic
          Planning Action Plans are documented in the HRSD Annual Plan.

     2.   Quality Improvement Team Leaders inform senior leadership of progress
          made by Quality Improvement Teams working over the previous year. Re-
          vised Action Plans are documented in the HRSD Annual Plan.

     3.   New Quality Improvement Projects are identified during Annual Planning
          Day (see Section V.C. of HRSD’s Annual Plan (9, p. V-1) for specific ac-
          tions). Action Plans for projects selected by the QST will be documented in
          the HRSD Annual Plan.

         Departmental Annual Planning Days are generally held in September or Octo-
     ber. Using the Quality Improvement Planning Process outlined in Section V.C. (9,
     p. V-1) each Department identifies Quality Improvement Projects. After receiving
     suggestions from department leadership, the department QST decides which Qual-
     ity Improvement Projects to undertake during the next year. Action Plans for these
     projects are documented in the HRSD Annual Plan.

          The HRSD Annual Plan is a record of Annual Planning Day and the subsequent
     processes set in motion by the Annual Planning Day. Action Plans for projects iden-
     tified during HRSD Annual Planning Day and Department Planning Days are final-
     ized by the end of November for inclusion in HRSD’s Annual Plan for the
     upcoming year.

B.   Strategic Planning
        It is useful to differentiate Strategic Planning from Quality Improvement Plan-
     ning. Strategic Planning concentrates on what needs to be done whereas Quality
     Improvement Planning concentrates on how things get done.

         Strategic Planning defines the five-year business oriented goals and establishes
     a Strategic Plan to accomplish these goals. The Strategic Plan expresses the Vision
     of HRSD and attempts to guide our efforts in that direction. Individual action items
     and action plans are developed to direct the work to be accomplished. The Strategic
     Plan identifies how these accomplishments will be measured and specifies who is
     responsible for ensuring that they are achieved. Responsibility for achieving each
     milestone is assigned to a specific position or work group within the organization.
     These represent individual job assignments rather than team leader assignments.
     Therefore, many of these milestones can be worked on at the same time. This is dif-
     ferent from Quality Improvement Planning, which is described in Section V (9, p.
     V-1).

         The individual action items and plans in the Strategic Plan are included in the
     HRSD Annual Plan. The Strategic Plan is reviewed annually and updated as neces-
     sary.



                                       40
    The Strategic Planning process used by HRSD for the five-year strategic plan
just completed was a multiphase process consisting of the following steps:

  The HRSD Quality Steering Team developed Functional Goals to support the
HRSD Mission and Vision.

1.   The senior leadership of HRSD developed a series of Strategic Objectives
     needed to support the Functional Goals.
2.   Teams were used to develop preliminary action plans for achieving these ob-
     jectives.
3.   The results of the above were shared with a cross section of the HRSD organi-
     zation as well as the Commission in a roundtable discussion/workshop format.
4.   The HRSD QST then modified the plans based upon the feedback from the
     roundtable discussion groups, the senior leadership of HRSD and the Com-
     mission.
5.   The Strategic Plan was developed as a series of goals, objectives, issues, ac-
     tion items, and action plans. The issues were added by the QST to assist the
     organization in understanding the reasons for the action plans. Not all the is-
     sues were addressed by the action plans because it is not believed that we have
     resources to address all the issues at this time. However, all the identified is-
     sues were left in the plan so that the ideas would not be lost.

    The Strategic Plan is reviewed on an annual basis at HRSD’s Annual Planning
Day. In conjunction with Annual Planning Day, the following general actions take
place:

1.   Prior to HRSD’s Annual Planning Day, the Directors (Sponsors) in charge of
     Functional Goals update their proposed Strategic Planning Action Plans for
     the upcoming year.

2.   On Annual Planning Day, the Directors (Sponsors) discuss accomplishments
     of the previous year.

3.   The Directors (Sponsors) present their proposed Strategic Planning Action
     Plans for the upcoming year to senior leadership.

4.   Senior leadership discusses the Action Plans and suggests revisions.

5.   The QST considers these suggestions, makes necessary revisions to the plans,
     and finalizes the updated Strategic Planning Action Plans (to be included in
     the Annual Plan).

    HRSD’s Strategic Planning Process, presented schematically on the following
page, lists the Vision, functional goals and strategic objectives for the five-year stra-
tegic plan completed in 2004. These will be updated when the new strategic plan is
written.


                                    41
                                                                                HRSD
                                                                      Strategic Planning Process

                                        Vision                                            Mission
                          To provide competitive, world class               To prevent pollution, protect public
                         wastewater facilities and services with           health, and support community devel-
                          positive environmental, regulatory,              opment by providing wastewater col-
                              public and political impacts                 lection, treatment and related services




                    Provide Adequate System              Protect and Enhance the En-                   Provide Effective Resource                       Provide Related Services
 Functional                 Capacity                              vironment                                   Management                                Sponsor: Ross Schlobohm
 Goals                 Sponsor: Ed Romm                     Sponsor: Guy Aydlett                      Sponsors: David Waltrip and
                                                                                                            John Maniscalco




                Provide Com-     Provide Com-          Anticipate,    Provide Com-          Provide         Provide        Provide      Provide Ef-         Provide Compre-    Provide
 Strategic
                 prehensive        prehensive         Influence &     prehensive En-       Effective       Effective      Effective    fective Utili-       hensive External    Other
 Objectives
                System Plan-     System Opera-         Implement        vironmental        Utilization     Utilization   Utilization     zation of          Communications      New
                    ning              tions            Regulatory      Enhancement         of Human        of Finan-     of Physical    Technology                             Services
                                                     Requirements                          Resources        cial Re-     Resources
                                                                                                            sources



 Action Items




Action Plans




                                                                                           42
        C.   Quality Improvement Planning Process
                 Quality Improvement Planning concentrates on how things get done whereas
             Strategic Planning concentrates on what needs to be done. Quality Improvement at
             HRSD involves a variety of methods for improving the internal processes within
             HRSD. Typically, the Quality Improvement Planning effort focuses on process
             improvement issues that will enhance organizational efficiency, reduce waste and
             reduce cost.

                A Quality Improvement Project is one that is intended to improve a work
             process that supports one or more of the organization’s functional goals. More
             specifically, HRSD Quality Improvement Projects should:

             •    Be internal to HRSD
             •    Improve a work process
             •    Not establish new work ventures (this is covered in Strategic Planning)
             •    Not create or update policies

                  The Quality Improvement Planning Process used by HRSD is a process con-
             sisting of the following general steps:

             1.    At HRSD’s Annual Planning Day, senior leadership meets to brainstorm
                   ideas for Quality Improvement projects needed for existing HRSD proc-
                   esses.
             2.    Through a voting and ranking process, HRSD’s senior leadership prioritizes
                   the proposed Quality Improvement ideas.
             3.    After a review of priorities, senior leadership suggests possible Quality Im-
                   provement Projects to the QST.
             4.    The QST decides which Quality Improvement Projects HRSD will under-
                   take during the next year and assigns a sponsor for each project.
             5.    The Team Leader prepares an Action Plan for each of these Quality Im-
                   provement Projects.
             6.    These individual Action Plans will be included in the HRSD Annual Plan.
             7.    Following a process similar to the above, each Department holds a Depart-
                   mental Annual Planning Day to identify Quality Improvement Projects
                   needed for existing departmental processes.
             8.    Action Plans for Departmental Quality Improvement Projects will also be
                   included in the HRSD Annual Plan.

                 In the early years of HRSD’s Quality Improvement efforts, the Annual Quality
             Improvement Planning Process was a separate exercise. However, this process be-
             comes most effective when integrated with the Strategic Plan, which was accom-
             plished for the first time in November 2000.

4.1.2  Finance and Administration Department
       Ensuring responsive customer service, a sound financial foundation and effective in-
formation systems are the responsibilities of the Finance and Administration Department.



                                                43
A.   Accounting and Finance Division
         The Accounting and Finance Division is responsible for HRSD’s accounting
     operations and treasury functions. The division prepares a five-year financial plan
     that details projected income versus projected expenses. They also utilize our five-
     year projections to determine when we might need to borrow money or go out for
     bond issues. This division also handles fiscal affairs such as preparing statements,
     budgets, management reports and payroll.

     •   Rates
             HRSD is funded solely by user fees paid by households and businesses
         that use our services. Even though we political subdivision of the Common-
         wealth of Virginia, we receive no state appropriations. HRSD’s Accounting
         Division determines our rates, which are approved by the Commission, by us-
         ing a model that evaluates the cost of our treatment facilities. We pride our-
         selves on operating a lean and efficient organization. The average annual fee
         per residential household is $162 per year. We evaluate these user fees and our
         total rate schedule on an annual basis. HRSD contracts with a consultant to re-
         view our rates and ensure that they are reasonable based on our actual operat-
         ing costs. Since HRSD is strictly a wastewater utility, none of our fees are
         used for other purposes.

B.   Customer Information Services (CIS) Division
         Answering ratepayers’ questions, sending bills and posting payments are all
     the work of the Customer Information Services Division. HRSD’s CIS Division is
     responsible for the billing and collection of wastewater treatment charges related
     to approximately 468,000 customer accounts. Customer accounts are established
     and maintained based on the water and sewer connection information provided by
     the seventeen cities, towns and counties within HRSD’s 3,100 square mile service
     area. The periodic billing of wastewater treatment charges is based on the metered
     water consumption information provided by the nineteen public and private water
     purveyors serving the citizens of these cities, towns, and counties.

     •   Hampton Roads Utility Billing Service (HRUBS)
              HRSD offers municipalities our Hampton Roads Utility Billing Service.
         HRUBS provides bill printing and payment processing at no cost to participat-
         ing municipalities. Instead of receiving multiple bills, customers receive one
         bill through HRUBS.

             HRUBS is a cooperative and cost-effective billing and payment processing
         service offered by HRSD to the cities, towns and counties within HRSD’s ser-
         vice area. Through HRUBS, public utility charges for water, sewer mainte-
         nance and related services are included with HRSD’s wastewater treatment
         charges on a single bill to the shared customer. HRUBS benefits the participat-
         ing localities by providing bill presentment and payment processing at no cost.
         HRUBS benefits the shared ratepayers by providing the convenience of paying



                                       44
                both water utility and HRSD charges on the same bill. Currently, five of the
                seventeen localities—Chesapeake, James City County, Norfolk, Smithfield
                and Urbanna—participate in HRUBS.

        C.   Human Resources Division
                 It is the job of the Human Resources Division to maintain employee records,
             handle employee recruiting and orientation and administer the employee benefits
             program. In addition, this division reviews job classification, provides administra-
             tive oversight and support for the apprenticeship program, manages Worker’s
             Compensation and oversees employee policy administration.

        D.   Procurement Division
                 The Procurement Division manages the purchase of equipment, supplies and
             services. It also is responsible for procurement policy and handling of surplus
             property.

        E.   Information Technology Division
                 The Information Technology Division is responsible for information systems
             management and provides maintenance and operation of HRSD’s wide area net-
             work, local area network, information management systems, telephone systems
             and support services for personal computers. The division also has staff capable of
             writing computer programs for many of the automated systems utilized within
             HRSD.

4.1.3   Engineering Department
        The Engineering Department is responsible for HRSD facility design, construction and
specialized maintenance. The Design and Construction Division works with contractors and
subcontractors to ensure that work is performed in a manner consistent with our quality stan-
dards, fiscal policies and environmental commitment. The Facility Support Division provides
electrical, automotive and carpentry services, operates a machine shop, and includes Physical
Plant Maintenance.

        A.   Design and Construction Division
                 The Director of Engineering has procurement authority and oversees the selec-
             tion of all engineering design work and contractors to construct HRSD facilities.
             The Engineering Department, which primarily oversees Engineering Design and
             Construction, has three documents that guide and detail its procedures: Engineer-
             ing Project Guidelines Manual, Standards and Preferences for Engineered Con-
             struction Projects (32), and Section III of The HRSD Procurement Manual (53),
             which outlines procurement authority and is in accordance with Virginia procure-
             ment law. All three of these manuals are in printed form and are available on the
             HRSD Intranet.

                 Generally, when a construction project is begun, employees from the operating
             department of Interceptor Systems or Treatment are involved in both the engineer
             selection and the design review process. Depending on the size of the project,



                                               45
     other involved parties may include a representative from the DEQ and a represen-
     tative from the locality where the construction will take place. This enables them
     to become familiar with all aspects of the design and have a better understanding
     of the project as they review the plans and specifications for permit approvals.

         HRSD construction and rehabilitation projects are normally supervised and in-
     spected through a contractual arrangement with the design engineer. In-house staff
     may inspect smaller projects. As part of the plans and specifications for new pro-
     jects, strict procedures for testing the facilities are implemented and overseen by
     the design engineer, engineering staff project manager, and inspector. As stated in
     Standards and Preferences for Engineered Construction Projects (32, p. V-1),
     HRSD operates and maintains an interceptor system and the localities operate and
     maintain their own collection systems. Due to this arrangement, it is very rare that
     HRSD is involved in the construction of manholes or gravity lines. Any new de-
     velopment connecting to HRSD’s system goes through a review process that re-
     quires I/I be certified by an engineer as part of the final approval to connect to
     HRSD.

         Because HRSD is required to abide by the state procurement laws, it must bid
     out equipment and components for our use. When it is necessary to continue the
     use of equipment already purchased, HRSD will sole source the equipment that is
     necessary to hook onto existing systems or to minimize the amount of training and
     spare parts necessary to run multiple systems.

         Once projects are completed by the Engineering Department, appropriate
     documentation is maintained in the Drafting Division or is forwarded to the indi-
     vidual departments for their use. This information becomes part of the Document
     Management System that is accessible through the Intranet and is incorporated
     into the Geographic Information System as necessary. The Engineering Depart-
     ment oversees any warranties on equipment or construction for the period stated in
     the construction documents.

B.   Real Estate
         HRSD has a Real Estate Manager who is a certified Right-of-Way Agent. Our
     Real Estate Manager negotiates the acquisition of easements and the purchase of
     real property needed for pipelines, pump stations, treatment plants and other facili-
     ties. We normally obtain an independent appraisal by an MAI certified appraiser
     to establish the value of a property, present an offer to the landowner when at-
     tempting to purchase easements or real property, and then negotiate the actual
     price. We give additional consideration to such things as crop damage, removal of
     fences, and damage to landscaping. Our standard easement documentation is used
     to ensure we obtain the specific rights needed.

         In instances where property owners refuse to communicate or are unreason-
     able in their demands, HRSD can condemn. That is always the last resort. A
     “take” is filed and the appraised value is recorded with the court. Then HRSD has



                                       46
             the right to obtain the property. A court action uses citizens to hear the case and
             decide on the value of the property that both parties must agree to. Our attorney
             prepares the actual deed and records. All sales or purchases of property must be
             approved by the HRSD Commission.

                 Our deeds and plats are incorporated in a database that is available on our
             Intranet. All deed information will be placed into our GIS system, providing rapid
             access to easement ownership records and expedition of necessary line work.

                 The Real Estate Manager also works with property owners during or after con-
             struction to resolve any problems.

        C.   Facility Support Division
                 Our Engineering Department has Automotive, Carpentry, Electrical and Ma-
             chine Shops on the north shore and south shore that provide service to the rest of
             HRSD. Our automotive employees maintain 327 vehicles and 24 emergency gen-
             erators at our pump stations and treatment plants. HRSD carpenters build cabinets
             and take care of office construction and modifications. Our electricians provide
             electrical service to all our treatment plants and pump stations and maintain our
             office and laboratory facilities. They also have an Instrumentation section that
             maintains all our meters and instrumentation. HRSD machinists can do most ma-
             chining necessary to maintain and rebuild equipment. The Physical Plant Mainte-
             nance Section is responsible for the overall maintenance of our buildings, parking
             facilities and grounds. They have an inspection program to determine what needs
             to be done and incorporate those projects into HRSD’s capital improvement pro-
             gram. They procure contractual services to do needed repairs on these facilities.

4.1.4   Treatment Department
        Treatment, the largest department, is responsible for discharge permit compliance, op-
eration, and maintenance of HRSD’s treatment plants. Each large plant has its own manager
and is run independently as a part of the overall system. The Small Communities Division (re-
sponsible for four small treatment plants and 23 pump stations) and Safety Division are part of
the Treatment Department, also. Detailed information about each plant is provided in Section
2.3.1.

        A.   Safety Division
                  The HRSD Safety Division is responsible for the overall safety program of all
             departments. They perform routine safety inspections and ensure that all of our fa-
             cilities and workers are meeting safety requirements. They provide many levels of
             training to employees on safety, health, and first aid. The Safety Division oversees
             the security of all facilities the overall disaster preparedness efforts, including the
             hurricane plan. Detailed descriptions of our safety programs are provided in Sec-
             tion 4.6. Safety training information is provided in Section 4.4.




                                                47
4.1.5    Water Quality Department
         The Water Quality Department ensures that water discharged by industries and busi-
nesses into the treatment systems and the treated wastewater that is returned to the environment
is safe and clean. The Technical Services Division oversees a number of environmental issues,
including environmental monitoring programs, and performs all reporting required by our per-
mits. Ensuring industrial permit compliance according to regulations, the Industrial Waste Di-
vision monitors wastewater through toxic and surcharge surveys and sampling. They conduct
regular inspections at industrial sites, issue permits to new industries, and investigate viola-
tions. The Central Laboratory Division is staffed to provide quality laboratory tests for internal
analysis and regulatory control. Our state-of-the-art Central Environmental Laboratory uses the
latest technology to monitor treatment processes, industrial discharges into our system and lo-
cal waterways. Environmental monitoring and analytical services are also performed at cost for
government agencies as part of our Municipal Assistance Program.

        A.   Central Environmental Laboratory (CEL) Division
                 The Central Environmental Laboratory Division is responsible for all HRSD
             analytical testing. Highly skilled staff members conduct more than 250,000 analy-
             ses of water, wastewater, sediment and biosolids each year. To offer high quality,
             legally defensible data, the laboratory maintains a quality assurance program and
             uses methods and procedures in compliance with state and/or federal regulations
             and guidelines. The laboratory also supports localities by providing comprehen-
             sive analytical services, quality assurance evaluations and consultation on analyti-
             cal methods and data interpretation through HRSD's Municipal Assistance
             program.

                 HRSD’s Municipal Assistance Program is designed to help Virginia munici-
             palities and agencies access the technical and scientific resources available at
             HRSD. The program offers a variety of services to Virginia counties, cities and
             towns, including consultation on water quality and permit compliance issues and
             monitoring and analyses performed by a highly trained staff.

        B.   Industrial Waste Division (IWD)
                 The Industrial Waste Division works with all industries in the region to control
             the toxics they may deliver to HRSD interceptor system. IWD monitors the waste
             and has a program to bill these customers for the extra strength beyond typical
             domestic waste they deliver to HRSD’s system. IWD works closely with these dif-
             ferent industries and helps them, if possible, to improve the quality of their treat-
             ment processes. IWD also works with all the military bases in the area and
             currently has a program to issue administrative orders to the large bases requiring
             them to perform sanitary sewer evaluation studies to determine if their systems are
             in a state of repair that may be introducing excessive I/I to the sewer system.
             HRSD’s industrial waste program began in 1972 and was a model for the rest of
             the nation.




                                               48
        C.   Technical Services Division (TSD)
                 The Technical Services Division is responsible for environmental testing, data
             analysis, negotiation and administration of air and water permits, management of
             local stormwater support programs and special studies to support operations. TSD
             has watercraft from which they can monitor receiving waters to determine the ef-
             fects of our facilities on the local waterways. TSD also assists many of the locali-
             ties in testing stormwater facilities.

        D.   Water Reuse Division
                 The Water Reuse Division works with local industries, government facilities
             and jurisdictions to provide reclaimed water for appropriate purposes. The divi-
             sion promotes and markets the use of reclaimed wastewater, provides oversight
             for the design and construction of reuse facilities and ensures regulatory compli-
             ance of planned uses.

4.1.6   Interceptor Systems Department
        Interceptor Systems maintains and operates about 500 miles of interceptor pipe and 82
pump stations to deliver wastewater from municipal collection systems to our plants. The Ser-
vices Division and Operations Division provide day-to-day monitoring and response to prob-
lems to minimize or prevent leaks and overflows. The Operations Division provides
preventative maintenance. The Planning and Analysis Division evaluates the needs of the area
and determines the new facilities needed to expand services. Systems Reliability conducts
HRSD’s Infiltration/Inflow Elimination Program, which eliminates storm water and ground
water from the system. They also inspect the interceptors and make replacements or renova-
tions before problems occur. As our communities grow, the department responds to the changes
such as road construction projects, which often affect HRSD facilities and pipelines.

        A.   Interceptor Operations Division
                The HRSD Interceptor Operations Division is divided into two components—
             North Shore Operations and South Shore Operations.

             •   North Shore and South Shore Operations - North Shore and South Shore
                 Operations are split into three functional areas: Maintenance, Pump Stations
                 and Interceptor.

                     The Maintenance Group consists of five- and six-person teams that do the
                 heavy pump station and interceptor maintenance repairs and projects. This
                 group has the heavy equipment and resources to make repairs to our pump sta-
                 tions, force mains and gravity lines. They maintain a spare parts inventory that
                 consists of needed pipe parts and pump parts necessary to keep our system op-
                 erating at any time of the day or night. They have emergency contingency
                 plans in place to react to anything that comes up. After emergencies, such as
                 hurricanes, they respond and take care of whatever is needed within the sys-
                 tem. This group keeps maintenance records of all their work. They monitor the
                 SCADA system for overflows and respond as necessary to correct those situa-




                                               49
        tions. They also respond to customer complaints to determine if it is a result of
        a problem within our interceptor system.

            The Pump Station Crews normally consist of two-person crews that do the
        preventive and routine maintenance of the pump stations. Pump station crews
        also look at the feedback from the SCADA system to ensure that pump sta-
        tions are working properly. They keep track of the set points for operation of
        the pumps, maintain the pressure reducing station settings, and ensure that the
        remote sensors are working properly. They monitor and maintain the odor
        control systems and make certain the wet wells are cleaned properly. We also
        have an annual inspection program performed by our Trust Consulting Engi-
        neer, which may inspect our pump stations once every five years. In the event
        of hurricanes, these pump station crews work to ensure that emergency power
        and any other operating parameters required for the hurricane are in place and
        functioning before the hurricane hits.

            The third functional group is the Interceptor Crews. These are generally
        three-person crews that oversee the actual operation and maintenance of our
        force mains and gravity system. They ensure that the valves, air vents and
        other mechanical devices in the systems are exercised and maintained prop-
        erly. They inspect manholes on a five-year, rotating basis to make sure they
        are in good shape. This group ensures that all HRSD right-of-ways and ease-
        ments are maintained. We typically mow and clean brush annually. They make
        certain our valve guides, which show where our valves are located, are up to
        date and that the system mapping is accurate. They maintain any odor control
        system that is in place within the piping system. They work with our Reliabil-
        ity Division to reduce I/I within our system. A program is in place to replace
        corroded parts of the system on a regular basis. Air vents can become corroded
        and inoperable and could be a source of an overflow. All repairs that are made
        by this group are recorded in our database to show where, when and what type
        of repair was made.

B.   Interceptor Services Division
         The Interceptor Services Division is comprised of the Chief of Interceptor Sys-
     tems Services and three Interceptor Engineers. The Interceptor Engineers are re-
     sponsible for evaluating connection requests to the HRSD system and assisting in
     the location of those connections. They also review flow certificate applications
     and generate the actual flow certificates. In doing this, they utilize our hydraulic
     model to evaluate the system and give out pressure and flow information required
     by design engineers. They monitor construction of new projects, evaluate design
     plans and do performance inspections to ensure compliance with HRSD’s stan-
     dards and policies. They monitor all growth in the HRSD system to make certain
     we are within our required policy guidelines. They also evaluate possible flow di-
     versions and notify the appropriate parties if those are implemented.




                                       50
C.   Planning and Analysis Division
         The Planning and Analysis Division was established in the Interceptor Sys-
     tems Department in 2004 when planning functions were transferred from the En-
     gineering Department. Planning, the existing eight-person Reliability Section, and
     the newly created Geographic Information System Section were combined to form
     the new Planning and Analysis Division. Members of this Division include the
     Chief of Planning and Analysis, the Planner, the Reliability Manager, the Reliabil-
     ity Supervisor, the Interceptor Systems Specialist, five Reliability Technicians and
     the GIS Manager. An approved GIS Analyst position will be filled in FY06.

     •   Chief of Planning and Analysis and Planner - The Chief of Planning and
         Analysis, supported by the Planner, is responsible for HRSD’s long range
         planning and coordination of those plans with the localities we serve. Some of
         the primary planning duties include preparing the HRSD Development Plan,
         preparing the annual Facilities Management Plan and coordinating the devel-
         opment of the department’s projects for HRSD’s Capital Improvement Pro-
         gram. Coordinating with our localities on issues relating to HRSD facilities
         and planning for HRSD facilities is also a key role.

     •   Reliability Section - The Reliability Section, established in 1989, is tasked
         with two primary functions. One function is abating infiltration and inflow (in-
         cluding the elimination of overflows). When it rains, large volumes of I/I can
         enter local collection systems and create excessive flows that present major
         treatment challenges for HRSD.

              Because HRSD’s system is shared by many localities, leaking systems in
         one locality can create problems for other localities and for HRSD. Excessive
         I/I can cause overflows in neighborhoods and at treatment plants. Treating the
         extra water also adds to HRSD’s operating costs, which can lead to higher
         rates. Each local partner has a responsibility to maintain its system to eliminate
         overflows and to minimize cost.

             Through flow and rainfall monitoring, smoke testing and other investiga-
         tive methods, the Reliability Section has worked very closely with many of
         our localities to identify areas with excessive I/I so that corrective action can
         be taken. The increased emphasis on eliminating sanitary sewer overflows has
         highlighted the need for long-term monitoring and continuing internal inspec-
         tion and evaluation of pipeline conditions. The Reliability Section is imple-
         menting, in phases, a system-wide Master Metering Program that will quantify
         the flows coming from our localities.

             The second primary function of Reliability is enhancing the integrity of the
         interceptor system. The Reliability Section inspects HRSD’s gravity pipelines
         on a five-year cycle via closed circuit TV to determine when replacement, re-
         pair or rehabilitation is required. Typically HRSD force mains cannot be taken



                                        51
    out of service for internal inspection, but the interior of these force mains is in-
    spected whenever the opportunity arises due to construction, line relocation or
    line failure. The section also monitors HRSD’s impressed current cathodic
    protection systems, which protect eight HRSD pipeline river crossings from
    corrosion. Reliability personnel conduct soil resistivity analyses and ultrasonic
    thickness testing to assess the extent of corrosion in metallic interceptors.
    Much of the section’s work is centered on inspections, data collection, failure
    prediction and analysis and identifying necessary maintenance/repairs and pro-
    jects for improving the reliability of the interceptor system. Reliability person-
    nel assist in inspecting connections to the HRSD system to make sure they are
    done correctly.

•   GIS Section - The GIS Section, which is in the first phase of implementing an
    extensive Geographic Information System, is currently focusing on document-
    ing the interceptor system and all of its components. In addition to mapping
    our service areas and depicting our facility localities, the GIS will contain ex-
    tensive asset information about our interceptor system. The first phase of GIS
    implementation includes a needs survey to determine the next steps for GIS
    application at HRSD. The HRSD GIS Manual (39) documents HRSD’s efforts
    in the GIS field, including all aspects of its implementation at HRSD. The
    manual also describes the status of GIS efforts at all jurisdictions served by
    HRSD as well as at public organizations that share their GIS products with
    HRSD and vice versa. Some of these organizations are the Virginia Depart-
    ment of Transportation, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
    and the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission.

         HRSD has taken a slow but deliberate approach to implementing a geo-
    graphic information system. In the early 1990’s, HRSD evaluated the possi-
    bilities of GIS implementation but decided it was too expensive and did not
    meet a reasonable return-on-investment criterion. Over the next ten years
    HRSD, along with many other public utilities, watched the expenses of GIS
    implementation drop dramatically as the software matured. During this same
    time, HRSD made use of the mapping and relational database aspects of the
    digital arena using AutoCAD and later AutoCAD MAP. HRSD departments
    also created several large relational databases for facilitating the processes
    they were using to accomplish their workload. One of the earliest uses of GIS
    type software was to geocode potable water consumption accounts for use as
    inputs to the HRSD hydraulic model. MAPINFO, initially considered a map-
    ping software, was used in this endeavor.

         In the early 2000’s, HRSD found that many organizations in the public
    sector were starting to implement GIS. HRSD was starting to receive GIS
    products but had not yet embraced GIS. In 2002, HRSD bought one license for
    ArcINFO and four licenses for ArcVIEW for use by its Engineering Depart-
    ment. HRSD formed a GIS Section in the Planning and Analysis Division of
    its Interceptor Systems Department in 2004.



                                   52
                    The HRSD Engineering Department maintains as-built plans, both on My-
                lars and electronically. Electronic copies are accessible through our Intranet.
                Our field crews are being equipped with laptop computers and soon will be
                able to download as-built plans in the field as they are working on projects.

                     We are implementing an extensive Geographical Information System. This
                system will have maps of all of our service areas and will show where our fa-
                cilities are located. We use these maps to produce map books, used by field
                personnel and engineers and consultants, so they know where are our system is
                located and can communicate with us when they work near our system. We
                plan to incorporate our system, and the systems of localities who are our cus-
                tomers, into this GIS. The GIS will link to our hydraulic model. As new facili-
                ties are added, the hydraulic model it will automatically update.

                    The GIS will show extensive information about our pipelines—when they
                were built, type of material, diameter, insulation date, information about man-
                holes and dates when there were problems or when maintenance was done.
                Additional information about our pipes will be included so that we will be able
                to accurately model our system. We currently have an extensive numbering
                system that identifies all the different facets of our system. This will be in-
                cluded in the GIS and will be part of our hydraulic model.


4.2     Training Programs
        Comprehensive employee training programs and generous educational assistance bene-
fits have contributed greatly to HRSD’s success. HRSD embraces a continuous learning phi-
losophy that requires all employees to complete the training necessary to ensure the safe and
effective performance of duties. Each new employee must attend the standard New Employee
Orientation. Subsequent training is based on individual needs, position requirements and ad-
vancement goals.

4.2.1   Technical Training Programs
        Technical training and refresher training requirements vary with each position. Each
department funds the training of its employees, which can include participating in off-site
classes or seminars, attending conferences, obtaining a college degree and meeting professional
licensing requirements. HRSD also organizes on-site classes for employees to improve their
technical knowledge, skills and abilities. Training records will be a component of HRSD’s new
Human Resources management software.

        A.   Apprenticeship Program
                 HRSD created the nation’s first wastewater industry apprenticeship program to
             perpetuate excellence in our workforce. Our eight apprenticeship programs are
             custom-designed to help individuals achieve the training and experience needed
             for a successful HRSD career. Apprentices can receive a training increase and a
             merit increase each year. Operator apprentices obtain the skills and credits needed



                                              53
             to earn their licenses and the accompanying bonuses. Some positions require suc-
             cessful completion of the apprenticeship program as a condition of continued em-
             ployment.

                 HRSD’s eight apprenticeship programs (Plant Operator, Maintenance Opera-
             tor, Interceptor Technician, Instrument Specialist, Reliability Technician, Electri-
             cian, Equipment Technician and Carpenter) are a combination of on-the-job
             training and related classroom instruction. All can be completed in four years ex-
             cept the electrician’s program, which requires five years. HRSD’s programs are
             recognized and approved by the Virginia Department of Education, the Virginia
             Department of Labor and Industry, the US EPA and the US Department of Labor.

        B.   College
                 HRSD will pay for qualified employees to attend college to earn a degree to
             meet job requirements or prepare for advancement. HRSD reimburses employees
             for each course they successfully complete.

4.2.2  Organizational Development Program
       HRSD initiated an organizational development program in 2003 to create a learning or-
ganization. The phased implementation of the program began in 2004.

        The Organizational Development Strategy was based upon the following principles:
         • Learning is a managed process
         • Every employee is a learner
         • Every supervisor is a teacher (people developer, mentor, coach)
         • Continuous learning is required
         • Advancement is voluntary

        Program initiatives include:
          • Updating position descriptions to include job specific technical competencies
             complemented by a uniform leadership competency model
          • Using position descriptions and the leadership competency model to conduct indi-
             vidual assessments
          • Using assessment feedback to assist in creating individual development plans that
             are written by the employee and approved by the supervisor
          • Developing a mentoring program to facilitate continuous learning for employees
             that want advancement opportunities
          • Establishing program measurements at the individual and organizational levels




                                               54
55
4.2.3   Quality Improvement Training
        HRSD has been a Quality Improvement organization since the early 1990s. Our em-
ployees complete extensive training on integrating quality improvement into our workplace.
Our in-house facilitators and outside consultants continually train our personnel on organiza-
tional and self-improvement.

        A.   Leadership Training
                 HRSD is committed to training our leaders and has in-house Quality Facilita-
             tors who train our employees on Quality Improvement and leadership and man-
             agement type programs. Our Leadership and Management Program (LAMP)
             course has become a cornerstone of the organization.

        B.   Team Training
                 HRSD’s Roadmap Facilitators train all of our supervisors and employees who
             are team members or potential team members on a seven-step process problem-
             solving process called the Roadmap process. This course is a three-day event that
             takes students through the team process step by step. Throughout the years, these
             teams have done a significant amount of work to improve HRSD as a whole.

        C.   Quality Improvement Training
                 Workplace Facilitators teach all new employees the basics of quality during
             Your Role in Quality. This one-and-a-half-day course explains what quality im-
             provement is about and culminates with each employee developing a personal ac-
             tion plan to improve one element of their work.

4.2.4   Skills Training Program
        HRSD has an extensive training program to teach the skills that are required in all facets
of work at HRSD. Training is provided by skilled, in-house staff and outside instructors. In ad-
dition, employees have opportunities to attend workshops and Webcast seminars.


4.3     Skills Certification
        HRSD helps its employees achieve various licenses and certifications that enhance their
professional credentials. The company pays for wastewater operator licenses, commercial driv-
ing licenses and many others. Employees receive a bonus or higher pay level for earning certain
certifications that are required for their positions.


4.4     Safety Training Program
        Safety training is an ongoing requirement for HRSD employees. We provide regular
training in all types of safety, including confined space, traffic control, electrical, pump station
operations and maintenance, shore and trenching and more. Employees often go through on-
the-job drills to assess their knowledge of dangerous situations and to ensure they have been
trained effectively.




                                                56
       Our training is broken down into the following categories:
       •     Manufacturer training
       •     On-the-job training
       •     In-house classroom training
       •     Industry-wide training

        Interceptor Systems North Shore and South Shore Operations work centers have
monthly safety training meetings to provide continuous safety training and maintain a high
level of awareness. Records of employees’ attendance at safety training are kept, and employ-
ees are scheduled for refresher training or to renew certifications as required.

       Goals for our CMMS are:
       •  Reliability - Increase equipment reliability by performing planned maintenance and
          reducing corrective maintenance
       •  Downtime - Reduce equipment breakdowns and failures and reduce need for repairs
          or replacements
       •  Management - Provide a convenient and flexible tool for management of plant
          maintenance
       •  Planning - Promote the efficient scheduling of plant maintenance
       •  Scheduling - Promote balanced workloads and job rotation of maintenance
          personnel
       •  Records - Provide records containing the operating and maintenance history of the
          equipment
       •  Training - Promote personnel training by using written instructions and procedures
          when performing maintenance
       •  Safety - Promote plant safety by maintaining equipment and by familiarizing per-
          sonnel with safety hazards encountered
       •  Costs - Reduce costs by utilizing personnel, material, and time more efficiently.

       We expect this CMMS to be fully implemented by April 2007.


4.5     Pollution Prevention Programs
        One of HRSD’s main objectives is to promote pollution prevention among our commer-
cial customers (industries, businesses, and government entities). Our pollution prevention pro-
gram is funded through administrative penalties from industries and businesses that do not
comply with their permit requirements. Each year HRSD honors businesses and industries for
outstanding pollution prevention (P2) measures. P2 awards are presented for multi-media (air,
land, water) efforts that focus on reduction of waste (or its toxicity) at the source rather than
traditional treatment, control and disposal. In addition to recognizing P2 award winners, HRSD
also recognizes pretreatment excellence award winners for exemplary permit compliance.

        In November 1999, the Elizabeth River Project deemed HRSD a model-level River
Star, the highest honor in its River Star Program as determined by a panel of peers and scien-
tists. The River Star Program was created to voluntarily encourage businesses, industries gov-




                                               57
ernment and others in the Elizabeth River watershed to implement pollution prevention initia-
tives and wildlife habitat enhancement projects.

       HRSD was recognized for its many pollution prevention initiatives, including:

       •   Biological removal of 70 percent of the nitrogen (on a seasonal basis) and 85 per-
           cent of the phosphorus (on a year-round basis) in wastewater at the Virginia Initia-
           tive Treatment Plant. This plant and our Nansemond Treatment Plant use the
           innovative Virginia Initiative Process, an environmentally sound technique to re-
           move nutrients.
       •   Voluntary program to rehabilitate our more than 500 miles of pipelines to limit
           storm water inflow and ground water infiltration
       •   Recycling of our biosolids for Nutri-Green® compost, land application, and ash for
           construction uses to eliminate landfill disposal
       •   Reduction of analytical hazardous wastes from 33 percent to 80 percent, depending
           on waste type, at our Central Environmental Laboratory
       •   Replacement of the underground storage tanks at our treatment plants and pump sta-
           tions not only to meet but to exceed EPA standards for spill containment, overfill
           prevention, and corrosion protection. HRSD met the December 1998 requirements
           five years prior to the deadline
       •   Conversion of seven of nine major treatment plants (including the Virginia Initiative
           Treatment Plant and Army Base Treatment Plant) from gaseous to liquid disinfec-
           tion, in response to EPA’s Risk Management Program regulations

        HRSD kicked off its "Cease the Grease" campaign in November 2001 with a series of
radio public service announcements that encouraged customers not to pour grease down the
drain or disposal. These PSAs, which have run annually, were the first phase of a public infor-
mation program to assist localities with efforts to eliminate SSOs caused by grease in municipal
lines. Phase two activities, which included producing stickers and coloring sheets that were dis-
tributed during festivals and special events, were accomplished in February 2002.

       HRSD supported the HRPDC effort to institute a regional grease initiative. Our Hamp-
ton Roads Fats, Oils and Grease (HR FOG) representative was involved in the research com-
missioned by this group in 2004 to identify the most significant training needs. HR FOG will
launch a regional campaign that first targets restaurants. The group will use the Virginia De-
partment of Health as a resource for advising these key target publics.


4.6      Safety Programs
         One of HRSD’s primary goals is to ensure that all operations are conducted in a safe
manner to eliminate or reduce accidents, personal injuries and or property damage. HRSD’s
Safety Programs include: Confined Space Entry; Lock Out/Tag Out; Personal Protective
Equipment; Hazard Communication; Respiratory Protection; Hearing Conservation; VDOT
Flagging Certification; Hot Work Permit; Excavation Safety; Asbestos Awareness; and Emer-
gency Response Procedures. HRSD also has a taskforce to ensure the security of all our facili-
ties. Its activities are discussed in Section 4.15.1.



                                               58
4.6.1  Safety Division
       The Safety Division is administered by the Chief of South Shore Treatment and re-
ceives direction from HRSD’s Safety Team. The Safety Division is responsible for:
       • Safety training
       • Safety inspections
       • Accident investigations
       • Pulmonary function testing
       • Respirator fit testing
       • Audiometric testing
       • Air sampling and environmental audits
       • Development of HRSD programs to insure compliance with OSHA requirements
       • SARA Title III submissions
       • Development of emergency response procedures
       • Documentation of training, sampling, inspections, and medical information con-
           ducted by the Safety Division
       • Safety Notices
       • Crisis management functions as outlined in HRSD’s Workplace Violence Preven-
           tion Policy
       • Facility security and monitoring
       • Communication of relevant safety information to all employees
       • Asbestos inspections, air sampling and limited removal/clean up

        HRSD’s Safety Manager, two Industrial Hygienists, and Safety Coordinator oversee
safety training and certification for first aid and CPR. They write safety-related polices, work
with confined space permits, and perform routine inspections of all safety equipment, such as
fire extinguishers, cranes and hoists. These employees investigate accidents and complaints and
oversee security at our offices and treatment plants.

4.6.2   Safety Team
        The HRSD Safety Team consists of employees appointed by their department directors.
This team acts as an advisory group on safety policies and issues, provides general direction
and input to the Safety Division on programs and keeps their departments informed about
safety issues.

4.6.3   Safety Procedures
        Safety rules are written rules describing required practices and procedures to follow for
performing routine and non-routine activities in a safe manner. HRSD personnel are responsi-
ble for familiarizing themselves with all safety rules and are mandated to follow all HRSD
safety rules in the performance of their daily activities while at HRSD facilities or when repre-
senting HRSD off site. Supervisors are responsible for: informing, explaining, and publicizing
all safety rules to their personnel; enforcing observance of all safety rules by HRSD personnel;
and ensuring each employee receives a copy of HRSD’s safety rules.




                                               59
4.6.4  Safety Equipment
       Safety equipment is on a preventive maintenance schedule and is checked, inspected
and/or calibrated as per the manufacturer’s directions. Records of all safety equipment shall be
kept with preventive maintenance records or the equipment's history file that is part of the Pre-
ventive Maintenance System. Equipment documentation includes, but is not limited to: preven-
tive maintenance, tests, certifications and repairs.

        Recommended safety equipment includes the following:
        • Personal Equipment: hard hats, safety shoes, rubber boots, rain gear, gloves (various
           types), safety glasses, safety goggles and hearing protectors.

        •   General Equipment: cartridge/dust mask respirators, face shields, safety harnesses
            and lifelines, life rings, lifelines and shepherd’s hooks, life jackets, explosion proof
            portable lighting, non-sparking tools and bung wrenches, and traffic warning signs,
            flashers, cones and barricades.

        •   Emergency Equipment: First Aid Kit/CPR/Bloodborne Pathogen Kit, Spill Kit,
            Burn Kit, Fire Extinguisher (both dry chemical and carbon dioxide types), Chlo-
            rine/Sulfur Dioxide Repair Kit and Automatic External Defibrillator.

        •   Hazardous Atmosphere Equipment: Self-Contained Breathing Equipment, Portable
            Ventilating Blower and Flexible Hose, Oxygen Deficiency, Combustible Gas, and
            Hydrogen Sulfide Detection Equipment and Tripod/Winch.

        Supervisors are responsible for:
        • Providing the appropriate recommended safety equipment, listed above, in an ade-
           quate quantity to protect personnel assigned to them
        • Ensuring safety equipment is maintained in accordance with the Preventive Mainte-
           nance System
        • Ensuring adequate training is provided to their personnel for the proper use and
           maintenance of safety equipment
        • Ensuring any required tests and/or certifications of the equipment have been per-
           formed and/or obtained
        • Requiring and ensuring that personnel use safety equipment whenever and wherever
           appropriate

        HRSD personnel are responsible for:
        • Familiarizing themselves with the proper use and maintenance of safety equipment
        • Using safety equipment whenever and wherever required and appropriate
        • Exerting reasonable judgment when working to protect their personal equipment
        • Properly inspecting, cleaning, and maintaining safety equipment when required

4.6.5 Safety Responsibilities
      Designated chiefs are responsible for implementing and coordinating HRSD’s Safety
Program within their departments. Their responsibilities are to:



                                                 60
       •   Set safety priorities as necessary
       •   Review and provide input on updated safety rules, practices, and programs
       •   Review administration of safety rules, practices, and programs at treatment
           plants/work centers to ensure uniform administration and application
       •   Assign personnel special duties related to safety programs as required
       •   Set and monitor the progress of safety goals for the department

        The work center manager/supervisor is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of
the treatment plant or work center. Their responsibilities include:
        • Ensuring that the Plant Superintendent or designated supervisor administers safety
           programs and policies uniformly
        • Demonstrating management support of the Safety Program

      The safety representative is responsible for overall supervision, enforcement, promotion
and communication of HRSD’s Safety Program at the work center. Safety representatives:
      • Supervise the Safety Program
      • Ensure work center activities are performed safely
      • Enforce all requirements of the Safety Program
      • Promote the Safety Program and a positive safety consciousness among all work
         center personnel
      • Ensure change sheets are inserted in the Safety SOP and that the Safety SOP is up-
         to-date
      • Document Safety SOP changes by completing the Change Form/Review Sheet
      • Ensure safety equipment is properly maintained
      • Ensure HRSD employees receive required safety training
      • Document all safety training and safety related matters conducted by the work center

     It is the responsibility of every HRSD employee to ensure day-to-day functions of
HRSD are performed in a safe manner. Employees are responsible for:
     • Following all HRSD Safety Rules and work practices
     • Reporting unsafe work conditions
     • Reporting accidents
     • Following all HRSD Safety Programs
     • Operating all tools and equipment in a safe manner
     • Maintaining all tools and equipment in a safe manner
     • Wearing required protective equipment
     • Asking questions when safety is a concern

        An Employee-Supervisor Safety Committee for each work center advises and assists the
department’s supervisory staff in conducting HRSD’s Safety Program. They meet quarterly and
more, if warranted. There general duties are to:
        • Alert supervisors immediately of any unsafe work practices, procedures, equipment
           or conditions existing at the work center
        • Recommend changes and improvements in the HRSD Safety Program
        • Serve as liaison between the supervisors and the employees
        • Promote safety and the Safety Program among all personnel




                                             61
        •   Review accidents and recommend measures to prevent such incidents
        •   Review Unsafe Work Condition Reports, recommend corrective measures and im-
            plement corrective actions

        The committee consists of the work center’s management and/or supervisory staff and
appointed employees assigned to the work center. Committee members should be rotated
yearly among the work center's personnel and should include, at a minimum:
        • A work center Safety Representative
        • Representatives from each work center function
        • Shift and non-shift representatives (for Treatment)

4.6.6  Safety Performance Measures
       The HRSD Safety Manager tracks safety performance measures. On a monthly basis the
Safety Manager publishes a work related injury report for each department director. The Gen-
eral Manager receives an all-inclusive HRSD work related injury report on a monthly basis.
The Safety Manager briefs the QST annually on work related accidents and injuries.

        The current loss time injury rate for Interceptor Systems Department is 0 percent days
lost. A copy of our safety policies is included on our CMOM bookshelf (14) and is on HRSD’s
Intranet.


4.7.    Utility Information Management Systems
        HRSD uses a variety of information management systems, which are described in this
section, to accomplish its mission.

4.7.1   Treatment Department Information Management Systems (TIMS)
        The treatment plants collect thousands of operating data points every week. State and
federal laws mandate much of this information, which is required for good operational man-
agement of the wastewater treatment system. The purpose of the TIMS is to manage treatment
plant specific data; to store that data in a long-term, secure, distributed environment; and to
generate a variety of reports. These reports are for state and HRSD management.

         Daily Plant Operations Reports (DPOR spreadsheets) are legal documents verifying the
daily operation of the treatment plant. HRSD is responsible for keeping these documents for
state, federal and public review. The DPOR portion of the data management system allows the
plants to properly record and manage their operations on a day-to-day basis. The DPORs can be
altered by plant staff as the operation warrants and within the guidelines allowable by the state
and federal authorities.

      TIMS facilitates the consolidation of the DPOR data to the Monthly Plant Operations Re-
ports (MPORs). The MPORs organize both DPOR data and laboratory analytical data from the
treatment plants. The MPOR data is ultimately organized into both Discharge Monitoring Re-
ports (DMRs) for the state and Yearly Plant Operating Reports (YPORs) for yearly budget and
operational assessments. The final purpose of TIMS is to rapidly organize data, store informa-
tion and produce reports for a variety of uses. The result has been to save a tremendous amount



                                               62
of report preparation and to allow rapid and unlimited distribution of information to all staff
within HRSD’s organization.

4.7.2 Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS)
        The CEL LIMS is part of HRSD’s integrated, interdepartmental information manage-
ment systems. TIMS and the Pretreatment Information Management System (PIMS) comprise
the remainder of these systems. LIMS serves as the backbone of these data management sys-
tems, providing storage for more than a quarter million results annually. It is used for regula-
tory and operational purposes by several HRSD departments and divisions. LIMS is designed
to follow applicable US EPA protocols and good automated practices for sample and data man-
agement. The CEL uses LIMS for many aspects of data and sample management. LIMS func-
tions include automated generation of analytical requests and sample labels, sample receipt,
automated data transfer from instrumentation, data validation and approval, generation of data
reports and data storage.

        LIMS automatically transfers data into Treatment Department Excel spreadsheets used
in TIMS. They record hourly data generated at each facility, which are used to perform flow
and process calculations. LIMS serves as a permanent repository of data for historical purposes
and for cross plant reporting. In addition, it ensures the quality and completeness of collected
information. Data also are automatically transferred from LIMS to PIMS. PIMS provides a
comprehensive database to manage data that describe industrial users and the volume and pol-
lutant concentration of industrial discharges.

        Advantages of using interdepartmental data management systems include streamlined
procedures that increase efficiency, consolidated hardware and software maintenance, easier
access to shared information and reduced training efforts, all of which result in overall cost sav-
ings.

4.7.3   Pretreatment Information Management Systems (PIMS)
        PIMS is a relational database utilized by the Industrial Waste Division to store indus-
trial and commercial facility information and compliance data. PIMS has a direct link with
LIMS to receive HRSD sampling data. It also exports surcharge billing information to HRSD’s
Hampton Roads Utility Billing System (HRUBS).

        PIMS not only stores facility information such as metering and contact information, but
also calculates and stores compliance data and surcharge information. Information concerning
sampling points, permit information and limits, industry monitoring requirements and enforce-
ment actions taken by HRSD are all stored in the database. PIMS tracks all facility correspon-
dence and determines when industry reports are late or incomplete. Also, all archived data from
the previous database is available within PIMS.

4.7.4   Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS)
        The Interceptor Systems Department has a planned maintenance system that is primar-
ily a paper-based maintenance system. HRSD has contracted a consultant to help implement a
computerized maintenance management system (CMMS). This system will record and keep
track of all maintenance records, identify what activities need to be taken in response to



                                                63
problems, identify normal maintenance and schedule maintenance to be done. An extensive in-
ventory capability will be part of the system. By connecting the system to our Procurement Di-
vision, we will have access to the cost of spare parts and automatic ordering will be triggered
by specified inventory levels.

       We plan to connect this system with our GIS. This will enable us to track, and to show
graphically, where problems are in our interceptor systems and pump stations. This information
will help determine when sections of pipe may need to be rehabilitated. Employees of our
Physical Plant Division will keep the CMMS up to date. HRSD maintenance workers will have
laptop computers in their trucks and will be able to electronically download information, forms
and drawings, as well as input what maintenance is performed from the field.


4.8     Engineering Programs
        HRSD’s various engineering programs, which are key to attainment of HRSD’s CMOM
goals, are described in this section.

4.8.1  Collection and Transmission System Plans Program
       HRSD maintains copies of all of our drawings in a digital format that can be viewed on
any computer within the HRSD network. We also keep Mylar copies of drawings as a back up.
Our drafters use AutoCAD to keep drawings up to date.

4.8.2   Annual Inspection Program
        The engineering trust consultant is tasked with performing an annual inspection of
HRSD facilities and reporting findings to the Commission. The inspection focuses on the struc-
tural integrity of our treatment plants, administrative facilities, shops and pump stations.
Twenty percent of our facilities are inspected during each year, resulting in an inspection of
each facility at least once every five years. A detailed report with pictures (2) is provided at the
culmination of each inspection, and any attention that is needed to our facilities is included in
our budget for immediate implementation.

4.8.3  Sewer System Design Program
       Any design required for rehabilitation of our interceptor system or for new facilities is a
coordinated effort between our Engineering and Interceptor Systems Departments. The Inter-
ceptor Systems Department has design and operation criteria (38) for guidance in the design of
new facilities. The Engineering Department maintains Standards and Preferences (32) that lay
out what we prefer in the design of our interceptor facilities.

4.8.4   Sewer Construction Program
        A Project Manager from our Engineering Department oversees the construction or re-
habilitation of our pipelines or pump stations and manages the project from design through
construction. Typically, a Request for Proposal is issued to obtain an engineering consultant to
do the design and construction administration work. A selection team comprised of engineering
personnel and department representatives selects the engineer. Their recommendation is
presented to our Commission for approval. The design is undertaken and reviewed in-house




                                                64
by engineering and interceptor personnel in coordination with our localities. Then, the project
is advertised for bid in conformance with the HRSD Procurement Manual.

4.8.5   Construction Inspection Program
        Our Engineering Department has Project Managers who oversee the construction proc-
ess. Generally, we use inspectors from the consulting engineer’s staff to perform the physical
inspections. When the facilities are in place, Interceptor Department operations personnel in-
spect and test to ensure everything is operationally correct.

4.8.6  Real Estate
       The Engineering Department’s Real Estate Manager oversees the purchase of easements
and property required for construction and obtains leases necessary for the construction proc-
ess. HRSD has condemnation powers in real estate and sometimes must use that process.

4.8.7   Continuing Sewer System Assessment Program
        • Sewerage Assessment Priority Parameters – By monitoring flows and pressures
          throughout HRSD’s interceptor system, the Reliability Section collects data which
          is used to assess capacity, calibrate the model, and show possible I/I locations. Rain-
          fall data is collected and data is compared with overflows to determine if the event
          was rainfall related. HRSD has a reporting system in place to account for all over-
          flows that occur in the HRSD system.

        •   Corrosion Defect Identification Program - The Reliability Section monitors and
            maintains a cathodic protection system to help prevent corrosion of pipelines in ar-
            eas where conditions are less than ideal. Section employees conduct ultrasonic pipe-
            line thickness testing in areas where corrosion has been identified. Whenever
            possible, samples of pipelines are collected to be analyzed by HRSD’s Central Envi-
            ronmental Lab and The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) certi-
            fied testing facilities.

        •   Flow monitoring Program to Support Engineering Analysis - The Reliability Section
            has temporary and permanent flow meters and pressure recorders installed through-
            out the HRSD interceptor system. Data collected is used to calibrate the model pro-
            gram, analyze and study capacity and trends, and assist with the location of
            excessive I&I. HRSD has 17 rain gages with telemetry located throughout the
            HRSD service area. Rain data is collected, used in studies, and compared with over-
            flow information to help eliminate excessive I&I.

        •   Closed Circuit TV Program for Sewer Assessment – As part of the normal operation
            and maintenance schedule, Reliability employees conduct investigations of the In-
            terceptor System gravity lines. CCTV inspection is scheduled to be performed on all
            gravity lines over a five year cycle. The Reliability Section has a two-man crew and
            one CCTV van dedicated for CCTV inspections. All CCTV videos are stored in the
            Reliability workcenter.




                                               65
        •   Gravity System Defect Analysis Program - Operators of the CCTV system have
            achieved certification via the National Association of Sewer Service Companies
            (NASSCO’s) Pipeline Assessment Certification Program (PACP) and use the PACP
            rating system to determine the severity of the defects found during the inspection
            process.

        •   Smoke Testing Program - After other testing of the service area has been performed,
            such as flow and pressure monitoring, smoke and dye testing is performed in any in-
            terceptor systems service area that is suspect.

4.8.8    Infrastructure Rehabilitation Program
         As a result of work done by our Reliability Division to determine the physical status of
our pipelines, we often have to schedule rehabilitation of pipelines or associated structures. De-
pending on the extent of the damage and the location, we may choose to completely replace the
facilities, or in the case of a pipeline, use different types of linings to bring them back up to our
standards. Manholes and pump stations are inspected and scheduled for rehabilitation, as
needed. These replacement or rehabilitation projects are normally handled by our Engineering
Department as construction projects are done by outside consultants and contractors.

4.8.9    System Capacity Assurance Program
         Our Capacity Assurance Program is closely tied into our planning. If in the process of
planning we find the need to increase capacity, those pipelines or other structures are placed
into our Capital Improvement Program to be constructed when needed. If capacity or service is
needed by a locality for planned development, HRSD requires either an Interest Participation
Agreement (48, p. 5-13) or Lease Purchase Agreement (48, p. 5-14). HRSD does not build fa-
cilities based on speculation. If capacity is required due to overloaded pipes or facilities, HRSD
investigates the possibility of diverting flows or proceeds with construction plans to build
whatever is required.

4.8.10 Standards and Preferences
         The Engineering Department maintains standards and preferences for all types of mate-
rials, equipment and electronics required for our operating systems. Through ongoing reviews
of the document and edits made as knowledge of new types of material or equipment is gained
during the design process, the standards and preferences are updated accordingly.


4.9     Sanitary Sewer Overflow Reporting and Notification Program

       Below are some definitions frequently used within the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Re-
porting and Notification Program.
        Controlled release - a discharge or spill that is contained and returned to the sanitary
        sewer system. It does not enter State waters nor does it pose a threat to public health. A
        controlled release does not need to be reported to DEQ.
        Release - any discharge or spill of wastewater from the sanitary sewer system.




                                                 66
       Reportable release - any discharge or spill that is not contained and returned to the sani-
       tary sewer system. It can reasonably be expected to reach State waters and/or impact
       public health. An example of a reportable release is a force main leak that enters the
       storm drain system or is absorbed into the soil. Reportable releases must be reported to
       DEQ by telephone as soon as possible but no more than 24 hours from discovery of the
       problem. A written report must be submitted to DEQ within 5 days of the problem.

       The main objectives of personnel responding to a wastewater release are to eliminate,
contain, recover, disinfect, assess, restore and report properly.
       •   Eliminate: Personnel who reach the site first will immediately seek to stop the re-
           lease by whatever means possible.
       •   Contain: In order to limit the area of impact, field personnel will contain the release
           as much as possible. This can be accomplished with straw bales, earthen berms, etc.
       •   Recover: Attempt to recover as much of the release as possible using Vaccon trucks,
           pumps, etc.
       •   Disinfect: After the spill has been contained and recovered, the area of impact
           should be disinfected with lime if appropriate.
       •   Assess: Field personnel will assess the amount of spill that was recovered and how
           much was released for reporting purposes.
       •   Restore: The site should be restored to its original state to the maximum extent feasible.
       •   Report: The reportable release amount must be reported to DEQ immediately.

        From a regulatory compliance standpoint, a critical function of the response team is to
consistently and properly report a spill to DEQ. If a responder is uncertain as to whether a re-
lease is reportable, he or she will err on the side of caution and report it.

       The following two pages detail HRSD reporting procedures during business and non-
business hours.




                                                67
                    HRSD REPORTING PROCEDURES DURING BUSINESS HOURS
                                 (7:00 AM-3:30 PM MON-FRI)

First Telephone Report
       The person discovering or otherwise becoming aware of a release shall immediately contact the appropriate
Interceptors Operations Center and report the following information:
       • Site Name (is it a manhole, pump station, force main, etc.)?
       • Location: Street Address, City
       • Pump Station or Line Number
       • Map Book Page and Grid Number
       • Date and Time Problem was Discovered
       • Description and Cause of Problem
       • Planned Action to Stop and/or Contain Release
       • Estimated Time of Stopping Release
       • Estimated Flow Rate (gph or gpm)
       • Where is the Release Going (storm drain, ground, etc.)? Is it reaching, or does it have the potential to
           reach, State waters? If so, name receiving waters.

      The Interceptors Operations Center shall record the above information and contact the Permits Manager. If
the Permits Manager is unavailable, then notify any of the TSD Environmental Scientists. Dial the TSD emer-
gency cell phone if you are having trouble locating personnel. Do not leave a message on a person’s Voicemail.
Talk directly to a member of TSD.

      TSD personnel will contact DEQ and relay the above information to them.

Change in Status Telephone Report
      The responsible person in charge shall report to the Permits Manager or a TSD scientist any significant
changes in status of the information previously reported to TSD. If the Permits Manager is unavailable, then notify
any of the TSD Environmental Scientists. Dial the TSD emergency cell phone if you are having trouble locating
personnel. Do not leave a message on a person’s Voicemail. Talk directly to a member of TSD.

      TSD personnel will contact DEQ with the updated information.

Final Telephone Report
       After the release has been stopped, the responsible person in charge shall report the following information
to the Permits Manager or a TSD scientist. If the Permits Manager is unavailable, then notify any of the TSD Envi-
ronmental Scientists. Dial the TSD emergency cell phone if you are having trouble locating personnel. Do not
leave a message on a person’s Voicemail. Talk directly to a member of TSD.

      •    Location: Street Address, City
      •    Date and Time Problem was Discovered
      •    Description of Problem (force main leak, air vent, etc.)
      •    Action Taken to Stop and/or Contain Release
      •    Time Release was Stopped
      •    Estimated Quantity Released
      •    Did the Release enter the storm drain or State waters? If so, name the receiving water.

      TSD personnel will contact DEQ with the final information.

Written Report
      The responsible Interceptors Operations Center shall complete the Reporting Form and forward it to the
Permits Manager within three days of the beginning of the problem.

      The Permits Manager will forward the report to the Reliability Manager for review and signature.

      The Permits Manager shall submit the completed form to DEQ within five days of the beginning of the
problem.


                                                        68
                  HRSD REPORTING PROCEDURES DURING NON-BUSINESS HOURS

First Telephone Report
       The person discovering or otherwise becoming aware of a release shall immediately contact Department of
Emergency Services (DES) and report the following information:
       • Location: Street Address, City
       • Date and Time Problem was Discovered
       • Description of Problem (force main leak, air vent, etc.)
       • Suspected Cause of Release
       • Planned Action to Stop and/or Contain Release
       • Estimated Time of Stopping Release
       • Estimated Flow Rate (gph or gpm)
       • Where is the Release Going (storm drain, ground, etc.)? Is it reaching, or does it have the potential to
           reach, State waters? If so, name receiving waters.

        If the release has the potential to cause a fish kill, severe safety hazard, severe property damage, closure of
shellfish harvesting and/or recreational activity or attracts the attention of the news media, the responsible person
in charge shall immediately notify the following:
        • Director of Interceptors Systems or other responsible Interceptor Systems supervisor who shall, in turn,
             contact the General Manager and appropriate personnel
        • Technical Services Division.

Change in Status Telephone Report
       The responsible person in charge shall report to DES any significant changes in status of the information
previously reported. If the change in status has the potential to cause a fish kill, severe safety hazard, severe prop-
erty damage, closure of shellfish harvesting and/or recreational activity or attracts the attention of the media, the
responsible person in charge shall immediately notify the following:
       • Director of Interceptors Systems or other responsible Interceptor Systems supervisor who shall, in turn,
           contact the General Manager and any appropriate personnel
       • Technical Services Division.

Final Telephone Report
      When the release has stopped, the responsible person in charge shall report the following information to
DES:
      • Location: Street Address, City
      • Date and Time Problem was Discovered
      • Description of Problem (force main leak, air vent, etc.)
      • Cause of Release
      • Action Taken to Stop and/or Contain Release
      • Time Release was Stopped
      • Estimated Quantity Released
      • Did the Release enter the storm drain or State waters? If so, name receiving waters.

       Leave a message on the Permits Manager’s Voicemail with the above information. Include the date and
time that the DES was notified.

Written Report
      The responsible Interceptors Operations Center shall complete the Reporting Form and forward it to the
Permits Manager within three days of the beginning of the problem.

      The Permits Manager will forward the report to the Reliability Manager for review and signature.

      The Permits Manager shall submit the completed form to DEQ within five days of the beginning of the
problem.




                                                          69
4.9.1 Un-permitted Discharge Reporting Program
       As described throughout this CMOM, HRSD operates a long standing management
program addressing the collection system. Un-permitted discharges are rare. However, the re-
porting of discharges is addressed in the previous section.

4.9.2    Sanitary Sewer Overflow Notification Program
         HRSD’s interceptor system is considered a part of the wastewater treatment facility
which is permitted under the Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES). The
Department of Environmental Quality is notified of any sanitary sewer overflows via the Sani-
tary Sewer Overflow Reporting System (SSORS). This system was developed with all the other
utility directors in the area as an easy, Internet-based program that was approved by our DEQ.
This program enables operators in the field to alert our Permits Manager of any spills that have
occurred. Our Permits Manager sends an e-mail to the DEQ. Upon their receipt of the e-mail,
they give us a reporting number. Then, as is normal, we have three days to give a final report
which we do using the same mechanism. The reporting system, used by all the localities, tracks
the localities’ overflows and allows them to view any HRSD overflows that occur in their ju-
risdiction. Likewise, HRSD has access to all of the localities’ overflow information. In the fu-
ture we hope to tie this system into our GIS system so we will be able to view on a map where
the overflows have occurred and record the information.

4.9.3   Sanitary Sewer Overflow Reporting System (SSORS)
        HRSD and all the localities in Hampton Roads worked jointly with the Hampton Roads
Planning District Commission and the Virginia DEQ to develop and implement the internet-
based Sanitary Sewer Overflow Reporting System. This system allows the reporting entity to
define what happened and get a case number from DEQ. Then a follow up report, clearly defin-
ing the incident, is filed within five days. When the report is filed, copies can be sent to anyone
previously marked. HRSD can review all reports; each locality can view their own reports and
reports of any HRSD incidents within their locality. A database is kept that will show the his-
tory of the spills. It is envisioned that this will be incorporated into the GIS system so we can
begin to view a location of these SSO’s.


4.10    Financing and Cost Analysis Program
        HRSD, among the first to receive the NACWA Excellence in Management Award, is
widely recognized as a responsible steward of environmental and financial resources. This sec-
tion provides an overview of our fiscal programs, a key element of HRSD’s CMOM program.

4.10.1 Operations and Maintenance Cost Analysis Programs
        HRSD budgets for the cost of operating our interceptor system through the annual reve-
nue budget. Normal maintenance costs are planned for on an annual basis as part of our im-
provement budget. Graphs showing the cost per mile of pipe are shown below for each of these
different categories.




                                                70
71
72
73
Our user fees fund both the operations and maintenance programs. We charge all of our cus-
tomers based on their water usage. Or, if they are an industry or commercial customer, we sur-
charge them based on the strength of their waste.

       The following is an approximate breakdown of the Interceptor Systems Department
maintenance budget:

         •   Predictive maintenance            16 percent
         •   Preventive maintenance            28 percent
         •   Cooperative maintenance           28 percent
         •   Emergency maintenance             28 percent.

HRSD’s annual operating and maintenance budget for our interceptor system is $5.5 million.
This equates to 7 percent of the overall HRSD budget.

4.10.2 Budget and Customer Rate Setting Analysis
        On an annual basis, we establish a budget that is approved by our Commission. As part
of that budget, we also analyze our rates to determine if we need to adjust them. A model that
factors in all types of issues associated with providing treatment and interceptor services helps
guide us in setting our rates. We prefer to adjust our rates in small increments annually rather
than have no increases for several years followed by a big adjustment.

4.10.3 Capital Improvement Program Funding
         HRSD prepares a Capital Improvement Program on an annual basis. This CIP outlines
five years of projected projects and their costs and also lists known projects that may occur be-
yond that timeframe. Money for our CIP comes from connection fees. Any resident or business
that ties to a system that eventually comes into HRSD is charged a connection fee that is based
on capital buy-in. These fees are kept in our construction fund and used to pay for future con-
struction projects. Our five-year plan is used to project when we may need to obtain funds via
state revolving loan funds or possibly go out for bond issues. We have occasionally received
grants in the past.


4.11   Equipment and Tools Management Programs

4.11.1 Equipment and Tool Repair and Spare Parts Inventory Management Programs
        HRSD keeps critical spare parts on site for system and pump station repairs. In addition,
we keep many frequently needed parts on our maintenance vehicles to eliminate travel time re-
quired to pick up parts. We maintain a list of businesses where materials can be purchased with
short lead-time. Our Computerized Maintenance Management System will be used to keep
track of our parts inventory, including spare parts and other types of equipment required to be
kept in our inventory, and will automatically provide information to our procurement section to
order parts as they are used.




                                               74
4.11.2 Vehicle Repair Management Program – Automotive Shop
       All of our rolling stock is procured and maintained by our automotive shop. This in-
cludes emergency generators that are at our pump station sites. HRSD maintains automotive
shops at our south shore and north shore locations. Automotive Shop employees schedule
maintenance, as necessary, and maintain records of repairs.

4.11.3 Supplies Management Program
        HRSD contracts with local vendors to provide everyday supplies. We use a charge card
system that allows employees in all HRSD departments to charge supplies to their budget.
Rather than having a large warehouse, we utilize the storage of our vendors and have daily de-
liveries of crucial supplies.


4.12    Customer Information Programs
        Every HRSD department is committed to providing the highest levels of customer ser-
vice. This section provides an overview of our comprehensive public information, community
outreach and environmental education programs, which are coordinated by the Chief of Com-
munications. Our Customer Information Services Division is another source of information and
assistance. Callers can reach an HRSD representative around the clock to report emergencies
and obtain information. HRSD also provides information on its Web site, www.hrsd.com,
through which customers can make inquiries and provide feedback.

4.12.1 Call Center
       HRSD’s Customer Information Services Division staffs a call center Monday through
Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Employees trained in customer service provide prompt and
courteous responses to telephone inquiries regarding billing issues or other concerns.
       During evenings, weekends and holidays, an answering service takes calls and contacts
HRSD as needed to ensure that a responsible party is always available to handle reports of
emergencies that might affect public health or the environment. A 24-hour Interactive Voice
Response System is available, and a toll-free number, 1-888-ASK-HRUBS (1-888-275-4782),
enables customers throughout the region can call at no cost.
       Customer service personnel are trained to properly respond to e-mail inquiries and are
provided with sample correspondence.

4.12.2 Complaint Management Program
       Complaints in the form of letters, phone calls, e-mails, and face-to-face contact are re-
ceived in every HRSD department and are tracked by the work center receiving the complaint.
HRSD is exploring the possibility of centralizing the management of complaints by utilizing
functionality included in the new customer care and billing system that is currently being im-
plemented. Deployment of the new system is expected in mid-2006.

        Access to the system will be provided to all HRSD employees who may receive com-
plaints. These employees will be assigned responsibility for providing good customer service
through timely resolution, thereby reinforcing HRSD’s positive image within the community.




                                              75
All such contact will be logged and tracked, with a distinction made between complaints and
inquiries. A complaint is a request for action whereas an inquiry is a request for information.

        In addition, a distinction will be made between customer service complaints and techni-
cal quality-of-service complaints. Customer service complaints refer to relationship factors
such as the responsiveness, professionalism, courtesy helpfulness of HRSD staff and adherence
to traffic laws by drivers of HRSD vehicles. Customer service complaints also relate to cus-
tomer support services such as turn-on/turn-off activities, billing, rate-setting and communica-
tion.

        Technical quality-of-service complaints are directly related to core services of the util-
ity. They include complaints associated with odor, sewage back-ups and overflows, line breaks,
disruptions of traffic and facilities upkeep.

4.12.3 Public Information Programs - Communications
       HRSD uses a variety of outreach strategies to ensure the public is properly informed of
major construction projects, emergency repairs and planned maintenance activities.

       To notify residents of planned activities such as routine maintenance and smoke testing,
HRSD uses door hangers. A special hanger is distributed when a spill occurs to provide infor-
mation about cleanup and safety issues. Flyers and notices are distributed to residents of
neighborhoods affected by a major project.

        HRSD employees are available to speak to civic organizations, schools and other
groups on a variety of topics. Security policies also permit tours of treatment plants under cer-
tain circumstances.

        HRSD’s Chief of Communications, the primary media contact, issues news releases to
alert print and broadcast media to planned HRSD projects. The chief also coordinates responses
to media inquiries on routine and emergency matters. Senior managers periodically conduct
briefings for reporters and meet with newspaper editorial boards.

        To ensure the broadest possible notification, HRSD may place advertisements in news-
papers for major projects, especially if a public meeting is planned or a significant traffic im-
pact is anticipated.

        Special briefings are provided to local, state and federal elected officials and their staff;
other government officials; and utility staff as appropriate. HRSD staff may visit homeowners
to explain projects that could result in a period of inconvenience.

       HRSD’s contractors typically are required to erect signs at the site of major projects to
provide information such as the project Web page and an HRSD phone number to call for more
information.

       HRSD’s Web site, www.hrsd.com, is an important public information tool. In addition
to providing information about the organization, customer services and business opportunities



                                                 76
for vendors, the site includes pages for major projects. This has proved an excellent way to
share information with interested citizens.

       A copy of the HRSD’s Communications and Public Response Plan, which provides
guidance for public communications during emergencies, is located in the CMOM library.

4.12.4 Environmental Education Programs - Communications
        HRSD’s commitment to environmental education is demonstrated through a variety of
special programs and initiatives, some of which are highlighted below.

        HRSD and the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) encourage recreational boaters to
Pump It, Don't Dump It through their summer boater education program, funded by a Clean
Vessel Act grant. The goal of the program is to promote the proper disposal of wastewater from
sanitary holding tanks to prevent dumping into waterways. Specially trained college students
visit marinas, local festivals, and even homes to educate boaters and provide free tank pump
outs.

        HRSD celebrates farming day in October, a time when farmers are beginning to harvest
their soybean crops and plant their winter wheat. The annual event, which included educational
activities, acknowledges Virginia's rich agricultural heritage, as well as the farmers who fertil-
ize their crops with Nutri-Green® biosolids.

        The Clean Water Curriculum is a teacher-friendly wastewater unit for fourth graders.
HRSD developed 15 easy-to-use lesson plans to help students meet the Standards of Learning
for Virginia Public Schools. This resource provides hands-on wastewater related activities that
make learning fun. Teachers may use every lesson or select their favorites. These science
classes feature assignments such as designing a simple treatment system using pipes, screens
and buckets. Small groups have the opportunity to develop critical thinking skills as they solve
problems in the “Down-The-Drain Dilemmas” lesson. Even the homework is appealing to chil-
dren. “Be A Leak Detective” provides the procedures for students to follow to determine
whether they have leaking toilets and faucets.

       HRSD routinely provides educational exhibits for events such as area Earth Day festi-
vals and Bay Days.

        Environmental Improvement Fund Grants, which are awarded for pollution preven-
tion activities and environmental education, are funded by administrative penalties levied
against businesses and industries that fail to meet their permit requirements. Recent grant re-
cipients include: two Newport News elementary schools for oyster restoration projects; the
Elizabeth River Project for its new River Information Center and educational materials; the
Mattaponi Heritage Foundation for American shad restoration and water quality monitoring;
the Portsmouth Public Library Foundation, Inc. for books to support the school system's envi-
ronmental science curriculum; and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science for their submerged
aquatic vegetation program.




                                               77
        The HRSD environmental scholarship, which is administered by the Norfolk Founda-
tion, was endowed by a grant from the Environmental Improvement Fund. The scholarship re-
cipients must reside in HRSD’s service area, be full-time graduate students in a public Virginia
university, and be enrolled in one of the following disciplines: environmental health, environ-
mental chemistry, biology, or civil or environmental engineering.

        The Ocean Lakes Environmental Education Program provides a variety of learning
opportunities at HRSD’s Atlantic Treatment Plant. The plant and its adjacent Progress Farm,
which includes 150 acres of farmland, forest, and wetlands, have become a laboratory and out-
door classroom for activities that teach Virginia Beach students about the environment and how
to care for it. A natural partnership with Ocean Lakes High School, which is located next to the
treatment plant, has evolved into a program that includes classroom instruction by HRSD staff,
involvement in the Smithsonian Institution’s Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Program and an
annual one-day Earth Action Project in which the mayor participates.

       In conjunction with its Earth Action Project, HRSD sponsors an annual art contest.
Virginia Beach high school students are invited to submit designs that interpret a clean water
theme. The winners receive cash prizes and recognition from the mayor.

      HRSD informs our customers about issues and projects (including pollution prevention)
through our newsletters, P2 News and WaterWays, as well as bill inserts. One bill insert fo-
cused on TBT. The slogan "It's a No-Drainer! Always Follow Label Directions" was created
to encourage the proper disposal of household hazardous waste, including TBT-containing
products.

      HRSD organizes formal meetings to brief the public on certain major projects. These
meetings are publicized extensively through newspaper advertisements, notices to public offi-
cials and flyers distributed to the affected community.


4.13   Legal Support Programs
       This section provides overviews of various legal support programs.

4.13.1 Inter-Jurisdictional Agreement Program
        HRSD was established by the Virginia General Assembly via enabling legislation. All
localities must petition the circuit court to become a member of HRSD. There are no formal
contracts between HRSD and the localities. However, upon joining HRSD, all the localities are
required to follow our policies. Each locality is provided a copy of HRSD’s Development Plan,
which includes these policies.

       A.    Interest Participation Agreement (IPA), Lease Purchase Agreement (LPA)
             and Relocations
                 HRSD works very closely with all localities to plan for new facilities or relo-
             cation of existing facilities. If a new development requires HRSD to provide sew-
             age facilities, HRSD will do so under an Interest Participation Agreement (48, p.
             5-13) or Lease Purchase Agreement (48, p. 5-14). HRSD does not build facilities



                                              78
             on speculation that something will occur in the future. An IPA is signed by the lo-
             cality, and they agree to pay interest on the construction cost to build the line.
             HRSD will pay the capital cost to build the new facility provided it is in our future
             development plan. As new connections tie into this new pipeline, 70 percent of
             their wastewater treatment fees are credited toward the interest cost. Once enough
             development is established whereby the 70 percent credit offsets the interest pay-
             ments, no further commitment from the locality is required and the lines are con-
             sidered then to begin paying for themselves.

                 A Lease Purchase Agreement is similar to the above but the locality actually
             builds the line and owns it. HRSD agrees to operate and maintain the line and ac-
             tually pays a lease payment to the locality based on 70 percent of the wastewater
             fees obtained for connections to the new segment of line. When it becomes eco-
             nomically advantageous, HRSD will purchase the line for the price the locality
             paid to have it designed and built.

                 At times, HRSD is required to relocate one of its facilities. If our facility is lo-
             cated in a city right-of-way that was not under an agreement in some other form,
             HRSD may be required to relocate the pipeline at our cost if a locality undertakes
             an improvement project. If HRSD is in an easement, the locality is required to re-
             locate our line if necessary. At that point, typically HRSD will contract to have the
             line moved but will require an agreement from the locality. It must assure the line
             is being moved in accordance with their requirements, and that they will reim-
             burse us for the costs of relocating it if it is in an easement or in property owned
             fee simple by HRSD.

4.13.2 Pretreatment Legal Support Program - IWD
        The HRSD Industrial Waste Division (IWD) is responsible for regulating industrial and
commercial discharges through application of the HRSD Industrial Wastewater Discharge
Regulations. These regulations include general and specific effluent limitations and a discharge
permit program. Adequate authority to enforce the Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regula-
tions of HRSD and all applicable State and Federal regulations, including final EPA "pretreat-
ment limitations," is provided in Section 102 of the HRSD Industrial Wastewater Discharge
Regulations (20, p. 1).

4.13.3 Grease Control Legal Support Program – IWD
        Section 301 D of the HRSD Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations prohibits
“Any solids or viscous substances that may cause obstruction to flow or be detrimental to sew-
erage system operations.” Section 301 G prohibits “Any petroleum or mineral-based oils (non-
saponifiable) and/or any animal or vegetable based oils, fats, or greases, which in excess con-
centrations would tend to cause interference, pass-through, or adverse effects on the sewerage
system, as determined by HRSD.” (20, pp. 18-19)

       The HRSD Industrial Waste Division also implements a surcharge program. The sur-
charge is an additional charge to industrial and commercial users which have high-strength
wastes (BOD and/or TSS concentrations greater than 250 mg/l, and Total Phosphorus (TP)



                                                79
greater than 6 mg/l). The surcharge serves a two-fold purpose: High-strength users are required
to pay their fair share of treatment costs rather than being supplemented by residential custom-
ers generating normal domestic wastes, and industries are given a financial incentive to "clean
up their act." Many dischargers have substantially reduced or eliminated the surcharge by insti-
tuting simple housekeeping practices, thus saving themselves money and providing additional
treatment capacity at the publicly owned treatment works. In the case of food service facilities
such as restaurants, the level of surcharge can be correlated to how well fats, oils and grease
(FOG), and other organic materials are kept out of the sewerage system—the better the grease
trap or interceptor and the better-maintained it is, the lower the surcharge. Therefore, the sur-
charge program offers a monetary incentive for food service facilities to keep as much FOG as
possible out of the sewer.

        IWD visits approximately 25-35 restaurants per month, primarily to perform site inves-
tigations to determine whether the facility will be surveyed (sampled) for surcharge purposes.
Facility operations inside and outside are investigated. Notes are made as to where things are
plumbed, presence of garbage disposals, presence of grease traps, whether grease traps are
properly installed and properly maintained, disposition of grease that is removed and more.
IWD also responds to any request for assistance from localities. If a locality reports experienc-
ing line blockages down line from a commercial establishment(s), IWD investigates and, using
the HRSD Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations, requires the problem source(s) to ad-
dress the problems, such as improperly maintained grease traps.

        Since inception of the surcharge program, HRSD has investigated and sampled more
than 5,000 commercial dischargers and will continue to investigate and sample every potential
high strength waste commercial discharger in HRSD’s service area.

4.13.4 Service Laterals Legal Support Program – IWD
        HRSD does not have service laterals. These are controlled by the locality in which they
are located.

4.13.5 Septic Tank Haulers Legal Support Program – IWD
     Septic tank haulers are regulated in accordance with Section 305 of the HRSD Industrial
Wastewater Discharge Regulations, Discharge of Trucked or Hauled Wastes (20, pp.23-24).
The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recognizes these HRSD permits in lieu of issuing
separate VDH permits to the haulers.

4.13.6 Grit and Grease
        Our Interceptor crews clean all of our gravity lines and manholes annually or as needed
to remove any grit deposits within our lines. Because our system is large, grease is not as big a
problem as in the city systems. Our main areas of emphasis are a few pump station wet wells
that we maintain to ensure there is no grease build up. The wet wells are checked during
monthly inspections, and grease is removed when necessary. If during these inspections we no-
tice tremendous amounts of grease, we can report this to our Industrial Waste Division. They
can track down the source of the grease and possibly eliminate or reduce the amount in our sys-
tem.




                                               80
4.13.7 Miss Utility Program
         HRSD works actively with the Virginia utility for checks and services. There is a state-
wide program that runs our Miss Utility program. All contractors, home owners and businesses
that are disturbing the ground are required to call Miss Utility to report what they are doing.
Miss Utility then sends tickets to utilities that are within a grid system that is reported to them.
HRSD evaluates if we have anything within that grid system. If we do, we mark it within a 48-
hour timeframe. We have people on call 24 hours a day in case there are emergencies so we can
mark our facilities as needed. We have groups on South Shore and North Shore that mark fa-
cilities. In addition, all technicians are able to assist when needed. They are trained in the soft-
ware and the equipment that is used to mark and locate the lines. They also can read our as-
built drawings to help them determine the location of our facilities.


4.14    Water Quality Monitoring Program
        An important part of industrial waste control at the publicly owned treatment works is
the ability to locate, and hold liable, sources of unusual discharges that cause treatment difficul-
ties. HRSD has such capabilities in the form of an “Industrial Waste Alert System.”

        HRSD has an extensive monitoring program, which analyzes wastewater at various
stages of treatment. Not only is fully treated, disinfected effluent analyzed but samples are also
taken of raw influent and process units throughout the treatment facility. Storm water manage-
ment at HRSD treatment facilities is required under the Virginia VPDES regulations. Inspec-
tions of plant storm water outfalls are conducted on a regular basis by plant personnel in
addition to unannounced inspections by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

        HRSD provides water quality monitoring assistance to the localities upon request.
These monitoring activities may include bacterial monitoring and optical brighteners detection
at storm water outfalls as well as other parameters. HRSD has assisted in sampling for tracking
bacterial sources.

4.14.1 Routine Water Quality Monitoring Program
        All treatment facilities are staffed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Treatment plant op-
erators follow an emergency reporting procedure to report any change in influent pH, odor,
color or general appearance. In addition, any process failure such as loss of chlorine residual or
treatment effectiveness is reported.

4.14.2 Investigative Water Quality Monitoring Program
        Members of the HRSD Industrial Waste Division respond immediately to locate the
source and terminate unusual discharge. Enforcement mechanisms to assign liability for dam-
ages to sources of upsets and to terminate service are provided for in the HRSD Industrial
Wastewater Discharge Regulations, Part V, Violations and Enforcement (20, pp. 31-34). This
activity has resulted in the collection of considerable sums in damages from industrial sources
of unusual wastes. Additionally, the overall quality of HRSD discharges has been improved.




                                                81
4.14.3 Water Quality Monitoring for Spill Impact
        The Technical Services Division of Water Quality will initiate environmental monitor-
ing of receiving waters for major spills. A major spill is defined as one which is of sufficient
magnitude to have the potential to affect water quality. The magnitude of the spill to trigger a
sampling event is variable depending upon several factors such as the sensitivity of the affected
water and its uses (i.e., shellfish or swimming waters or sensitive spawning areas), the season
of the year the magnitude of antecedent rainfall. Spills resulting from extreme events such as
hurricanes or extreme northeaster storms will not be sampled due to the dominance of nonpoint
source impacts to the receiving waters. The parameters to be monitored are dependent upon the
sensitivity of the receiving waters.

4.14.4 Industrial Waste
        A two-time winner of EPA awards for excellence, HRSD’s Pretreatment Program has
been recognized as model throughout the country. HRSD began regulation of industrial waste
discharges in 1972, before the requirements of the Clean Water Act were in place, and continu-
ally expands and modifies its industrial waste control program to meet HRSD needs as well as
federal, state and local requirements.

        HRSD's Industrial Waste Division is responsible for regulating industrial and commer-
cial discharges through application of HRSD's Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations
(20). These regulations include general and specific effluent limitations and a discharge permit
program. Compliance is ensured through the use of an extensive monitoring program (HRSD’s
monitoring of industrial users in conjunction with industrial self-monitoring). HRSD conducts
workweek wastewater monitoring surveys of industries at least annually utilizing high-speed
automatic samplers. In addition, all industries known to discharge toxic pollutants are grab
sampled and spot checked on a random, unannounced basis.

        Industries are also required to perform varying degrees of self-monitoring using methods
approved by HRSD. To encourage better pretreatment, HRSD implements a surcharge to indus-
trial and commercial users that have high-strength wastes. To determine the effectiveness of the
industrial pretreatment program and to ensure continued success, HRSD also monitors treatment
plant influent, effluent and biosolids on a routine basis.

        The Industrial Waste Division is responsible for the control of all non-domestic waste
discharged into HRSD’s system. IWD monitors the high strength waste that is being sent into
the interceptor system and into our treatment plants and surcharges for those flows. They also
work to make certain that industrial waste is not causing problems in HRSD’s system. They are
involved in controlling I/I coming from industrial facilities, which include large military bases
in our area.

         An important part of HRSD's industrial waste control program is the ability to locate and
hold liable sources of unusual discharges that can cause treatment difficulties. All HRSD treatment
facilities are staffed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. An emergency reporting procedure is in place
so a treatment plant operator can report any unusual discharge. Members of HRSD's Industrial
Waste Division respond immediately to locate and terminate the unusual discharge. HRSD's




                                                82
Industrial Pretreatment Program has been effective in improving the overall quality of discharges
and ensuring NUTRI-GREEN® biosolids’ quality.

        Due to the nature of the Hampton Roads area and the significant water bodies contained
within, HRSD operates nine wastewater treatment plants ranging in size from 10 to 40 million
gallons per day. As a result, the smaller plants require implementation of a very rigorous indus-
trial waste control program. Consequently, regulation of commercial and “small” industrial dis-
chargers is an integral part of the program. Many types of commercial facilities and smaller
industrial users, which include some located within federal facilities, are regulated using the
same type of permit program and regulatory controls used for significant industrial users. Ex-
amples of these facilities include small, medium and large laundries; small, medium and large
photo processors (including one-hour facilities); vehicle maintenance facilities (public and pri-
vate including radiator shops, machine shops, vehicle dealerships, vehicle washing facilities,
etc.); small, medium and large medical facilities; food service facilities; centralized waste
treatment facilities; printers; tank truck hauling services; optical laboratories; public and private
chemical and biological laboratories; and small manufacturing facilities (including pilot opera-
tions). These small facilities are normally ignored by most large industrial waste control pro-
grams; however, regulation of these facilities has been a key to our success. Although each
individually represents a small loading to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW), to-
gether they can represent a large portion of toxics discharged.

        HRSD has a number of “Prohibited Waste Discharges” found in Section 301 of the In-
dustrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations (20, pp. 18-21) to encourage pollution prevention
and waste minimization.

        Additionally, inspectors constantly review Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for in-
dustries to look for product substitution opportunities and to spot potentially toxic components
that might cause a discharge problem. If the MSDS does not provide sufficient information,
HRSD contacts the manufacturer directly or requires appropriate product testing to ensure
compatibility. Through annual/semi-annual inspections and grab sampling visits, processes are
observed and suggestions are made concerning pollution prevention alternatives and/or best
management practice implementation. Where deficiencies are found, letters are issued to re-
quire facility correction. An example of a deficiency is the potential for a spill in a process area
or chemical storage area through open floor drains located in close proximity to those areas.
Deficiency corrections would include sealing or raising the drain(s) or berming the storage ar-
eas. All deficiency corrections are reinspected to verify compliance.

        All of HRSD’s large treatment plants provide at least secondary treatment supple-
mented by nutrient removal, by either biological or chemical means, and utilize varying forms
of biosolids handling, including incineration, land application and composting. HRSD’s Vir-
ginia Initiative Treatment Plant uses an innovative Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) proc-
ess, jointly developed by HRSD and CH2M Hill, which removes about 70 percent of the
nitrogen and phosphorus at secondary treatment costs without the use of chemicals. HRSD
maintains the patent for this process so that its innovative technology remains available to other
POTWs at no expense. Since the BNR process utilizes nitrification and the associated bacteria




                                                 83
for treatment, the process is much more susceptible to upset from toxics. Therefore, proper
regulation of industrial wastes is of paramount importance.

         HRSD’s local limits were developed, and are constantly reviewed to protect the facili-
ties referenced above as well as their receiving water bodies. This is accomplished using the al-
lowable headworks loading method in conjunction with a combination of the uniform
concentration limit and the mass proportion allocation methods. HRSD chose these allocation
methods because they offer the most flexibility in providing a concentration limit (easy to regu-
late) yet also provide a more reasonable approach to regulating based on discharge of pounds of
toxic pollutants to the sewer system.

         HRSD regulates the following parameters numerically: arsenic, cadmium, total chro-
mium, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, nickel, phenolic compounds, silver, zinc, pH, non-
saponifiable oil and grease, total and individual toxic organics, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-
benzene, and xylene), COD/BOD ratio, and temperature. The most limiting factors taken into
account in limit development were biosolids reuse, no opportunity for inhibition (including ni-
trification), and production of a non-toxic effluent. HRSD has always approached biosolids
handling from the reuse standpoint. Although five of nine HRSD facilities continue to use in-
cineration for cost reasons, biosolids generated by all nine plants are significantly cleaner than
limits required by the EPA 503 regulations and all are suitable for reuse. Since the early 1980s,
HRSD has composted and land applied biosolids to the maximum extent possible.

        In addition to the numerical limits referenced above, HRSD has prohibited (zero dis-
charge) a number of very toxic chemicals and pollutants from being discharged in any concen-
tration by any user of HRSD’s system. HRSD maintains and updates a list of these chemicals
and pollutants as necessary. All industrial users are provided this list and are advised of the ap-
propriate discharge prohibitions. Examples of these include:

       •   Perchloroethylene (PERC) – Many POTWs are now faced with significant problems
           such as transmission system deterioration, ex-filtration and contamination of
           groundwater, and air emissions violations stemming from the long-term discharge
           of PERC from dry cleaning facilities. HRSD has never allowed the discharge of this
           material to its system since the inception of the Industrial Waste Control Program in
           1972. As a result HRSD is not faced with these problems.

       •   Tributyltin (TBT) – This chemical is used as a marine anti-foulant and cooling
           tower biocide. Because of its extreme toxicity in low concentrations, it is extremely
           powerful in these applications. HRSD’s “zero discharge” limitation is very impor-
           tant since the small, medium, and large marine vessel building and repair industry is
           the single largest user of this material and is also the largest collective generator of
           industrial waste within HRSD.

       •   Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) – Like PERC, PCBs have created numerous en-
           vironmental problems for some POTWs. HRSD’s zero discharge limit of these
           compounds has resulted in no detection in any of HRSD’s facilities including influ-
           ents, effluents, and biosolids.



                                                84
        An example of the application and success of HRSD’s concentration/flow range based
limitations concerns the regulation of silver. During the early 1990s, HRSD recognized a need
to modify its local limit for silver. This need was realized as a result of the large number of
photo imaging facilities in HRSD’s service area. The discharge flows from these facilities
were, for the most part, less than 1,000 gallons per day (GPD). The available treatment tech-
nology, electrolytic recovery and/or steel wool buckets, could not remove silver consistently
below 2.5 mg/l, which was the maximum silver local limit being enforced at that time and
based on a discharge volume of 10,000 GPD. Since HRSD has always approached local limit
development from a poundage standpoint, two levels of local limits for silver were added with-
out increasing silver mass. These levels were for flows from 1,000 to 5,000 GPD, to accommo-
date facilities with water-based photo processors, and a lower level for facilities with flows of
less than 1,000 GPD, for “waterless” photo processors. This approach proved to allow the
flexibility needed for an industry to achieve compliance using best available technology eco-
nomically achievable and yet keep the pounds of silver discharged (mass) at the proper level.
Since 1989, application of silver local limits has resulted in a 60% reduction of silver dis-
charged into the environment.

       The effectiveness of HRSD’s pretreatment program can be observed through the fol-
lowing examples:

       •   Industrial waste control totally eliminated the frequent treatment plant and digester
           upsets that occurred before 1978.

       •   A dramatic decrease in the quantity of heavy metals received in the influent at
           HRSD’s plants has been documented since implementation of the program. This de-
           crease has amounted to approximately 360 percent, or a reduction of 50,000 pounds
           per year of cumulative metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn) discharged to the environ-
           ment. All metals except for zinc have shown downward trends since the early
           1980s. Zinc concentrations and poundages indicated an increase around 1991 due to
           the increased use of zinc orthophosphate throughout the drinking water supply sys-
           tem to prevent corrosion in pipes and to reduce lead from leaching into the drinking
           water. HRSD initiated a cooperative effort among the cities in Hampton Roads that
           provides potable water to test a corrosion inhibition product with a higher ratio (5:1
           vs. 3:1) of phosphates to zinc. The purpose of this project was to reduce the zinc be-
           ing discharged to HRSD treatment plants and still meet the requirements of the Safe
           Drinking Water Act. The project started during the fall of 1994 and was completed
           in the spring of 1995. The chemical substitution was successful in reducing zinc
           concentrations to the previous levels. It should be noted that the problem was not re-
           lated, in any way, to industrial discharges.

       •   All HRSD biosolids meet EPA Part 503, Table 3 requirements as well as Virginia
           regulations for exceptional quality biosolids. The biosolids are therefore suitable for
           recycling. The high-quality biosolids are a direct result of an effective industrial pre-
           treatment program that has attained the metals reductions previously noted. HRSD
           has developed a major recycling and reuse program involving HRSD’s biosolids



                                                85
            and biosolids ash. The biosolids are land applied and composted. Biosolids ash is
            used in various construction projects.

       •    In-stream bio-monitoring and bioassay testing confirm that effluents from HRSD
            plants are non-toxic.

       •    HRSD’s pretreatment program is an integral part of a comprehensive toxics moni-
            toring program. The major elements of this program include analyses of the influent
            and effluent for toxic organics; analyses of the influent, effluent and biosolids for
            heavy metals; whole effluent toxicity measurements using Fundulus heteroclitus and
            Mysidopsis bahia; receiving water quality monitoring, including biological assess-
            ments and physicochemical testing; and environmental assessments of biosolids re-
            use and disposal practices. Data derived from these various program elements are
            reviewed immediately to detect potential significant industrial violations and are re-
            viewed annually to assess the overall effectiveness of HRSD’s local limits. To date,
            this extensive program has detected no significant adverse environmental impacts
            and thus validates the effectiveness of the current Industrial Waste Control Program.
            In fact, HRSD effluents contain concentrations below the EPA water quality criteria
            for all pollutants, even though HRSD’s NPDES permits do not contain pollutant-
            specific limitations at this time.


4.15   Contingency Plan for Sewer and Treatment System

4.15.1 Contingency Planning Process
        We prepare contingency plans when we know there is a potential problem looming in
our system, such as a faulty valve, that may require an emergency response. These plans are of-
ten coordinated with the localities we serve, and some are even put in place to help the locali-
ties with their contingency planning. Crews are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week to
respond if necessary. Equipment such as emergency generators and pumps are ready to go at a
moment’s notice. We maintain a large inventory of pump sizes and pipe fittings, in case they
are needed to repair leaks. We are prepared to install bypass pumping and divert and shut down
sections of pipeline during any of these events.

       A.    Hurricane Plan
                 HRSD is in a hurricane-prone area and therefore a Hurricane Contingency
             Plan (13) is kept up to date and ready to implement. The plan provides for re-
             sponses to different levels of hurricane warnings, and our interceptor system pre-
             pares our pump stations and other facilities as appropriate to be able withstand the
             high winds and possible flooding. Our pump stations are equipped with emer-
             gency power or connections so we can attach either portable generators or pumps.
             During Hurricane Isabel in 2004, we were able to maintain our entire system in
             operation, despite heavy destruction and long-term power outages in the area.




                                                86
B.   Security Task Force
        This is only a summary of the features either implemented or enhanced since
     September 2001. Security is a continuous process with further enhancements
     and/or procedures to be implemented as facilities, employees and technologies
     change.

     General
     1. Security Task Force was formed in October, 2001 to examine vulnerabilities
        within HRSD facilities and infrastructure and to determine what steps to take
        to minimize and contain threats. This group meets regularly to review inci-
        dents, recommend improvements and develop security-related procedures for
        approval by the QST and/or General Manager.
     2. Release of information concerning infrastructure is limited to engineering
        firms and other entities requiring legitimate access to plans and other related
        documents.
     3. Release of information regarding security procedures is authorized only
        through the General Manager.

     Treatment Plants
     1. Fencing surrounds HRSD’s nine large plants. The smaller plants are either
        fenced or in the process of obtaining or installing fencing. Perimeter fencing is
        inspected on a regular basis to ensure integrity.
     2. Mechanical gates are used for access to the plants. Entry requires an author-
        ized employee badge. Contractors and visitors are permitted to enter upon
        verification.
     3. Gate areas are equipped with cameras. Real-time images are available on
        monitors within the plant at various locations. The images are recorded and are
        available for review through the Safety Manager.
     4. Nighttime lighting is assessed periodically to ensure adequate visibility for
        employees working shift.
     5. Plants that are adjacent to or housed within other property have procedures
        and contact information for the appropriate property owners including the US
        Navy and the Virginia Port Authority. Outside security services are also em-
        ployed during heavy construction at these facilities.
     6. Though not solely as a security measure, chlorine and sulfur dioxide has been
        removed from all treatment plants and replaced with less toxic and dangerous
        chemicals.
     7. Threat Level Guidelines have been developed for the plants detailing the ap-
        propriate steps to take at each level of the Department of Homeland Security
        Threat Levels. These guidelines include perimeter and security equipment in-
        spection frequency, facility access advisories and emergency equipment inven-
        tory requirements.
     8. The tour policy has been revised to address security concerns. Tours are lim-
        ited to certain facilities, participant number is limited and identification of par-
        ticipants is required. Moreover, tours are prohibited during certain threat
        levels.



                                        87
9. Visitors and contractors are required to check in at the administration building
    of a facility upon arrival.
10. Emergency Response Procedures have been written detailing chemical release
    response, notification procedures and evacuation procedures. All employees at
    the plants have been trained on these procedures in the past six months and
    will receive annual training.

Pump Stations
1. Pump stations and pressure reducing stations have a SCADA system, which
   allows early warning of system malfunctions, smoke and fire and access by
   unauthorized persons.
2. A large number of the pump stations and PRSs are fully fenced to limit access.
   Access to wet wells and other vital points of entry at the stations is controlled
   via locks.
3. Emergency Response Procedures (ERPs) have been written detailing chemical
   release response, notification procedures and evacuation procedures. All em-
   ployees within Interceptor Systems will receive annual training on ERPs.
   ERPs can be viewed on the Safety page of the Intranet, and copies of the pro-
   cedures are located in the copier rooms.

HRSD Air Rail Avenue Complex
1. Entry into buildings and gated areas is controlled by an electronic badge sys-
   tem.
2. Only authorized contractors are issued a day badge allowing them access to
   select areas during the time they are providing services.
3. Visitors are required to check in and must be escorted while in HRSD build-
   ings.
4. A video surveillance system has been installed to monitor areas including
   doors, cashiers, parking lots and gates. This system allows real-time viewing
   from select monitors as well as recording capability.
5. Procedures were written and provided to employees outlining mail-handling
   procedures and emergency response. All Finance and Administration employ-
   ees were trained on these procedures.
6. The Central Environmental Laboratory has a chemical control system for their
   toxic substances. This includes maintaining minimal quantities of substances
   such as arsenic and cyanide in locked cabinets, procurement of hazardous sub-
   stances only by authorized personnel and limited access to materials such as
   acids and bases.

Information Technology
1. The Wide Area Network is protected by hardware, software and conventional
    security measures to ensure its operational integrity. These include firewalls,
    spam and virus filtering, patches and updates.
2. Detailed guidelines, policy and procedures for computer, Internet and email
    usage are provided for all employees.




                                  88
     Personnel
     1. All new employees are required to undergo a background investigation.
     2. CDL Drivers transporting hazardous materials are required to undergo a back-
        ground investigation and fingerprinting on a regular basis.
     3. All employees are issued an HRSD identification badge by HR. The badge
        serves as photo identification and as a means to gain access to appropriate fa-
        cilities and buildings.
     4. Personnel operating an HRSD vehicle are cautioned to lock all HRSD vehicles
        when not occupied, whether behind locked areas or out in public, to prevent
        theft and unauthorized use.
     5. Personnel are trained in various emergency and security procedures, such as
        HAZMAT III, Workplace Violence Prevention, Bloodborne Pathogen training
        and Emergency Response Procedures.

C.   Public Notification Plan
        HRSD uses a variety of outreach strategies to ensure the public is properly in-
     formed of major construction projects, emergency repairs and planned mainte-
     nance activities.

         HRSD’s Chief of Communications, the primary media contact, issues news re-
     leases to alert print and broadcast media. The chief also coordinates responses to
     media inquiries on routine and emergency matters. Senior managers periodically
     conduct briefings for reporters and meet with newspaper editorial boards.

         Additional means of public notification are described in Section 4.12.3 of this
     document. A copy of the HRSD’s Communications and Public Response Plan,
     which provides guidance for public communications during emergencies, is lo-
     cated in the CMOM library.

D.   Agency Notification Plan
         When there is an emergency, a spill or another problem with our system, we
     notify the DEQ immediately. The DEQ notifies any third party that could be af-
     fected by the problem HRSD is experiencing. This could include water treatment
     facilities, marine resource groups overseeing the welfare of the Chesapeake Bay
     or streams, or others. They also notify the health departments in case there needs
     to be a moratorium on fishing or use of beaches in an area.

E.   Emergency Flow Control Plan
         Whenever HRSD has a pending construction project or potential problem, we
     develop contingency flow control plans. Because we are able to valve off sections
     and divert flows in different areas of our system, we plan ahead and notify people
     of our intentions. Any time a contractor is working on our system, we develop
     “what if” plans should something go wrong and require our attention.




                                      89
F.   Emergency Operations and Maintenance Plan
          HRSD maintains a strategically located inventory of emergency generators
     and pumps that we can activate quickly with existing connections at our stations.
     We have back ups for back ups. If an emergency generator or existing pump does
     not work, we have rolling stock that we can bring in. We maintain spare parts for
     all this equipment to enable us to keep it up and running.

G.   Preparedness Training Program
         HRSD has an annual training program to train all operations personnel on
     emergency repairs, how to hook up portable equipment, trenching technology,
     how to shore up repair holes, the use of all types of repair equipment and entering
     confined space. Our technicians complete a four-year apprentice program, which
     teaches all types of preparedness applications. We periodically cross-train em-
     ployees so they know what coworkers do and can assist if needed.

H.   Water Quality Monitoring Plan
         HRSD has research vessels and equipment available to respond to both emer-
     gency and non-emergency situations. An example of a non-emergency situation is
     the semi-annual monitoring of the York River. HRSD has an underwater force
     main that transports wastewater from Gloucester. Bacterial sampling is conducted
     in the area of the river crossing and the results are sent to the locality. HRSD's
     emergency situation response is outlined in the Interceptors Regulatory Reporting
     Procedures Manual (21) and Technical Services Division Spill Monitoring Memo-
     randum. HRSD has staff available to assess situations and determine the appropri-
     ate course of action.




                                      90
5.0     OPERATION PROGRAMS

      This Chapter provides overviews of the various programs that help HRSD accomplish
its CMOM goal of operating our collection system in the most effective manner


5.1     Pump Station Operation Programs
        HRSD pump station crews check most of our pump stations daily but at a minimum,
three times each week. They follow a checklist to examine the condition and operations of the
pump station to make sure it is working properly. These crews maintain pump station curves
and set points to check the station capacity. They examine the fuel tanks to ensure they are in
good condition At least monthly, they test all the alarms, run emergency generators and per-
form checks on the electrical system to ensure everything is as it should be.

5.1.1   Routine Operating Programs
        Our interceptor crews are constantly aware of how our system is valved so they can re-
spond very quickly in case the direction of flows needs to be changed. They regularly bleed air
vents to be sure we have no problems with air pockets in our systems, check pressure control
within our pipes, monitor SCADA information (which includes pressure settings from pump
stations) and monitor flow meters. They check pipe crossings to be sure there are no problems
and keep track of our cathodic protection system. Whenever roadwork is underway they ensure
there has been no interference with our system and make adjustments to valve boxes as neces-
sary.

5.1.2   Emergency Operating Programs
        Our pump stations are designed to operate under many different scenarios and have
much flexibility designed into them. We can operate them either automatically or manually if
necessary. We have many capabilities of being able to redirect the flow in different directions
and utilize different pumps and sump stations to do different things. We have emergency power
in most of our pump stations or the ability to hook up portable generators or pumps when nec-
essary. During weather events, our people are in close contact with localities in the area so that
we can ensure we are working together to pump as much flow as possible, keep it within the
system, and avoid overflows.


5.2    Pretreatment Programs
       HRSD’s EPA award-winning Pretreatment Program, which has served as a national
model, plays a critical role in our CMOM program. Its components and contributions are sum-
marized in this section.

5.2.1   Industrial User Permitting Program
        HRSD's Industrial Waste Division is responsible for regulating hundreds of commercial
and service facilities through enforcement of HRSD's Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regula-
tions. Approximately 300 industrial dischargers have been issued discharge permits, which out-
line applicable effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, metering requirements, and




                                               91
appropriate compliance schedules. These industries have invested millions of dollars to achieve
compliance.

         Many types of commercial facilities and smaller industrial users, which include some
located within federal facilities, are regulated using the same type of permit program and regu-
latory controls used for significant industrial users. Examples of these facilities include small,
medium, and large laundries; small, medium and large photo processors (including one-hour
facilities); vehicle maintenance facilities (public and private including radiator shops, machine
shops, vehicle dealerships, vehicle washing facilities, etc.); small, medium and large medical
facilities; food service facilities; centralized waste treatment facilities; printers; tank truck haul-
ing services; optical laboratories; public and private chemical and biological laboratories; and
small manufacturing facilities (including pilot operations). These small facilities are normally
ignored by most large industrial waste control programs; however, regulation of these facilities
has been a key to our success. Although each individually represents a small loading to the
publicly owned treatment works (POTW), together they can represent a large portion of toxics
discharged.

        HRSD’s local limits were developed and are constantly reviewed to protect the facilities
referenced above as well as their receiving water bodies. This is accomplished using the allow-
able headworks loading method in conjunction with a combination of the uniform concentra-
tion limit and the mass proportion allocation methods. HRSD chose these allocation methods
because they offer the most flexibility in providing a concentration limit (easy to regulate), yet
also provide a more reasonable approach to regulating based on discharge of pounds of toxic
pollutants to the sewer system.

         HRSD regulates the following parameters numerically: arsenic, cadmium, total chro-
mium, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, nickel, phenolic compounds, silver, zinc, pH, non-
saponifiable oil and grease, total and individual toxic organics, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-
benzene, and xylene), COD/BOD ratio, and temperature. The most limiting factors taken into
account in limit development were biosolids reuse, no opportunity for inhibition (including ni-
trification), and production of a non-toxic effluent. HRSD has always approached biosolids
handling from the reuse standpoint. Although five of nine HRSD facilities continue to use in-
cineration for cost reasons, biosolids generated by all nine plants are significantly cleaner than
limits required by the EPA 503 regulations and are all suitable for reuse. Since the early 1980s,
HRSD has composted and land applied biosolids to the maximum extent possible.

        In addition to the numerical limits referenced above, HRSD has prohibited (zero dis-
charge) a number of very toxic chemicals and pollutants from being discharged in any concen-
tration by any user of HRSD’s system. HRSD maintains and updates a list of these chemicals
and pollutants as necessary. All industrial users are provided this list and are advised of the ap-
propriate discharge prohibitions.

        An example of the application and success of HRSD’s concentration/flow range based
limitations concerns the regulation of silver. During the early 1990s, HRSD recognized a need
to modify its local limit for silver. This need was realized as a result of the large number of
photo imaging facilities in HRSD service area. The discharge flows from these facilities were,



                                                  92
for the most part, less than 1,000 GPD. The available treatment technology, electrolytic recov-
ery and/or steel wool buckets, could not remove silver consistently below 2.5 mg/l, which was
the maximum silver local limit being enforced at that time and based on a discharge volume of
10,000 GPD. Since HRSD has always approached local limit development from a poundage
standpoint, two levels of local limits for silver were added without increasing silver mass.
These levels were for flows from 1,000 to 5,000 GPD to accommodate facilities with water-
based photo processors, and a lower level for facilities with flows of less than 1,000 GPD for
“waterless” photo processors. This approach proved to allow the flexibility needed for an in-
dustry to achieve compliance using best available technology economically achievable and yet
keep the pounds of silver discharged (mass) at the proper level. Since 1989, application of sil-
ver local limits has resulted in a 60% reduction of silver discharged into the environment.

       The effectiveness of HRSD’s pretreatment program can be observed through the fol-
lowing examples:

       •   A dramatic decrease in the quantity of heavy metals received in the influent at
           HRSD’s plants has been documented since implementation of the program. This
           decrease has amounted to approximately 360 percent, or a reduction of 50,000
           pounds per year of cumulative metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn) discharged to the en-
           vironment.

       •   All HRSD biosolids meet EPA Part 503, Table 3 requirements as well as Virginia
           regulations for exceptional quality biosolids. The biosolids are therefore suitable for
           recycling. The high-quality biosolids are a direct result of an effective industrial pre-
           treatment program that has attained the metals reductions previously noted.

       •   In stream bio-monitoring and bioassay testing confirms that effluents from HRSD
           plants are non-toxic.

       •   HRSD’s pretreatment program is an integral part of a comprehensive toxics moni-
           toring program. The major elements of this program include analyses of the influent
           and effluent for toxic organics; analyses of the influent, effluent and biosolids for
           heavy metals; whole effluent toxicity measurements using Fundulus heteroclitus and
           Mysidopsis bahia; receiving water quality monitoring, including biological assess-
           ments and physicochemical testing; and environmental assessments of biosolids re-
           use and disposal practices. Data derived from these various program elements are
           reviewed immediately to detect potential significant industrial violations and are re-
           viewed annually to assess the overall effectiveness of HRSD’s local limits. To date,
           this extensive program has detected no significant adverse environmental impacts
           and thus validates the effectiveness of the current Industrial Waste Control Program.
           In fact, HRSD effluents contain concentrations below the EPA water quality criteria
           for all pollutants, even though HRSD’s NPDES Permits do not contain pollutant-
           specific limitations at this time.




                                                93
5.2.2   Inspection and Sampling Program
        HRSD inspects and samples all permitted dischargers on a random, unannounced basis.
Inspection frequency ranges from twice per year for Significant Industrial Users, once per year
for Non-significant Industrial Users, and once per year or once every two years for Indirect
Permit holders. Every permitted discharger is sampled from monthly to semi-annually, depend-
ing on their record of compliance. These sampling events consist of self-monitoring, performed
by the permit holder, as well as HRSD sampling. HRSD performs unannounced grab sampling,
as well as week-long composite sampling. In addition to permitted dischargers, HRSD also in-
spects and samples hundreds of commercial and service facilities, such as restaurants and deal-
erships. These facilities are sampled for surcharge purposes and to ensure compliance with the
HRSD Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations.

        To determine the effectiveness of the industrial pretreatment program and to ensure
continued success, HRSD also monitors treatment plant influent, effluent and biosolids on a
routine basis.

5.2.3  Enforcement Program
       Compliance with HRSD's Industrial Waste Division Regulations is ensured through the
use of an extensive monitoring program (HRSD monitoring of industrial users in conjunction
with industrial self-monitoring).

        To encourage better pretreatment, HRSD implements a surcharge to industrial and
commercial users that have high-strength wastes. To determine the effectiveness of the indus-
trial pretreatment program and to ensure continued success, HRSD also monitors treatment
plant influent, effluent and biosolids on a routine basis.

         An important part of HRSD's industrial waste control program is the ability to locate
and hold liable sources of unusual discharges that can cause treatment difficulties. All HRSD
treatment facilities are manned 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. An emergency reporting proce-
dure is in place where a treatment plant operator can report any unusual discharge.

         Through annual/semi-annual inspections and grab sampling visits, processes are ob-
served and suggestions are made concerning pollution prevention alternatives and/or best man-
agement practice implementation. Where deficiencies are found, letters are issued to require
facility correction. All deficiency corrections are reinspected to verify compliance.

       The HRSD Industrial Waste Enforcement Response Plan (33) was developed in accor-
dance with Section 501 of HRSD’s Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations (20, p. 31),
requirements of HRSD’s VPDES Permit, and in accordance with requirements of the Clean
Water Act (40 CFR Part 403.8)(f)(5). The Plan outlines enforcement mechanisms for violations
of HRSD’s Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations. It is based on the Virginia Water
Control Board’s Compliance Auditing System (CAS) which is used for enforcement of Vir-
ginia Water Control law and the VPDES Permit system.

      HRSD’s Enforcement Response Plan, approved by the Virginia Department of Envi-
ronmental Quality, uses a point system where violations are assessed points in accordance with



                                              94
their severity and number as described in the Enforcement Response Guide (30). Points range
from 0.2 to 4.0 points and are totaled for a running 180-day window, and escalating mecha-
nisms are implemented based on the point total. Enforcement responses include Notice of Defi-
ciency, Notice of Violation, Compliance Letter, Show Cause Notice, Monetary Penalty
(Administrative) and Permit Revocation/Termination of Service. HRSD implemented this pen-
alty system in January 1993. The program provides a financial incentive to the industry to
achieve compliance and has resulted in a steady increase in the number of industrial users ob-
taining 100 percent compliance since 1993.

       Each year, HRSD honors permitted businesses and industries for outstanding pollution
prevention measures and exemplary permit compliance (pretreatment excellence). Honoring
businesses for their outstanding efforts provides deserved recognition and an incentive to pre-
vent pollution beyond environmental regulations.

         Pollution prevention awards are presented to businesses for outstanding multi-media ef-
forts that focus on source reduction rather than traditional treatment, control, and disposal. Gold
awards are presented to businesses that have a perfect compliance record, with no administra-
tive or technical violations. Silver awards are presented to significant industrial users with three
or fewer such violations and to non-significant industrial users with one such violation.


5.3     Corrosion Control Programs - Reliability

5.3.1   Inspection Program
        The Reliability Section arranges to have all impressed current systems inspected and
tested annually by a National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) certified Corrosion
Technician.

        Reliability Section conducts ultrasonic pipeline thickness testing. Ultrasonic nonde-
structive testing (NDT) characterizes material thickness, integrity, or other physical properties
by means of high-frequency sound waves. In thickness testing, ultrasonic techniques permit
quick and reliable measurement of thickness without requiring access to both sides of the pipe.
Thickness can be measured of material types such as: metals, plastics, ceramics, composites,
epoxies and glass. The Reliability Section uses late model, hand held ultrasonic gages to sim-
ply, accurately and reliably measure the thickness of metallic interceptor lines.

        Stray currents are direct currents flowing in the earth from some source other than those
associated with the pipeline. An example of currents associated with the pipeline is cathodic
protection circuits. Low-level stray currents may be controlled with cathodic protection sys-
tems. Larger stray currents usually require special analysis and corrective measures, which the
Reliability Section is not equipped to examine and remedy. Contracts will be assigned to
NACE certified consultants for services needed to analyze and correct larger stray current prob-
lems.

        Soil Resistivity is a measure of how well a soil passes electric current. Soil passes elec-
tric current in varying levels; the higher the resistivity of a given soil, the less electric current



                                                 95
passes through. Resistivity of soil varies with moisture, temperature, and contents. The Reli-
ability Section performs soil resistivity measurements when soils in the area of a pipeline are
suspect.

5.3.2   Control Measures Program

        A.   Cathodic Protection
                Cathodic Protection is a technique used to protect metal structures from corro-
                sion and is used to protect buried metallic pipelines susceptible to corrosion in
                HRSD’s system. Sacrificial Anode and Impressed Current are two basic types
                of cathodic protection systems used by HRSD.

             •   Impressed Current Systems:
                     Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) system uses anodes con-
                 nected to a direct current (DC) power source or an alternating current (AC)
                 powered DC rectifier. The positive DC output terminal is connected via cables
                 to an array of anodes buried in the ground. A wire rated for the expected cur-
                 rent output connects the negative terminal of the rectifier to the pipeline. The
                 operating output of the rectifier is adjusted to the optimum level, to provide
                 the best potential for the application. The impressed current provides an elec-
                 trical path from the anode array to the cathode (pipeline). This allows the an-
                 ode to corrode, reducing the corrosive reaction in the pipeline.

                     The Reliability Section monitors impressed current systems quarterly us-
                 ing prescribed testing procedures. Test results are used for analysis and prom-
                 ulgation of any needed corrective action. Impressed current site data is also
                 received through telemetry. The voltage from the rectifier is converted to a us-
                 able signal sent back to the Reliability Section headquarters via the HRSD
                 SCADA system. Impressed current sites that send data via telemetry include:
                 Bennetts Creek Crossing, Chuckatuck Creek Crossing, Cypress Creek Cross-
                 ing, Elizabeth River Crossing, Hillpoint Road/Nansemond River Crossing,
                 Nansemond River Crossing and Pagan River Crossing.

             •   Sacrificial Anode Systems:
                     Galvanic anodes are designed to have a more negative electrochemical po-
                 tential than the metal of the structure that they are protecting. For effective ca-
                 thodic protection, the potential of the pipeline is made more negative until the
                 surface has a uniform potential. At that time, the corrosive reaction of the
                 pipeline is halted. The galvanic anode corrodes, consuming the anode material
                 until it must be replaced. The current generated by the dissimilar metals flows
                 from the anode to the cathode (pipeline). In order to maintain proper corrosion
                 protection there must be a difference of potential between the anode and the
                 cathode.




                                                96
B.   Elimination of Air Entrainment
         The Reliability Section received AMSA’s Operations Award in 1994 for de-
     veloping a training videotape and brochure on protecting HRSD pipelines from
     entrained air. The video, “Protecting Our Pipelines – Eliminating Entrained Air,”
     can be accessed via the Internet at http://www.hrsd.com/pipesandpumpsta-
     tions.htm.

          Elimination of air entrainment in interceptor force mains is absolutely essen-
     tial to reduce corrosion and failure of force mains due to sulfuric acid attack. Air
     entrainment in interceptor force mains is the result of improper design and/or op-
     eration of pump stations since air can only enter a force main via a pump station.
     Air entrainment in interceptor force mains must be eliminated by proper design
     and/or operation of pump stations and force mains as follows:

     •   Design practices (see Standards and Preferences for Engineered Construction
         Projects (32)):
         1. Pneumatic ejector pump stations for discharge into an HRSD interceptor
            force main are prohibited.
         2. Minimize wet well turbulence and splash.
         3. Establish wet well levels as high as possible with respect to the incoming
            sewers and force mains:
            A. Avoid free discharge or falling jets from incoming sewers and force
                mains onto the wet well liquid surface.
            B. Locate air relief discharges, sump pump discharges, and bubbler level
                discharges as far away as possible from pump suction inlets.
         4. Select force main profile to minimize the number of high points.
         5. Provide air vents at:
            A. Profile changes from an upward slope to a relatively flat or downward
                slope.
            B. One half-mile intervals on long ascents, descents or horizontal sections
                between defined high points.

     •   Operating practices:
         1. Replace pneumatic ejector pump stations with conventional pumps.
         2. Minimize wet well turbulence and splash.
         3. Eliminate free discharge or falling jets from incoming sewers and force
            mains by:
            A. Raising minimum wet well levels to minimize or eliminate drops.
            B. Directing incoming flows below the minimum wet well level using
               chutes.
            C. Directing incoming flow away from pump suction lines.
            D. Relocating air relief discharges, sump pump discharges, and bubbler
               control discharges away from pump suction lines.
         4. Eliminate vortex formation at pump suction lines by raising minimum wet
            well level to submerge pump suction lines.




                                       97
                5. Operate all installed force main air vents periodically with a frequency de-
                   pending upon experience and air accumulation at each air vent.
                6. Install and operate additional air vents where needed and not originally in-
                   stalled.

5.3.3  Monitoring Program
       The Interceptor Systems Reliability Section monitors sacrificial anodes annually. The
Reliability Section will analyze the results and execute any needed service or replacements.

        Another aspect of maintaining interceptor system integrity is monitoring impressed cur-
rent cathodic protection systems, which protect eight HRSD pipeline river crossings from cor-
rosion.

        A.   CCTV Inspection
                 It is the job of Interceptor Systems’ Reliability section, through normal opera-
             tions and maintenance, to assess the condition of all HRSD facilities and recom-
             mend upgrades as necessary As part of enhancing the integrity of HRSD’s
             network of gravity mains, the Section uses a CCTV van to inspect all HRD gravity
             pipelines (more than 280,000 feet) on a five-year cycle. Gravity lines comprise
             approximately ten percent of HRSD’s system. When there is an opportunity to
             take a section of force main out of service due to scheduled maintenance or pipe-
             line failure, the CCTV crew inspects as much pipe as possible to determine its
             condition. Operators of the CCTV system are certified in the National Association
             of Sewer Service Companies (NASSCO) Pipeline Assessment and Certification
             Program (PACP) program and use the PACP rating system to determine the sever-
             ity of the defects found during the inspection process. The PACP defect coding is
             universal; therefore, HRSD and others reviewing our records can understand and
             use the information accordingly.

                  CCTV inspection is a non-destructive, proactive approach to evaluate the
             HRSD pipeline infrastructure and is required when positive information is neces-
             sary to assess the condition of the pipeline interior. A CCTV inspection may be
             utilized to:
                1. Inspect conditions and determine the location of problem areas such as
                   pipe or joint separations, drops, ruptures, leaks, obstructions, deterioration,
                   pipe misalignment, and root intrusions.
                2. Locate infiltration and inflow sources.
                3. Look for damage to sewers caused by excavation and construction.
                4. Search for unrecorded connections, such as illegal taps.
                5. Evaluate effectiveness of pipeline repairs, replacement, and/or rehabilita-
                   tion within the sewer system.
                5. Assess pipeline condition of new installation before the warranty period
                   ends.



                                               98
    CCTV inspection reports and videos are generated after each evaluation
and are located in the Reliability Supervisor’s office area. Reports are filed
by line number and refer to the appropriate DVD or VHS tape. Along with
reports and inspection DVDs, the Reliability Section keeps an updated record
on the progress of the normal inspection schedule. A current copy of CCTV
inspection status is located on the data server under: Intercep-
tors/Reliability/CCTV/CCTV Spreadsheet.




                               99
                                       South Shore 5-Year CCTV Schedule
           Last     Length                        Next CCTV
 Line #                                                                                      Comments
          CCTV       (LF)     2005      2006    2007     2008      2009     2010
 SG-001 Dec-02        5,000                                                                  Lined 1996
 SG-003 Dec-02        2,565                                                                  Lined 1997
 SG-033   Sep-96      1,782    done
 SG-034   Jun-97      2,062                                                                  in progress
 SG-035   Oct-96      1,980    done
 SG-044   Mar-02      1,057
 SG-047 May-03        3,397    done                                                          Lined 2004
 SG-048   Apr-04      1,052                                                                  Lined 2003
 SG-049   Sep-01        837                                                                  Lined 2005
 SG-050   Nov-02      4,501                                                                  Lined 1994
 SG-053   Apr-04      1,111    done                                                          Lined 2004
 SG-054   Oct-02        633
 SG-055   Oct-02        632
 SG-056   Oct-02        200
 SG-061   Feb-02      3,415
 SG-063   Aug-02      2,328
 SG-067   Feb-02      1,549
 SG-068   Feb-02        991
 SG-071   Feb-02        768
 SG-072   Jan-02      1,106                                                                  Lined 1993
 SG-073   Apr-02        795                                                                  Lined 1993
SG-074A Mar-02        2,384                                                                  Lined 1993
SG-074B Apr-02          250
 SG-075   Jan-02      1,800
 SG-077   Apr-02        161
 SG-078   Mar-02      1,172
 SG-079   Feb-02      1,784
 SG-088   Apr-02      3,379
 SG-089   Nov-02      3,847                                                                  Lined 1986
 SG-096   Oct-02      4,195                                                                  Lined 1992
 SG-098   Sep-02      3,128                                                                  Lined 1993
 SG-102 May-02        1,869
 SG-104   Apr-02      1,007
 SG-105   Apr-02      1,102
 SG-107   Mar-02        705
 SG-108   Mar-02        669
 SG-112   Aug-02      1,125
 SG-113   Jul-02      4,682
 SG-145   Mar-02      1,822
 SG-148   Sep-99      3,919                                                          Lined 1985; CCTV in progress
 SG-149   Mar-93      3,582                                                          Lined 1995; CCTV in progress
 SG-151   Sep-95      4,799                                                             Replaced with D.I. 1980
 SG-152 May-99          789                                                                   Lined 1985
 SG-153   Sep-92      2,735                                                          Lined 1995; CCTV in progress
 SG-157   Aug-00      2,206                                                                   in progress
 SG-161   Jun-92      2,719    done
 SG-162   Mar-00        741    done
 SG-191   Feb-99      5,363                                                                  in progress
 SG-192   Feb-99      1,414                                                                  in progress
 SG-193   Jan-99     16,089                                                                  in progress
 SG-196 Dec-02        2,481                                                                  Lined 1996
 SG-201   Feb-02        193
 SG-202   Apr-02      1,875
 SG-205   Apr-02        789
 SG-207   Jun-02        608
        SS Total:   123,144

                               2005     2006     2007      2008     2009     2010
     South Shore Total        49,100   37,072   35,920      0         0     45,703
     North Shore Total        8,555    15,906   18,849    53,931   48,616    9,756

       Total By Year          57,655   52,978   54,769    53,931   48,616   55,459




                                                         100
                                          North Shore 5-Year CCTV Schedule
             Last     Length                         Next CCTV
Line #                                                                                            Comments
            CCTV       (LF)      2005      2006    2007     2008     2009     2010
NG-034      Jun-01      2,315
NG-035      Apr-01        828
NG-044      Sep-01      3,132
NG-045      Feb-01      3,452
NG-051      Aug-01          56                                                                      Cast Iron
NG-052      Jul-03        656
NG-053      Jul-03      6,193
NG-054      Dec-01      2,329
NG-056      Oct-01        278
NG-057      Aug-03      6,292
NG-062       2004         120
NG-063      Apr-04      3,542                                                                     Lined, 1994
NG-064      Oct-04        269                                                                     Lined, 1994
NG-067      Jul-04        578                                                                     Lined, 1994
NG-069      Jul-04        278                                                                     Lined, 1994
NG-070      Mar-93      3,000     done                                                            Lined, 1994
NG-078      Oct-04      2,360                                                                     Lined, 1994
NG-079      Mar-90      1,165                                                                 Abandoned, 1994
NG-080      Mar-90          61                                                                Abandoned, 1994
NG-081      Mar-90        523                                                                 Abandoned, 1994
NG-082      Apr-90      1,930     done                                                    Partially Abandoned, 1994
NG-083      Apr-90        924     done                                                            Lined, 1995
NG-084      Apr-90        726     done                                                            Lined, 1995
NG-086      Feb-03      3,624
NG-087      Jun-03      1,654
NG-088      Dec-04      4,015                                                                 Completed in 2004
NG-092      Mar-03        752
NG-094      Dec-04      1,267                                                                 Completed in 2004
NG-095      Jun-03      2,701                                                                 Completed in 2004
NG-098      Jan-01      1,710
NG-099      Oct-04      3,086                                                                 Completed in 2004
NG-101      Jul-03        599
NG-102      Aug-04        329
NG-103      Mar-04      4,003
NG-104      Aug-04        872
NG-106      Dec-98      3,430                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-108      Dec-98      4,630                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-109      Aug-03      6,059                                                                    In progress
NG-110      Dec-98      2,600                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-111      Mar-03      1,736                                                                 Yearly Inspections
NG-112      Jul-98        911                                                           Lined 1993; CCTV in progress
NG-114      Dec-98      1,296                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-115      Dec-03        724
NG-116      Dec-97        679                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-117      Dec-98        395                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-118      Oct-97        360                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-124      Feb-96      5,548                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-125      Apr-94      2,820                                                                    Lined 1997
NG-126        C.I.        437                                                                     Cast Iron
NG-127      Jun-97      3,606                                                                  Complete in 2005
NG-134      Jun-90      1,982                                                                    Lined 1986
NG-135      Jun-90          42                                                                   Lined 1993
NG-136      Jun-90      1,036                                                                    Lined 1993
NG-137      Apr-93        419                                                                    Lined 1993
NG-138      Jun-90        779                                                                    Lined 1993
NG-140        C.I.        208                                                          Cast Iron - Partially abandoned 1998
NG-141     May-04       1,249                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-142      Jun-04      4,110                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-143      Nov-97      5,239                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-146      Dec-97        116                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-147      Dec-97      2,169                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-148      Dec-97      2,945                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-149      Siphon        110                                                                Lined 1998 - Siphon
NG-150      Jan-96      1,496                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-151      Siphon          49                                                               Lined 1998 - Siphon
NG-152      Jan-96      1,292                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-159      Oct-90      3,667                                                           Lined 1985, Complete in 2005
NG-160      Mar-04      1,504                                                                    Lined 1985
NG-164     Shipyard       317                                                              Located on NN Shipyard
NG-166     Shipyard       421                                                              Located on NN Shipyard
NG-167     Shipyard     2,108                                                              Located on NN Shipyard
NG-168      Oct-94      1,467                                                              Located on NN Shipyard
NG-169      Dec-98      5,164                                                                    Lined 1998
NG-174      Dec-03      1,520
NG-175      Dec-01      1,332
NG-176      Sep-01        474
         NS Total:    142,065
                                 2005      2006     2007     2008     2009    2010
    North Shore Total            8,555    15,906   18,849   53,931   48,616   9,756
    South Shore Total            49,100   37,072   35,920     0        0      45,703
         Total By Year           57,655   52,978   54,769   53,931   48,616   55,459




                                                              101
5.3.4  Performance Measures
       Operators of the CCTV system are certified in the National Association of Sewer Ser-
vice Companies (NASSCO) Pipeline Assessment and Certification Program (PACP) program
and use the PACP rating system to determine the severity of the defects found during the in-
spection process. The PACP defect coding is universal; therefore, HRSD and others reviewing
our records can understand and use the information accordingly.

        CCTV inspection reports and videos are generated after each evaluation and are located
in the Reliability Supervisor’s office area. Reports are filed by line number and refer to the ap-
propriate DVD or VHS tape. Along with reports and inspection DVDs the Reliability Section
keeps an updated record on the progress of the normal inspection schedule. A current copy of
CCTV inspection status is located on the Data server under:
Interceptors/Reliability/CCTV/CCTV Spreadsheet.


5.4    Infiltration and Inflow (I/I)
       To avoid confusion, the various terms used to describe water in the sewerage system are
defined as follows:

        Water Consumption: The volume of water in the sewerage system equal to the
        amount of potable water consumed, which is measured by potable water meters (cor-
        rected for any known additional or deductible flows), or in a few instances, estimates of
        potable water consumption or metered discharge.

        Infiltration: Water entering the sewerage system from such sources as defective sewer
        pipe, joints and connections, plus cracked pipes or defective manhole walls and other
        similar leaks into the system.

        Inflow: Water entering the system from such sources as roof drains, basement drains,
        yard and area drains, direct connections from storm sewers, flow through manhole cov-
        ers, and other sources directly connecting storm water flow to the sewerage system.

        Wastewater: The sum of water consumption, infiltration and inflow.

        Average Daily Water Consumption: The amount of water consumption that would
        normally be expected in a 24-hour period.

        Overloaded System: An interceptor, or pump station or plant that is subject to flows in
        excess of design capacity.

       I/I occurs when groundwater or rainwater enters the sewer lines through cracks, breaks
and/or areas not intended to drain to the sewer system, which robs the pipes of needed capacity
and causes overflows and flooding.




                                               102
5.4.1   Plan for Elimination of Excessive Infiltration and Inflow (I/I)
        In cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, HRSD has de-
veloped this plan to eliminate Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs) within HRSD caused by ex-
cess infiltration and inflow.

        HRSD designs its facilities with a capacity to last from 10 years for some plants to more
than 50 years for interceptors. Since HRSD does not own or maintain the collection system,
past practice has been to make a reasonable allowance for I/I. Since the early 1970s and with
the approval of State and Federal agencies, HRSD has sized smaller interceptor systems on the
basis of peak flow at 2.4 times the average daily water consumption flow. Larger trunk inter-
ceptor systems leading directly to an HRSD treatment plant and the treatment plants have been
sized on the basis of peak flow of two times the average daily wastewater flow. The rationale
for this sizing of large interceptors and plants is that in a system with a large number of pump
stations, it is reasonable to assume that only 80 percent of the pump stations will be pumping at
any given time. Therefore, excessive I/I received from a collection system is defined as the
wastewater flow in large HRSD trunk interceptors at a rate exceeding two times the average
daily wastewater flow.

        Sanitary Sewer Overflows due to excessive I/I can be eliminated by designing collec-
tion and treatment facilities to handle the excessive I/I, eliminating excessive I/I, or a combina-
tion of these actions.

5.4.2  Equipment and Programs Used to Assist in Elimination of I/I
       In order to correct areas of excessive I/I, HRSD will advise owners of collection sys-
tems of the amount of water consumption determined from billing records, wastewater flow de-
termined from pump running times, and I/I determined by the difference between the two
previous flows at each pump station discharging into the HRSD interceptor system.

        Those owners of collection systems with excessive I/I will be expected to proceed in a
reasonable, timely, cost-effective manner to eliminate excessive I/I. If the owner does not pro-
ceed in such a manner to eliminate the excessive I/I, HRSD will, in systems with reserve capac-
ity, enact a special rate to recover collection and treatment costs from the owners. The rationale
for this change is that the owner should bear the excessive I/I treatment cost rather than burden
the customers of other systems who may be paying for their system to be maintained to prevent
excessive I/I.

       If a portion of the HRSD system is overloaded due to excessive I/I in a collection sys-
tem, HRSD will refuse to allow additional connections by the owner of that system unless an
agreement is reached on a plan and schedule for eliminating or collecting and treating the ex-
cessive I/I.

        A.   Rain Gages
                 HRSD maintains a network of 17 recording rain gages, located at various sites
             throughout the HRSD service area. The basic purpose of these installations is to
             correlate rainfall data with wastewater flows in the area where they are located.




                                               103
                These gages are the "tipping bucket" type, recording rainfall in increments of
             each 0.01 inch, with the rainfall information being transmitted through the HRSD
             SCADA and stored in the SCADA database. This equipment is operated and
             maintained by Reliability Section personnel.

                                     Rain Gage Sites
North Shore System                           South Shore System
Bay Shore P.S.                               Callison Drive (Chesapeake)
Big Bethel P.R.S.                            Deep Creek P.R.S.
Gloucester – old plant site                  Dovercourt Road P.S.
Lucas Creek P.S.                             Luxembourg Avenue P.S.
Morrison P.S.                                Pine Tree P.R.S.
Pine Chapel P.S.                             Providence Road P.R.S.
Williamsburg P.S.                            Rodman Avenue P.S.
                                             Shipps Corner P.R.S.
                                             Suffolk P.S.
                                             Virginia Beach Blvd. P.S.

       B.    Shallow Wells
                 HRSD maintains a network of 24 shallow wells, located mostly at various
             pump station sites throughout the HRSD service area. The bottom of each well is
             at an elevation of approximately 18 inches below the invert elevation of the influ-
             ent sewer line at the particular site. The top of the well pipe is enclosed within a
             standard HRSD air vent casting.

                 The basic purpose of these shallow wells is to monitor the elevation of the
             ground water table at each site. This can provide a correlation between the rates of
             infiltration on the influent gravity system, with the elevation of the ground water
             table in a particular area. The elevation of the ground water table is obtained at
             each site, quarterly, through the use of a water sensitive measuring device. Reli-
             ability Section employees monitor these installations. In the future, shallow well
             data will be transmitted via telemetry.

                                       Shallow Well Sites
       North Shore System                           South Shore System
       Bloxoms Corner P.S.                          Arctic Avenue P.S.
       Bridge Street P.S.                           Camden Avenue P.S.
       Colonial Williamsburg P.S.                   Cedar Lane P.S.
       Copeland Park P.S.                           Chesapeake Blvd. P.S.
       Gloucester – old plant site                  City Park P.S.
       Langley Circle P.S.                          Dovercourt Road P.S.
       Lucas Creek P.S.                             Doziers Corner P.S.
       Morrison P.S.                                Newtown Road P.S.
       Patrick Henry P.S.                           North Shore Road P.S.
       Rolling Hills P.S.                           Rodman Avenue P.S.



                                              104
                                         Shallow Well Sites
        Willard Avenue P.S.                           Seay Avenue P.S.
                                                      Suffolk P.S.
                                                      Taussig Blvd. P.S.

        C.   Smoke and Dye Testing
                 Smoke testing is one of the most efficient and cost effective methods of locat-
             ing sources of infiltration and inflow problems with sewers. The non-toxic smoke
             serves as a visual tracer to help locate places where storm and other surface waters
             enter the sanitary sewers. Smoke testing is conducted by placing a blower over a
             centrally located manhole and forcing non-toxic smoke-filled air through a sewer
             line. The smoke under pressure will fill the main line plus any connections, then
             follow the path of any leaks to the ground's surface, quickly revealing the source
             of I/I. The smoke will be noticeable wherever there are leaks from a cracked sewer
             pipe, a broken cleanout cap or a defective or damaged manhole, when a roof drain
             is connected to the sanitary sewer or when there is a cross connection between a
             storm sewer and a sanitary sewer.

                Dye testing is another technique used to trace I/I sources within the sanitary
             sewer system. Dye tablets are inserted in the suspect I/I sources. Traces of the dye
             can be seen in the sanitary stream if there is a cross-connection or leak.

5.4.3   Remote Meters
        HRSD utilizes various types of portable meters in the system’s pipelines for the purpose
of recording pressure and/or flow data in pipelines. Meters are used in both gravity sewers and
force mains, and are frequently installed in pipelines owned by other agencies, with the owner’s
permission. If the data requirement for a particular site is for a relatively short period of time, it
is simply downloaded at the site onto a laptop computer for later processing and analysis. In
other cases where the data requirement is for an extended period of time, the metering site may
be equipped with telemetry equipment utilizing a modem and phone circuit or cellular phone,
which allows the transmission of data from the site back to Interceptor Systems’ main office.
These sites are operated and maintained by Reliability Section personnel.

        A.   Open Channel Meters
                  The Reliability Section uses various open channel flow meters for monitoring
             flows in gravity sewers. The typical installation is usually at a manhole or pump
             station wet well in the gravity system. A stainless steel band with an attached sen-
             sor is inserted into the end of the pipeline within the manhole. The sensor, using
             velocity and depth of flow (pressure) data for the particular size of pipeline, stores
             its data in the open channel flow meter registers. The data storage and conversion
             unit is normally suspended just below the manhole cover in a submersion-proof
             housing. The data stored is transmitted via telemetry or site downloaded onto a
             laptop computer.




                                                 105
        B.   Ultrasonic Flow Meters
                  Ultrasonic flow meters have become a valuable asset in monitoring and con-
             trol. The meters are reliable, accurate, and easy to install and maintain. The sen-
             sors can be installed on the outside of the pipe because the ultrasonic signal can
             penetrate most solid materials. The meters work well on most ferrous and poly-
             ethylene based force mains. Ultrasonic flow meters send bursts of signals through
             the pipe to measure the velocity of fluid. Flow measurement is based on the prin-
             ciple that sound waves traveling in the direction of flow require less time than
             when traveling in the opposite direction. At zero velocity, the transit time or delta
             T (the time it takes the signal to transmit from one sensor and be received by the
             downstream sensor) is zero. The angle of refraction is calculated automatically by
             knowing the diameter of the pipe, the pipe wall thickness, and the pipe wall mate-
             rial. The distance between sensors is also calculated by using these variables. By
             measuring the difference in transit times of the ultrasonic signals, the meter can
             calculate the flow rate accordingly.

        C.   Pressure Recorders
                 Pressure recorders are usually installed at a force main air vent or on the pres-
             sure-piping manifold in a pump station. The recorder consists of a pressure trans-
             ducer, which transmits its pressure data to one of several types of data storage
             units. At the typical air vent installation, a special fitting is utilized on the air vent
             valve that allows continuous monitoring of system pressures. This setup allows In-
             terceptor Systems Operations’ personnel to perform normal venting procedures
             without affecting pressure measurements. This equipment, along with the data
             storage unit, is installed within the air vent structure under the cover. The pressure
             data is transmitted via telemetry or site downloading onto a laptop computer.

        D.   Telemetry
                 Several different types of telemetry installations are used by HRSD to transmit
             data directly to Interceptor Systems’ offices, including:
                 •   Site data recorder with modem, phone line, and commercial power
                 •   Site data recorder with modem, phone line, and battery power
                 •   Site data recorder with modem, cellular phone, battery power, and with
                     one of several types of solar recharging systems.


5.5     Grease Trap Inspection and Enforcement Programs

5.5.1   Permitting Program
        HRSD does not issue permits or other similar control mechanisms specifically for
grease traps.

5.5.2  Inspection Program
       HRSD inspects grease traps as part of initial facility investigations and follow-up in-
spections. The vast majority of facilities with grease traps are commercial food service estab-
lishments, which are not permitted but are investigated and sampled for surcharge



                                                 106
determination. HRSD also provides assistance to any locality requesting help within the service
area. If a locality is experiencing line blockage or pump station problems as a result of a par-
ticular discharger(s), HRSD requires the problem discharger(s) to take corrective actions, using
the regulatory authority given to us by the HRSD Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations.

5.5.3  Enforcement Program
       If a facility has no grease trap, or if a grease trap is found to be improperly installed,
undersized, in need of repair, or improperly maintained, the facility is issued a written notifica-
tion and required to address the problem. A subsequent site inspection is performed to verify
the corrective action. In the event a problem is not addressed as required, additional enforce-
ment actions are taken, though in the case of commercial food service facilities, additional en-
forcement actions are rarely necessary.

5.5.4    Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG)
         HRSD is implementing a grease control program that will go beyond the current high
strength waste surcharge program. A nationally-recognized expert on FOG control provided de-
tailed technical instruction to Industrial Waste Division in June, 2005. This instruction included
proper design, installation, maintenance and regulation of food service grease traps. HRSD’s
program will include spot checks of grease traps to evaluate proper size, installation, configura-
tion, and maintenance requirements. We will also offer incentives to dischargers, such as allow-
ing them to upgrade undersized traps before HRSD performs sampling for surcharge purposes.
The program is being developed in conjunction with the various localities in the service area.
We will continue to provide assistance to any localities within the service area that request our
help in dealing with FOG issues originating from commercial dischargers.


5.6     New Connection Tap-In Program

5.6.1  Installation of New Service Taps
       HRSD’s Interceptor Engineers coordinate all taps with the localities, consultants and
contractors. Our Reliability Section sends inspectors to view the taps and obtain information
necessary to make our detailed valve guide drawings that show the location and types of valves
being connected to our system. When valves are installed, our Operations employees check
them and record the valve size and number of turns required to close them.


5.7     Flow Monitoring Field Operation Programs – MMP

5.7.1   Permanent Stations
        HRSD is in the process of implementing a Master Metering Program. This program will
place permanent meters to enable measurement of flows coming from each of the localities.
This will allow us to show peaks during rain events and determine the amount of I/I that is
coming from each locality. As we enter into consent orders with different localities, we will be
able to use these to measure the improvements that are achieved as part of their rehabilitation
programs. Currently we have master meters in several locations. We are working to install them




                                               107
throughout Norfolk and will then move to the rest of the localities. We hope to have them in
place by mid-2007.

5.7.2  Temporary Stations
       Reliability Division employees install several different types of temporary meters
throughout our system. This enables us to do specific surveys to determine the effects of I/I
coming from different areas in the cities. Currently, data must be downloaded at each station.
We are working with new technology to transmit this data via cell phones into our SCADA sys-
tem so we can analyze it just as we do our permanent stations.


5.8     Septic Tank / Grit and Grease Haulers Program

5.8.1   Permitting Program
        HRSD issues Indirect Wastewater Discharge Permits to all septic tank haulers that op-
erate in the region. HRSD allows these permitted waste haulers to discharge non-industrial
wastes at designated HRSD treatment plants. Permitted wastes include residential septage, food
service grease traps and collection, holding and transfer (CHT) wastes from vessels and port-o-
johns. Any waste hauler collecting grease trap waste from commercial customers is required by
HRSD permit to submit a monthly report detailing the customer and quantity for each such
waste. These hauled wastes are billed in accordance with the current HRSD Rate Schedule (18)
for Hauled Wastewater (Indirect Discharge Waste). Under their Indirect Wastewater Discharge
Permits, permitted waste haulers are not allowed to discharge grit and grease from line cleaning
operations at hauled waste discharge points at HRSD treatment facilities. The only grease they
are allowed to discharge under their Indirect Permits is grease from food service grease traps.

5.8.2   Inspection Program
        All permitted waste haulers are inspected either annually or every two years at their
base of operations. In addition, periodic unannounced spot checks of waste hauler tank trucks
are performed while discharges occur at various designated HRSD treatment facilities.

5.8.3  Enforcement Program
       All permitted waste haulers must comply with the HRSD Industrial Wastewater Dis-
charge Regulations and all conditions of their Indirect Wastewater Discharge Permit. Any in-
stance of non-compliance is addressed in accordance with the HRSD Industrial Waste
Enforcement Response Plan (33).

5.8.4   Performance Measures
        All permitted waste haulers must comply with various discharge and reporting require-
ments specified in their Indirect Wastewater Discharge Permit. HRSD’s Industrial Waste Divi-
sion also responds to any report from Treatment Department staff of treatment plant problems
that may be the result of hauled waste. If investigation proves a waste hauler to be a problem
source, the hauler will be appropriately dealt with in accordance with the HRSD Industrial
Waste Enforcement Response Plan (33).




                                              108
5.9     “Call Before You Dig” Program – Miss Utility

        HRSD participates in a state wide Miss Utility program. Anyone disturbing the ground
is required by law to call before digging to report the action and have the area marked. The
state coordinates the calls and notifies all utilities of possible conflicts. HRSD is then required
to mark its lines within three days of the notification if it appears there could be a conflict. If
the planned construction is major, the contractor will be required to provide plans to HRSD to
review.

5.9.1   Enforcement Program
        If HRSD is not called and a contractor’s crew is seen working in the vicinity of our
pipe, we can force them to stop working and report them to the Virginia Utility Protection Ser-
vice. If our line is hit in the process of doing this work, the contractor will be required to pay
for any repairs to our system. We can also file against our insurance to cover repair expenses
not paid by the contractor.

5.9.2  Performance Measures
       The Virginia Utility Protection Services provides HRSD with monthly feedback on per-
formance. Mistaken marks, the number of tickets responded to monthly, the number of late re-
sponses, call backs due to problems with marks and any complaints are given to us so we can
improve on our service. HRSD responds to approximately 5,000 calls per month. The primary
performance discrepancy noted is for “missed calls” when (typically two percent of the time or
less) we failed to mark the line within 48 hours.




                                               109
6.0    MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS

        This chapter provides an overview of HRSD’s extensive maintenance programs and
how they contribute to the attainment of our CMOM goals. The Interceptor System Department
has a Planned Maintenance Manual that outlines the normal maintenance of our systems and
pump stations. We regularly perform visual inspections of our system and have a schedule to
televise those areas not readily visible to determine if maintenance or rehabilitation is required.

        HRSD is installing a Computerized Maintenance Management System, which should be
completed by 2007. This system will take our existing manual system, computerize it, and
streamline assignment of work and recording of maintenance. Pipes in some areas of our sys-
tem are more than 50 years old, so we do perform some emergency repairs. Through vigilant
inspections, we attempt to address issues via planned maintenance and rehabilitation work be-
fore they become problems. We keep track of where breaks occur so we can make certain those
lines are televised and inspected when possible. Much of our system is force mains so CCTV
inspection is not possible. All localities in the area share Capital Improvement Plans to try to
avoid conflicts. Paving schedules are reviewed to ensure work is scheduled before the streets
are paved, if possible.


6.1    Pump Station Preventative Maintenance
       HRSD has approximately 67 wet well-type pump stations and we operate 15 pressure
reducing stations within our system. Our interceptor system has 2 pump station supervisors and
18 people that perform daily maintenance on each of our pump stations. We also have employ-
ees on call to respond to emergencies outside normal business hours. Pump stations are
equipped with SCADA systems and alarms to alert operators to problems so they can take ap-
propriate action. Sixty-five percent of our pump stations have emergency generators installed
and the rest have connections for either portable generators or portable pumps.

         During wet weather operations, HRSD can run standby pumps, if necessary, to help lo-
calities avoid overflows. We have a program to alert localities that we are doing this and notify
them that they must begin a corrective program to eliminate excessive I/I in their system. The
majority of our pump stations are run with variable speed controllers to try to maintain a con-
stant level in the pump stations. This helps eliminate splashing and hydrogen sulfide release,
which in turn slows down corrosion process in the system and helps eliminate odor problems at
our pump stations. Operation logs are maintained at all pump stations.

        HRSD has an active program to ensure proper pump station maintenance. As part of an
annual inspection program, one fifth of our pump stations are inspected by our trust consultant,
who prepares a report noting physical deficiencies in the pump station that may require reme-
diation.

         Our GIS system enables us to map where we are running standby pumps due to exces-
sive I/I. Visual representation of where I/I problems exist is shared with the localities.




                                               110
6.1.1   Electrical Maintenance
        HRSD’s North Shore and South Shore Electrical and Instrumentation Shops maintain
the electrical and instrumental components of all pump stations. The actual electrical mainte-
nance procedures will be incorporated into our CMMS program.

6.1.2 Mechanical Maintenance
      Our pump station and interceptor crews do most of the mechanical maintenance of our
pump stations, assisted by our Machine Shops for heavy maintenance on pumps and by our
Automotive Shops for emergency generator maintenance. In the future, the crews will use the
CMMS system to schedule these activities.

6.1.3 Physical Maintenance
       Our pump station crews perform minor physical maintenance. Major structural and roof
work at our stations is the responsibility of our Physical Plant Division. Major rehabilitation,
such as wet well rehabilitation that requires contractors, is often incorporated into our CIP. Our
Engineering Department oversees this activity.


6.2     Force Main Preventative Maintenance

6.2.1  Air Release Valves
       Our interceptor crews operate our air release valves every six months or more often as
needed to release air that may accumulate in our system. They ensure grease that may be clog-
ging valves is removed. We have a program to replace air release valves that may be corroding.
This helps eliminate the possibility of valve failure, which can cause sanitary sewer overflows.

6.2.2   Valve Exercise Program
        Our interceptor crews exercise our valves every six months. When exercising the
valves, interceptor crews note and report valves that need to be repaired and schedule those
valves for routine or more extensive maintenance as required. The total number of turns it takes
to close a valve is recorded so we know for certain when a valve is closed or if there may be a
problem.

6.2.3  Cathodic Protection
       Cathodic Protection is a technique used to protect metal structures from corrosion. The
HRSD Interceptor Systems uses cathodic protection to protect buried metallic pipelines in areas
susceptible to corrosion.

        Soil Resistivity is a measure of how well a soil passes electric current. Soil passes elec-
tric current in varying levels; the higher the resistivity of a given soil, the less electric current
passes through. Resistivity of soil varies with moisture, temperature and contents. The Reliabil-
ity Section performs soil resistivity measurements when soils in the area of a pipeline are sus-
pect.




                                                111
        The Reliability Section monitors impressed current systems quarterly, utilizing pre-
scribed testing procedures. Test results are used for analysis and to instigate any needed correc-
tive action.

The Reliability Section arranges for annual inspection and testing of all impressed current sys-
tems inspected by a National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) certified Corrosion
Technician.

6.2.4  Constructed Grades
       In the past, force mains were often placed a specified distance below ground and fol-
lowed the lay of the land. By experience, we found that this caused high spots in the pipe where
air could accumulate. When mixed with hydrosulfide this would cause corrosive reactions.
This can result in pipe failures in these locations. For several years we have been constructing
our force mains on grade, with air vents placed at the high points. We also coat the inside of
our pipes to ensure that the area where air could accumulate is protected.


6.3     Gravity Line Preventative Maintenance

6.3.1   Routine Cleaning
        HRSD owns Vaccon trucks that are used for system cleaning. Our system is maintained
and cleaned as necessary or, at a minimum, at least once every five years. If there are trouble
areas, we clean them on a more frequent basis and work to ensure that any of our pump station
wet wells are cleaned to avoid problems. The collection systems and laterals are maintained by
the cities. HRSD’s lines are larger and don’t experience the same problems as the smaller resi-
dential lines. Roots are not a major problem for HRSD. Fats, oils and grease are more of a
problem to the localities. Grease traps for businesses are a requirement of HRSD’s Industrial
Waste Program; this alleviates the majority of problems in our system. Locations of stoppages
can be recorded in our GIS system.

        The Hampton Roads Planning District Commission, in conjunction with all the utility
directors in the area, has a FOG program to educate people about the problems of fats, oils and
grease and proper disposal methods. HRSD works with that group on a regular basis.

       There are times, especially during rehabilitation work, when a contractor may do sewer
cleaning. We normally require TV inspection by the contractor before and after the cleaning
and record it on a video for review.

6.3.2  Root Control Program
       A CCTV inspection may be utilized to inspect conditions and determine the location of
problem areas such as root intrusions.

6.3.3 Manhole Preventative Maintenance
         HRSD owns 500 miles of pipeline, of which about ten percent are gravity lines. The lo-
calities maintain the collection system. HRSD has a manhole inspection program for the small
number of manholes we own and maintain, with a goal to inspect all of our manholes once



                                               112
every five years. As we find problems with the manholes, or excessive I/I entering through the
manholes, we schedule those to be rehabilitated.

        HRSD may install inserts into manholes in areas subject to flooding to minimize I/I en-
tering into our system. We also install level meters and flow meters in some of our manholes to
determine the amount of flow and to sound an alarm when levels come to a point where they
may be surcharging our manholes and possibly causing overflows.

6.3.4 CCTV
        As part of enhancing the integrity of HRSD’s network of gravity mains, the Reliability
Section uses a CCTV van to inspect all HRD gravity pipelines (more than 280,000) feet) on a
five-year cycle. Gravity lines comprise approximately ten percent of HRSD’s system. When
there is an opportunity to take a section of force main out of service due to scheduled mainte-
nance or pipeline failure, the CCTV crew inspects as much pipe as possible to determine its
condition. Operators of the CCTV system are certified in the National Association of Sewer
Service Companies (NASSCO) Pipeline Assessment and Certification Program (PACP) pro-
gram and use the PACP rating system to determine the severity of the defects found during the
inspection process. The PACP defect coding is universal; therefore, HRSD and others review-
ing our records can understand and use the information accordingly.

        CCTV inspection is a non-destructive, proactive approach to evaluate the HRSD pipe-
line infrastructure and is required when positive information is necessary to assess the condi-
tion of the pipeline interior. A CCTV inspection may be utilized to:
        1.   Inspect conditions and determine the location of problem areas such as pipe or
             joint separations, drops, ruptures, leaks, obstructions, deterioration, pipe mis-
             alignment, and root intrusions.
        2.   Locate inflow and infiltration sources.
        3.   Look for damage to sewers caused by excavation and construction.
        4.   Search for unrecorded connections, such as illegal taps.
        5.   Evaluate effectiveness of pipeline repairs, replacement, and/or rehabilitation
             within the sewer system.
        6.   Assess pipeline condition of new installation before warranty period ends.

         CCTV inspection reports and videos are generated after each evaluation and are located in the
Reliability Supervisor’s office area. Reports are filed by line number and refer to the appropriate
DVD or VHS tape. Along with reports and inspection DVDs, the Reliability Section keeps an up-
dated record on the progress of the normal inspection schedule. A current copy of CCTV inspection
status is located on the Data server under: Interceptors/Reliability/CCTV/CCTV Spreadsheet.

6.3.5    Smoke and Dye Testing
         Smoke testing is one of the most efficient and cost effective methods of locating sources
of infiltration and inflow problems with sewers. The non-toxic smoke serves as a visual tracer
to help locate places where storm and other surface waters enter the sanitary sewers. Smoke



                                                 113
testing is conducted by placing a blower over a centrally located manhole and forcing non-toxic
smoke-filled air through a sewer line. The smoke under pressure will fill the main line plus any
connections, then follow the path of any leaks to the ground's surface, quickly revealing the
source of I/I. The smoke will be noticeable wherever there are leaks from a cracked sewer pipe,
a broken cleanout cap or a defective or damaged manhole, when a roof drain is connected to the
sanitary sewer or when there is a cross connection between a storm sewer and a sanitary sewer.

        Dye testing is another technique used to trace I/I sources within the sanitary sewer sys-
tem. Dye tablets are inserted in the suspected I/I sources. Traces of the dye can be seen in the
sanitary stream if there is a cross-connection or leak.

6.3.6   Optical Brighteners
        Optical Brighteners are fluorescent white dyes that are added to almost all laundry
soaps and detergents. When Optical Brightener is applied to cotton fabric, it will absorb ultra-
violet rays in sunlight and release them as blue rays. These blue rays will then interact with the
yellowish color and give the garment the appearance of being “whiter than white.” Because the
primary commercial use of these dyes is in laundry detergents and textile finishing, Optical
Brightener dyes are generally found in domestic wastewaters that have a component of laundry
effluent. Optical Brighteners fluoresce in the blue region of the visible spectrum. Therefore,
they can be detected by use of a long wave fluorescent ultraviolet or “black” light. HRSD’s
Technical Service Division performs testing for optical brighteners in interceptor service areas
that are suspected of a leak or cross-connection.


6.4     Maintenance of Way

6.4.1    Maintenance of Rights-of-Way and Easements
         Annually, we mow all of our rights-of-way and easements and remove brush, trees and
any trash that may be present. We check valves, air vents, reset any castings, as necessary, and
ensure that our line is properly marked to show that we have a pipeline present. When possible,
we actually install stanchions around our valves to show their location in remote areas, such as
fields, swamps and in the forest.

6.4.2  Monitoring of Street Paving
       HRSD shares its Capital Improvement Plan information with all the localities to try to
avoid conflicts. Paving schedules are reviewed to ensure work is scheduled before the streets
are paved, if possible.

6.4.3   Monitoring of Street Closures
        HRSD receives planning agendas from all the localities’ planning commission meet-
ings. Many times roads are closed for several reasons that receive planning commission ap-
proval. We review the road closures closely to assure pipelines are not located in the right of
way being closed. If HRSD does have a pipeline in the right-of-way being proposed for clo-
sure, we request an easement as part of the approval process.




                                               114
6.4.4   Line Location for Third Parties
        HRSD may own pipes in areas where the Miss Utility program does not apply or a con-
tractor may be working on or near a plant or pump station and request that our facilities be
marked. We provide such services to ensure the integrity of our pipelines.


6.5     Unscheduled Maintenance

6.5.1   Response to Complaints
        Typically, complaints are made to our Operations Coordinator and are forwarded to the
appropriate supervisor. These supervisors respond immediately, either during normal work
hours or after hours. HRSD maintains a nighttime and weekend answering service that records
complaints and forwards them to the supervisor on duty. Complaints, typically related to leaks
or odors, are taken seriously and responded to promptly by an on-call staff member. These on-
call employees, located on the north and south shores, respond quickly to address the problem
and let the caller know what action is being taken. Standby crews are available 24 hours a day
on both shores to respond to any problem requiring maintenance action. Other crews can be
called in if required or contractors can be utilized through our Engineering Department.

6.5.2   Communication Plan
        HRSD uses a variety of outreach strategies to ensure the public is properly informed of
major construction projects, emergency repairs and planned and unplanned maintenance activi-
ties. HRSD’s Chief of Communications, the primary media contact, issues news releases to
alert print and broadcast media to planned HRSD projects and unscheduled maintenance activi-
ties. The chief also coordinates responses to media inquiries on routine and emergency matters.

       Additional means of public notification are described in Section 4.12.3 of this docu-
ment. A copy of the HRSD’s Communications and Public Response Plan, which provides guid-
ance for public communications during emergencies, is located in the CMOM library.




                                             115
                                  Utility Information

Official Utility Name: Hampton Roads Sanitation District


Applicable NPDES Permit Numbers for Treatment Plants:

       Army Base STP VA0081230
       Atlantic VA0081248
       Boat Harbor VA0081256
       Chesapeake-Elizabeth VA0081264
       James River VA0081272
       Nansemond VA0081299
       VIP VA0081281
       Williamsburg VA0081302
       York River VA0081311
       Mathews VA0028819
       Urbanna VA0026263
       West Point VA0075434
       King William VA0088102


If Satellite, NPDES Number of Regional Treatment facility:     N/A


Name of Responsible Official:       D. R. Wheeler, General Manager


Primary Contact:     Donnie Wheeler, General Manager, 757-460-4242


Secondary Contact:   David Waltrip, Director of Treatment, 757-460-4223


Address:      1436 Air Rail Avenue, Virginia Beach, VA 23455


Mailing Address:     PO Box 5911, Virginia Beach, VA 23471-0911




                                            116
                                 Utility Profile


Population Served:                                 1,587,700

Number of Customers:                               1,350,584

Number of Treatment Plants:                        13

Total Wastewater Design Treatment Capacity:        231.325 MGD

Total Volume of Wastewater Treated (Annually):     165.36 MGD

Miles of Gravity Sewers:                           55

Number of Manholes:                                1,212

Number of Inverted Siphons:                        9

Number of Pump Stations:                           82

Miles of Force Main:                               409

Number of Employees:                               694

Annual Capital Improvement Budget:                 $50 million

Annual Operation and Maintenance Budget:           $79.5 million
     (excluding depreciation)

Total Annual Operating Budget:                     $96 million




                                       117
                                                      Army Base Treatment Plant
                                                                2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                    118
                                                       Atlantic Treatment Plant
                                                                 2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                    119
                                                      Boat Harbor Treatment Plant
                                                                 2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.    Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                     120
                                               Chesapeake-Elizabeth Treatment Plant
                                                               2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                    121
                                                      James River Treatment Plant
                                                                 2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.    Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                     122
                                               Middle Peninsula Treatment Plants (combined)
                                                                   2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                                  Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                       123
                                                             VIP Treatment Plant
                                                                    2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.   Feb.     Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                      124
                                                      Williamsburg Treatment Plant
                                                                 2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.    Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                     125
                                                      York River Treatment Plant
                                                                 2006

                       System Management, Operation and Maintenance Programs Recent Performance Summary
Performance Measures for
                                               Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May   Jun.   Jul.   Aug.   Sep.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Year TTL
Previous 12 Months
   A. Customer Complaints
      1. Odor
      2. Spills/Overflows
      3. Other
   B. (NPDES) Permit Violations
   C. Number of Capacity Related Over-
      flows/Wet Weather
   D. Number of Maintenance Related Over-
      flows
   E. Number of Operations Related Over-
      flows
   F. Number of Blockages
   G. Number of Cave-Ins
   H. Number of Pump Station Failures
   I.   Peak Flow Factors at Treatment Plant
        (1 hour high/dry month avg.)
   J.   Monthly Average Treatment Plant Flow
        Rate (gpcd)
   K. Monthly High One Day Treatment Flow
      Rate (gpcd)
   L. Number of By-Passes at Treatment Plant
   M. Volume of Treatment Plant By-Passes
   N. WWTP Monthly Average Influent BOD
      Concentration


                                                                    126
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                                            127
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                                           128
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                                           129

								
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