Shades of Struggle Heterogeneity among Urban Adolescent by oxo41447

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									Shades of Struggle:
Heterogeneity among Urban
Adolescent Struggling
Comprehenders
      Michael J. Kieffer                        Gina Biancarosa
      Harvard Graduate School of Education      Stanford University
                       Joanna A. Christodoulou
                      Jeannette Mancilla-Martinez
                          Catherine E. Snow
                   Harvard Graduate School of Education
             Why should teachers care
                about heterogeneity?
• Adolescent readers are over-tested, but
  under-diagnosed

• Identifying sources of difficulties tells
  teachers what to teach, not just who to teach




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                 Why should researchers
               investigate heterogeneity?

• Recent studies do not concur on the
  prevalence, heterogeneity, or stability of
  reading difficulties after third grade
  (Buly & Valencia, 2003; Hock et al., 2007; Leach, Scarborough, &
    Rescorla, 2003; Lesaux, Lipka, & Siegel, 2006; Share & Silva, 1986;
    Shaywitz et al., 1992; Wright, Fields, & Newman, 1996)




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                              Research Context
• Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP)
  pilot site
• Mystic School: Urban K-8 school in the Northeast
  U.S.
     •   90.7% Latino
     •   91% Low income
     •   78.7% Language Minority
     •   45.9% Limited English Proficient
     •   8.4% Special Ed
• Population raises questions about language
  minority learners and urban context


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                                                    Study Aims
• Explore the diversity and prevalence
  of instructional profiles among
  struggling comprehenders in grades
  5-8 in a predominately Latino urban
  school
• Investigate to what extent profiles
  change over time




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                               Research Design
                           Grade                       Year 1                Year 2
• Assessed all                                                    Descriptives to add
  5th-8th grade                5th                    55 (26)               53 (25)
  students in                  6th                    45 (22)               60 (22)
  mainstream                   7th                    35 (19)               39 (14)
  instruction
                               8th                    27 (12)               36 (17)
                             Total                   162 (79)               188 (78)




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                                      Research Design
                                  Grade                       Year 1                Year 2
• Assessed all  5th-
                                                                         Descriptives to add
  8th grade students                  5th                    55 (26)               53 (25)
  in mainstream
  instruction                         6th                    45 (22)               60 (22)
• Inclusion in                        7th                    35 (19)               39 (14)
  Struggling
  Comprehenders                       8th                    27 (12)               36 (17)
  sample:
   – < 35th percentile              Total                   162 (79)               188 (78)
     rank in reading
     comprehension
     on national norms



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                                      Research Design
                                  Grade                       Year 1             Year 2
• Assessed all 5th-                   5th                    55 (26)        53 (25)
                                                                 Descriptives to add
  8th grade students
  in mainstream                       6th                    45 (22)         60 (22)
  instruction
                                      7th                    35 (19)         39 (14)
• Inclusion in
  Struggling                          8th                    27 (12)         36 (17)
  Comprehenders
  sample:                           Total                   162 (79)         188 (78)
   – < 35th percentile
     rank in reading       Longitudinal                                    122
     comprehension           Cohort                                 (57)         (45)
     on national norms



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                                                             Measures
• Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic
  Evaluation (GRADE)
   – Reading Comprehension (Passage & Sentence Comprehension)
   – Reading Vocabulary
   – Listening Comprehension
• Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
   – Sight Word Reading Efficiency
   – Phonemic Decoding Efficiency
• Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills –
  Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS)
   – Narrative & Expository Passage Fluency
   – Narrative & Expository Passage Accuracy




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                Latent Class Analysis
• Literacy measures
  modeled as continuous
  indicators of profile                                                        Reader
                                                                               Profile
• Some measures allowed to                                                       (c)
  correlate within class
• BLRT & BIC used to
  determine # of classes
 (Nylund, Asparouhov, & Muthén, 2006)




                                                                                                             Sight Word
                               Vocabulary




                                                                                   Expository



                                                                                                Expository




                                                                                                                          Phonemic
                                                                                                             Efficiency



                                                                                                                          Efficiency
                                                           Accuracy




                                                                                   Accuracy
                                                           Narrative



                                                                       Narrative
                                               Listening




                                                                                                              TOWRE



                                                                                                                           TOWRE
                                                            DIBELs




                                                                                    DIBELs



                                                                                                 DIBELs
                                                                       DIBELs
                                                 Comp




                                                                                                  Rate
                                                                        Rate




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Year 1: Automatic Word Callers
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab   Listening Comp      Word Reading         Nonword                Narrative       Expository         Narrative   Expository
                                    Efficiency           Reading               Passage          Passage           Passage      Passage
                                                        Efficiency             Fluency          Fluency           Accuracy     Accuracy

                         Automatic Word Callers (59%)                Fast Word Callers (28%)          Slow Readers (13%)

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         Year 1: Fast Word Callers
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab   Listening Comp   Word Reading    Nonword          Narrative         Expository     Narrative   Expository
                                 Efficiency      Reading         Passage            Passage       Passage      Passage
                                                Efficiency       Fluency            Fluency       Accuracy    Accuracy

                       Automatic Word Callers (59%)      Fast Word Callers (28%)        Slow Readers (13%)

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               Year 1: Slow Readers
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab   Listening Comp   Word Reading   Nonword          Narrative         Expository     Narrative   Expository
                                 Efficiency     Reading         Passage            Passage       Passage      Passage
                                               Efficiency       Fluency            Fluency       Accuracy    Accuracy

                      Automatic Word Callers (59%)      Fast Word Callers (28%)        Slow Readers (13%)

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Year 1 Prevalence
                      Dysfluent
                    Readers (13%)

  Fast Word
 Callers (28%)




                      Automatic
                     Word Callers
                        (59%)




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Year 1: Trends across Profiles
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab   Listening Comp   Word Reading   Nonword          Narrative         Expository     Narrative   Expository
                                 Efficiency     Reading         Passage            Passage       Passage      Passage
                                               Efficiency       Fluency            Fluency       Accuracy    Accuracy

                      Automatic Word Callers (59%)      Fast Word Callers (28%)        Slow Readers (13%)

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Year 2: Automatic Word Callers
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab        Listening Comp   Word Reading      Nonword       Narrative     Expository        Narrative     Expository
                                      Efficiency        Reading      Passage        Passage          Passage        Passage
                                                       Efficiency    Fluency        Fluency          Accuracy      Accuracy

               Automatic Word Callers (37%)    Fast Word Callers (20%)     Slow Word Callers (27%)      Potential RD (19%)


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        Year 2: Fast Word Callers
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab        Listening Comp   Word Reading      Nonword       Narrative     Expository        Narrative     Expository
                                      Efficiency        Reading      Passage        Passage          Passage        Passage
                                                       Efficiency    Fluency        Fluency          Accuracy      Accuracy

               Automatic Word Callers (37%)    Fast Word Callers (20%)     Slow Word Callers (27%)      Potential RD (19%)


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        Year 2: Slow Word Callers
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab        Listening Comp   Word Reading      Nonword       Narrative     Expository        Narrative     Expository
                                      Efficiency        Reading      Passage        Passage          Passage        Passage
                                                       Efficiency    Fluency        Fluency          Accuracy      Accuracy

               Automatic Word Callers (37%)    Fast Word Callers (20%)     Slow Word Callers (27%)      Potential RD (19%)


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                        Year 2: Potential RD
1.5




  1




0.5




  0




-0.5




 -1




-1.5




 -2
       Vocab        Listening Comp   Word Reading      Nonword       Narrative     Expository        Narrative     Expository
                                      Efficiency        Reading      Passage        Passage          Passage        Passage
                                                       Efficiency    Fluency        Fluency          Accuracy      Accuracy

               Automatic Word Callers (37%)    Fast Word Callers (20%)     Slow Word Callers (27%)      Potential RD (19%)


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                     Year 2 Prevalence
                                                           Year 2

                                                  Potential RD
                                                     (19%)
                                                                        Automatic
           Year 1                                                      Word Callers
                                                                          (37%)

                Slow Readers
                    (13%)
                                               Slow Word
 Fast Word
                                              Callers (27%)
Callers (28%)
                                                                  Fast Word
                                                                 Callers (20%)


                 Automatic
                Word Callers
                   (59%)



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                              Robust Finding: Word Callers
                                          Year 1                                                                                                                   Year 2
1.5                                                                                                                            1.5




  1                                                                                                                              1




0.5                                                                                                                            0.5




  0                                                                                                                              0




-0.5                                                                                                                           -0.5




 -1                                                                                                                             -1




-1.5                                                                                                                           -1.5




 -2                                                                                                                             -2
       Vocab   Listening Comp Word Reading       Nonword         Narrative         Expository      Narrative      Expository          Vocab     Listening Comp Word Reading     Nonword         Narrative         Expository      Narrative      Expository
                               Efficiency         Reading        Passage            Passage        Passage         Passage                                      Efficiency       Reading        Passage            Passage        Passage         Passage
                                                 Efficiency      Fluency            Fluency        Accuracy       Accuracy                                                      Efficiency      Fluency            Fluency        Accuracy       Accuracy

                  Automatic Word Callers (59%)       Speeding Word Callers (28%)        Dysfluent Readers (13%)                          Automatic Word Callers (37%)   Speeding Word Callers (20%)         Slow Word Callers (27%)     Potential RD (19%)




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                      Robust Finding: Common Trends
                                           Year 1                                                                                                                 Year 2
1.5                                                                                                                           1.5




  1                                                                                                                             1




0.5                                                                                                                           0.5




  0                                                                                                                             0




-0.5                                                                                                                          -0.5




 -1                                                                                                                            -1




-1.5                                                                                                                          -1.5




 -2                                                                                                                            -2
       Vocab   Listening Comp Word Reading       Nonword        Narrative         Expository      Narrative      Expository          Vocab     Listening Comp Word Reading     Nonword         Narrative         Expository      Narrative      Expository
                               Efficiency         Reading       Passage            Passage        Passage         Passage                                      Efficiency       Reading        Passage            Passage        Passage         Passage
                                                 Efficiency     Fluency            Fluency        Accuracy       Accuracy                                                      Efficiency      Fluency            Fluency        Accuracy       Accuracy

                  Automatic Word Callers (59%)      Speeding Word Callers (28%)        Dysfluent Readers (13%)                          Automatic Word Callers (37%)   Speeding Word Callers (20%)         Slow Word Callers (27%)     Potential RD (19%)




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                     Longitudinal Findings (n = 122)
                                               Year 2
                          Automatic     Fast         Slow         Potential    Good    Year 1
                            Word        Word         Word           RD        Comp’s   Totals
                           Callers     Callers      Callers
         Automatic Word      11            1           8             4         12       36
         Callers

         Fast Word           0             8           0             0          8       16
         Callers
Year 1




         Slow                0             0           3             1          1        5
         Readers
         Good                3             6           0             0         56       65
         Comprehenders

         Year 2 Totals       17           12          11             5         77



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                     Longitudinal Findings (n = 122)
                                               Year 2
                          Automatic     Fast         Slow         Potential    Good    Year 1
                            Word        Word         Word           RD        Comp’s   Totals
                           Callers     Callers      Callers
         Automatic Word      11            1           8             4         12       36
         Callers

         Fast Word           0             8           0             0          8       16
         Callers
Year 1




         Slow                0             0           3             1          1        5
         Readers
         Good                3             6           0             0         56       65
         Comprehenders

         Year 2 Totals       17           12          11             5         77



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                     Longitudinal Findings (n = 122)
                                               Year 2
                          Automatic     Fast         Slow         Potential    Good    Year 1
                            Word        Word         Word           RD        Comp’s   Totals
                           Callers     Callers      Callers
         Automatic Word      11            1           8             4         12       36
         Callers

         Fast Word           0             8           0             0          8       16
         Callers
Year 1




         Slow                0             0           3             1          1        5
         Readers
         Good                3             6           0             0         56       65
         Comprehenders

         Year 2 Totals       17           12          11             5         77



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                     Longitudinal Findings (n = 122)
                                               Year 2
                          Automatic     Fast         Slow         Potential    Good    Year 1
                            Word        Word         Word           RD        Comp’s   Totals
                           Callers     Callers      Callers
         Automatic Word      11            1           8             4         12       36
         Callers

         Fast Word           0             8           0             0          8       16
         Callers
Year 1




         Slow                0             0           3             1          1        5
         Readers
         Good                3             6           0             0         56       65
         Comprehenders

         Year 2 Totals       17           12          11             5         77



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                     Longitudinal Findings (n = 122)
                                               Year 2
                          Automatic     Fast         Slow         Potential    Good    Year 1
                            Word        Word         Word           RD        Comp’s   Totals
                           Callers     Callers      Callers
         Automatic Word      11            1           8             4         12       36
         Callers

         Fast Word           0             8           0             0          8       16
         Callers
Year 1




         Slow                0             0           3             1          1        5
         Readers
         Good                3             6           0             0         56       65
         Comprehenders

         Year 2 Totals       17           12          11             5         77



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                                    Implications for
                                      Researchers
• Profiles are dynamic over time
  – Measurement Error
  – Cohort Effects
  – Developmental Effects
• Population and context matter
• Replication of descriptive work is needed
  – Multiple measures across time are essential




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                                  Implications for
                                        Teachers
• Very few students need intensive
  instruction in the code
• A minority of students need targeted
  intervention in fluency
• Vocabulary is the most promising leverage
  point for whole-class instruction




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                                                             Thank you
•   The students, faculty, and families of the Mystic School
•   Claire White                           • Laura Potenski
•   Sarah Meacham                          • Beth Faller
•   Joshua Lawrence                        • Wing Cheung
•   Jacy Ippolito                          • Paola Ucceli
•   Suzanne Donovan                        • Kathleen Spencer
•   The Spencer Foundation                 • Christina Dobbs
•   The William & Flora                    • Anna Tirovolas
                                           • Maja Lang
    Hewlett Foundation
                            For more information, email
                            michael_kieffer@gse.harvard.edu



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Appendices
                        Variability in Adolescent
                              Literacy Research
                            – Buly & Valencia, 2003: Majority of students
Do adolescent readers         with poor performance had difficulty with
    struggle at the:          fluency and comprehension
                            – Leach et al., 2003: Majority of students
                              identified with reading deficits presented with
•   Word level?               problems in reading comprehension, with 2/3
                              of these students also showing word level
•   Comprehension             reading difficulties
    level?                  – Leach et al., 2003: Almost half of the
                              students identified in 4th and 5th grade were
•   Fluency level?            late-emerging poor readers
•   More than one?          – Hock et al., 2007: 63% of struggling readers
                              in 8th & 9th grade showed word-level
                              difficulties and comprehension difficulties




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                                   Relevance to ELLs in
                                         urban schools
• Paucity of research
 (August & Shanahan, 2006)

• Heterogeneity and late-emerging difficulties
  similar to native speakers
 (Lesaux, Lipka, & Siegel, 2006)

• Perhaps more likely to be word callers
 (Buly & Valencia, 2003)




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                                                 Latent Class Analysis
                                             Reader
                                             Profile                                            Latent Categorical
                                               (c)                                            Variable for unobserved
                                                                                                group membership




                                                                           Sight Word
Vocabulary




                                                                                                     Observed Continuous
                                                 Expository



                                                              Expository




                                                                                        Phonemic
                                                                           Efficiency



                                                                                        Efficiency
                         Accuracy




                                                 Accuracy
                         Narrative



                                     Narrative
             Listening




                                                                            TOWRE



                                                                                         TOWRE
                          DIBELs



                                     DIBELs



                                                  DIBELs



                                                               DIBELs
               Comp




                                      Rate




                                                                Rate
                                                                                                          Indicators


                                                                                                        Measures allowed
                                                                                                      to covary within class




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                           Goodness of Fit Stats
             2 Classes               3 Classes             4 Classes       5 Classes
  BIC
  Year 1     3973.128                3975.169              Would not
  (n = 79)                                                 converge
  Year 2     3846.378                3831.057              3829.333        Would not
  (n = 78)                                                                 converge

              Comparison                         -2LL (Δ in df)          Bootstrapped
BLRT
                                                                         p-value
Year 1        3 Classes vs. 2                    37.284 (9)              < .0001
(n = 79)      Classes
Year 2        4 Classes vs. 3                    40.818 (9)              < .0001
(n = 78)      Classes




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                       Goodness of Fit Stats

           2 Classes     3 Classes           4 Classes             5 Classes
Entropy
Year 1     0.727         0.856               Would not
                                             converge
(n = 79)
Year 2     0.787         0.881               0.916                 Would not
                                                                   converge
(n = 78)




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                                  Other Struggling
                                          Readers
• Okay in Reading Comprehension, but
  struggling with word reading…

           Struggled Year 1                             Year 2
           on
           TOWRE        11                                      14
                      (6.6%)                                  (7.5%)
           DIBELS        7                                       3
                      (4.2%)                                  (1.6%)


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         Longitudinal Findings by Grade
                                               Year 2                                 (n = 122)
                      Automatic     Speeding      Slow         Potential    Non-            Year 1
                      Word          Word          Word         RD           Strugglers      Totals
                      Callers       Callers       Callers
         Automatic        11             1            8            4              12          36
         Word          (equally                   (5 in 5th)   (equallysp    (5 in 5th, 5
         Callers       spread)                                   read)         in 6th)
         Speeding          0             8            0            0             8            16
         Word
Year 1




                                     (5 in 7th)                               (equally
         Callers                                                              spread)
         Dysfluent         0             0            3            1              1            5
         Readers
         Non-          3 (equally   6 (equally        0            0             56           65
         strugglers     spread)      spread)

         Year 2           17            12           11            5             77
         Totals


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