various medical specialties and the potential critical nature of abnormal values. In this paper a systematic description and block diagram for O2 transport is developed that allows a rigorous interpretation of important clinical variables such as the alveolar, arterial, and mixed venous PO, (PA*,, Pao,, and PRO,, respectively) and the alveolar COs partial pressure (PA~~J. In addition, a graphical analysis is developed using a total O2 content vs. PO, graph so that the total system can be treated. The graph- A Block Diagram, Graphical ical analysis supplements the block diagram and pro- vides a method to determine the effect of any sys!em and Microcomputer Analysis parameter [Hb concentration, pH, cardiac output (QT)] on the clinical variable of interest. This material and of the O2 Transport System presentation has been used for 2 years in a medical physiology course. DAVID A. MILLER AND WESLEY M. GRANGER The block diagram is an excellent integrating tool for the material developed early in the respiratory Department of Physiology physiology section including the gas laws, mechanics, Medical College of Georgia gas exchange, and transport. Later respiratory control Augusta, Georgia 30912 mechanisms are easily discussed in terms of the founda- tion established by the block diagram. A laboratory ses- MILLER, DAVID A., and WESLEY M. GRANGER. A sion is used to introduce the microcomputer system to Block Diagram, Graphical and Microcomputer Analysis of the the students. Several demonstration exercises and 0, Transport System. Physiologist (25(2): 000-000, clinical cases are discussed in this laboratory session. 1982.-The systematicdescription of O2 transport from the This session gives the students the opportunity to try involves a variety of environmental, therapeutic measures that they have either read or heard ambientair to the tissues pulmonary, heart, tissue,and blood parameters. Using essen- about. tially the law of conservationof mass and the total blood O2 content vs. O2partial pressure (PO*)relationship,the variables System Description of and parameters 0, transport can be relatedin the form of a block diagram. This systemblock diagramhasproved useful The O2 transport system has been formulated on the to examine factors that influence O2 transport. A mathe- basis of the conventional three-compartmental model maticaldescriptionof the system beenprogrammed an has on for pulmonary gas exchange (4) that includes dead- Apple II microcomputer.The computercan be usedto predict space, alveolar and shunt compartments and a tissue the relationshipbetweenalveolar, arterial, and mixed venous compartment that utilizes O2 (Fig. 1). Since this is a PO, and any given system parameter. To augment our steady state model tissue O2 utilization is assumed to be understandingof some of the more complex findings, we equal to O2 uptake at the lungs. The transport of 0, to developeda graphical analysisthat involves manipulation on the gas exchange region is dependent on the tidal the total 0, content vs. PO, diagram. Even though the graphicaltechniqueis less exactthan the computer, it provides volume (VT), breathing frequency (F), and the inspired better insight into the characteristicfeaturesof a given result. fraction of O2 (FIOJ. The dead-space compartment is This techniquereinforcesthe understanding the equations of represented by a dead-space volume, which is the por- usedin the block diagramand providesan in-hand methodfor tion of the VT that does not reach perfused alveoli. Thus determining the effect of any system parameter on the for this portion of the breath no gas exchange occurs, alveolar, arterial, or mixed venousPO,. and consequently the effective ventilation is reduced particularly when this volume is large. The volume of The transport of O2 from ambient air to the tissue is the conducting airways normally accounts for the major affected by a variety of environmental, lung, heart, portion of the dead-space volume. Examples of in- tissue, and blood parameters. Because of the large creased dead-space volume would include breathing number of parameters and relationships involved in this through a tube or pulmonary emboli that block perfu- system, its analysis or understanding often cannot be sion to ventilated areas. The alveolar compartment is dealt with adequately using word arguments or singular represented by a gas exchange space that is both ven- aspects (e.g., the O2 dissociation curve) of the total tilated and perfused. In this compartment it is assumed system. An inadequate analysis can result in wrong that the blood comes into perfect equilibrium with the answers or possibly right answers for the wrong reasons. alveolar gas concentrations. The shunt compartment is For example, if a patient has a lowered arterial O2 par- represented by a shunt flow (Qs), which is the portion of tial pressure (Pad, =60 mmHg) and a low hemoglobin the venous return that would have to be added to the concentration (hb = 10 g/100 ml), is the low Pao, ac- arterial blood to account for the difference between the counted for entirely by the low Hb? The answer is not a O2 arterial content (Cao,) and the O2 content of tpe simple yes or no, since it depends on the adequacy of gas blood equilibrated with the alveolar space (CA~,).~ QS exchange. With normal gas exchange low Hb does not divided by QT yields the shunt fraction (Fs), which is a appreciably affect Pao,, whereas with impaired gas ex- quantitative measure of an O2 exchange abnormality change it can significantly influence the Pao,. This ex- ample illustrates the complex behavior possible in the O2 transport system. The importance of interpreting var- ious blood gas measurements (e.g. arterial and mixed venous PO,) is underscored by their widespread use in The Physiologist, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1982 111 blood and its PO,. This relationship is influenced by Figure 1 O2 transport compartmental model. blood pH, temperature, and Pco~. Although 2,3=diphosphoglycerate can also influence the curve, its FIO,, F-VT concentration is assumed to remain constant in the model, because clinical data on this parameter are generally not available. The blood that perfuses the alveolar compartment is assumed to reach perfect equilibrium with the alveolar gases. Therefore, the total O2 content of that blood has been designated CAM,. In block 4, the total Cao, is calculated using a combined form of the FS equation and Fick’s principle. For I 5 ’ Left (QT-QS, - CA02 Heart normal values of FS (0.02), Cao, will approach CAM,; however, when FS increases their difference will increase ’ J Lcoo2 QS - Shunt ciio, and also be influenced by fo, and OT. In block 5, work- ing backward through the total O2 content vs. PO, I l QT FS = QS/QT graph will yield one of the desired variables, Pao,. This QT vo2 variable is heavily relied on as a clinical index of the PJO, I PO02 general state of oxygenation of the individual. In block 6, the mixed venous O2 content (CVO,) can be obtained Tissue from Cao, and parameter values by using Fick’s princi- ple. In block 7, PRO, can be obtained from GO, via the total O2 content vs. PO, graph. Pvoz is used clinically as (3). However, the FS does not specify the abnormality. an index of tissue oxygenation. An increased FS can indicate I) an anatomical shunting PACT, can also be calculated from FA~o, of blood that bypasses the alveolar space (e.g., atelec- PAco,=FAco,(PB-PH20) (0 tasis), 2) a diffusion abnormality, 3) a ventilation- perfusion abnormality, or 4) some combination of the where FA~o, =fCO&A. CO* production @CO,) is ob- above. tained from R~+o~, where R, the respiratory exchange ratio, is assumed to be equal to 0.8 and.all gas volumes are measured under BTPS conditions. VA is calculated O2 Transport Block Diagram from F+VT-VD). Since PACT, is determined from a Conventional equations and relationships (6) are’ fixed relationship (Eq. 1) with other system parameters available to describe the above compartments of the O2 (R, +o,, F, VT, VD, PB, PH,o), it is not input separately transport system and include 1) the alveolar gas equa- as a parameter. Alveolar, arterial, and mixed venous tion, 2) the definition of a dry gas fraction, 3) total O2 content vs PO, diagram, 4) FS equation, and 5) Fick’s principle. Each of these five relationships can be ex- Figure 2 Block diagram for O2 transport system. pressed in several forms. The form utilized in our FlO2 analysis allows each new variable to be expressed in terms of the previously introduced variable and one or more system parameters (Fig. 2). In this way the dependency of any variable can be determined by obser- ving the variables or parameters that appear in a FA02 previous block. In addition, variables and parameters are introduced at a level that is most consistent with their structural or functional appearance in the system. PA02 The system block diagram provides an orderly and logical way to view the relationships of the O2 transport AFFECTED BY: PH system. Accordingly, the beginning point in the diagram TEMP. PCO* is FIN,, which is a frequently manipulated parameter HGB during O2 therapy. In block 1, the alveolar gas equation PO2 is used to express the alveolar fraction of .02 (FA~J as a 1 CA02 function of the FIO*, O2 consumption (VO,), and the 4 4 ventilatory parameters, F, VT, and the physiological cao, = CA02- dead-space volume (VD). Alveolar ventilation (+A) is r given by F(VT- VD). In block 2, FAO~ is converted to PAN, by utilizing the definition of a dry gas fraction. c 6 PAN, is expressed as a function of the barometric IC302 = Ca02- V02/QT I pressure (PB) and the partial pressure of water vapor 4 (P&O). PB is altered in diving and at altitude, and PH~O cc0 7 k2 1/ varies with temperature. Since there can be variation of local PAN, across the lung due to local diffusion or ventilation-perfusion be viewed as compartmental and 90,. differences, FAO* and PAN, should values consistent with +A Block 3 represents the relationship tween total O2 content (dissolved + Hb carriage) of the be- cl co2 PO2 i Pi02 Pab2 112 Pco2 (PACT,, Pace,, and PVCO,, respectively) are assumed equal for the calculations involving the total O2 content Table 1 vs. Po2 graph. Parameters of O2 Transport System Since pH is related to Pco~, one might consider Parameter Anatomical of Functional Component calculating pH also. However, this relationship is very F Respiratory center, central and peripheral complex. For example, in respiratory and metabolic respiratory receptors disturbances, there is not a fixed relationship between VT Respiratory center, central and peripheral the two variables. Even in a respiratory disturbance respiratory receptors, respiratory muscles and elastic properties of the alone, such a hyperventilation, the relationship between lungs and chest wall pH and PCOz can vary with time and Hb. Thus, because YD, Fs Lungs of the complexity involved, pH is not calculated from QT Heart PCO~ in the computer program but must be input to, Body tissues separately. Arterial and mixed venous pH are also as- Hb, pH, Pea, temperature Blood sumed equal for calculations involving the total O2 con- FIO,, PHzO, PB Environment tent vs. PO, graph. Since the PH~O is determined solely by the temperature, it is calculated in the computer pro- gram from the input value of temperature. Table 2 Normal Values and Disturbances With the systematic description complete, it is of in- to System Parameters and Variables terest to examine the various system parameters to determine what anatomical or functional components Parameter Altered by Condition or Influence they represent. Table 1 indicates that a variety of organs to, = 250 ml/min Temperature (1 1°F - 7% $0, I), influence the behavior of the O2 transport system, and it abnormal. thyroid function is this spectrum of components that must be initially irco, = 200 ml/min Related to Vo, by R considered in abnormal states as opposed to immedi- R = Vco,/Vo, = 0.80 Substrate for Metabolism (fat, protein, ately focusing on the lungs or heart. As such, the initial or carbohydrate) clinical assessment should be to establish the abnormal VD = 150 ml/breath Pulmonary embolus Fs = 0.02 Diffusion abnormalities, ventilation- anatomical or functional component so that some ap- perfusion maldistribution, anatomical propriate therapeutic regimen can be implemented. shunts (bronchail veins, Thebesian Table 2 shows the normal values that have been used for veins), alveolar shunts (collapsed the system parameters and variables along with some of alveoli) the typical conditions or influences that might change or = 5 .O l/min Blood volume, sympathetic system, drugs the parameter values. Flo, =0.21 O2 therapy The block diagram has proved to be extremely useful PH,O = 47 mmHg Temperature for answering very basic questions that students have PB = 760 mmHg Altitude or diving had about the O2 transport system. For example, Hb= I5 g/100 ml Polycythemia, anemia Temperature = 37 “C Fever, drugs, environment I) What are all the parameters that affect Pao,? This pH = 7.40 Metabolic or respiratory acid-base question is esily answered by just listing all the disturbance parameters that appear above Pao,in the block diagram, F = 10 breaths/min Disturbance of respiratory center or since each of these parameters would influence the receptors VT = 500 ml/breath Disturbances of respiratory center or calculation of Pa0,. This list would also include the receptors, abnormal chest or lung parameters that affect the total O2 content vs. PO, compliance, or abnormal respiratory graph. muscle function 2) What parameters affect the arteriovenous O2 con- Normal Values for Variables tent difference? Small rearrangement of block 6 shows PAO, = 100 mmHg PACO~ = 40 mmHg that this difference is only influenced by to, and GT. Pao, = 94 mmHg CAoz= 20.6~01% 3) With normal gas exchange (Fs = 0.02), why does Pvo, =40 mmHg Cao, = 20.5 ~01% Pa~o, = 40 mmHg ci;(), = 15.5 VOW0 $0, have a large effect on Pao, and OT does not? The ef- fect of ?o, and OT on Cao, in block 4 of the block diagram is modified by the factor Fs/( 1 - Fs). When FS This is a combined form of blocks 1 and 2 in Fig. 2. ii small (Gormal = 0.02), it minimizes the influence of KnOwingPA 02, C~~,is obtained graphically in Fig. 3 (see Voz and QT on Cao, in block 4. However, 90, also ap- arrows). Knowing CAM, and the parameters of the pears in block 1 of the diagram and has a major influ- equation designated as (2) in Fig. 3, Cao, is calculated* ence on PAN, and CAM, only in block 4 and therefore has This value is used on the graph (see arrows) to obtain a minimal influence when FS is small. Pao,, which is an important clinical variable. Knowing Cao,, and the parameters of the equation designated as Graphical Analysis (3) in Fig. 3, Go, is calculated; from this P%, is ob- In our efforts to examine and to understand the tained graphically. system, we developed a graphical analysis that utilizes Figures 4-6 show how this basic graphical analysis the total O2 content vs. PO, relationship. All of the can be used to determine the effects of parameter varia- system relationships of Fig. 2 can be taken into account tions on PAoz, Pao,, and PVo,. In Fig. 4, the effect of using this graphical technique. Therefore the effect of two different concentrations of Hb is examined. The perturbing any system parameter can be examined. The curves relating PO, and total O2 content are shown for total O2 content vs. PO, graph is shown in Fig. 3. The Hb concentrations of 15 and 7.5 g/100 ml. Variables entry point on the graph is PAN,, which can be associated with the lower Hb are denoted by a prime. calculated from the equation designated as (I) in Fig. 3. I%,, which is the entry point on the graph, is the same The Physiologist, Vol. 25, NO.2, 1982 113 Figure 3 Figure 5 Graphical analysis of O2 transport. Graphical analysis of effect of pH on O2 transport. 22 CA02 -L (2) coofol 18 18 - 16 (31 CGO, I 4’ Total 12 02 Total Content IO O2 (Vol. %) 8 Content FS= 0.12 (Vol. %) 6 4 2 0 IO 20 t 30 f40 50 6Ot 701 80 90 IO0 II0 0 IO 20 30 f 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 II0 f POb* PP 02 Pa’02 Pa02 PA02 and VO, (PB - PIi, Pii02 Pa 0, PA 0, (I) PA02 = PI02 - PA/O2 FtVT - VD) (I 1 PO, (mm Hg) PO, (mm Hg) (2) CaOZ = CAOz- (3(3 (3) Cii02 = Co02 - VO, / OT Figure 4 Figure 6 Graphical analysis of effect of hemoglobin concentration on O2 Graphical analysis of effect of fraction of inspired O2 on O2 transport. transport. do,22 PI02 = 357mm Hg (primed) , P IO2 - I49 mm Hg (unprimed) PoCO2 = 40mm Hg Total R = 0.8 PI02 = 149 mm Hg 02 FS= 0.26 Content PoCO2 = 40mmHg VO/QT = 5.0 Vol. % RzO.8 , (Vol. %) FS = 0.12 I 11*1111,,,1,,,,,, 4 0 f32 (‘64 128 160 192 224 256 288 t320 Pi02 f Pa02 t 962 PA02 0 IO 20 3.Of f40 50 f60 170 80 90 flO0 IIO PA/O2 Piibp p+o; PiiO2 PdO2 PO02 ‘PAOz Pdo2 (FlO2= 0.21) (F102=0 5) ond PO2hn Hg) Pd02 PO2(mm Hg) for both cases because this variable is unaffected by Hb. Figures 4-6 illustrate the use of the graphical techni- The values for CAM, and C ‘Ao, are obtained from the que for evaluating the effects of Hb, pH, and F10,on O2 appropriate curve. Next Cao, and C ‘ao, are calculated transport. In a similar fashion, the effect of any other from the alveolar O2 contents and parameter values and system parameter could be evaluated. then used graphically to determine Pao, and P ‘ao,. Then The graphical analysis has been particularly useful in CVO, and C 70, are calculated from arterial Ot con- helping students understand the following difficult tents and parameter values and used graphically to points about O2 transport behavior. determine PVO, and P 70,. These results can now be used I) With abnormal gas exchange (large Fs) Pao, is to evaluate the effects of Hb. For this set of parameter significantly influenced by Hb or QT, whereas with values the largest influence of Hb is on Pi;;o,. normal gas exchange (small Fs) it is not. It is imperative In Fig. 5 the effect of pH on O2 tensions and contents to understand the complex behavior of Pao,, since this is is evaluated in a manner identical to that used for Hb. a frequently measured and highly relied upon clinical For the set of parameter values used, pH is shown to variable. alter both arterial and mixed venous O2 tensions. 2) Some disturbances (i.e., t CO, 1 OT, T pH, 1 The effect of FIO, on O2 transport is evaluated in Fig. temperature, and 1 Hb) decrease PVO, without signifi- 6. Since changing Fro, alters PAN,, the entry points on cantly affecting Pao,. The recognition and understand- the graph are different. The influence of FIN, on the ing of these disturbances is important, because in these arterial tension will be highly dependent on Fs, which cases tissue hypoxia that is undetectable by observing affects the vicinity in which the arterial content falls. Pa0,- is occurring. This in turn can markedly alter the arterial tension in the 3) The clinical index (PAN, - Pao) for gas exchange is saturation region of the curve. Since CVO, will usually extremely sensitive to FIO, and (Cao, -GO,) as well as fall on the steep portion of the graph, mixed venous ten- the gas exchange function (Fs). Understanding the fac- sions are affected by FIO, in a similar way for most sets tors that influence this difference allow better utility of of parameter values. it as an index. 114 The above behaviors as well as many others are read- PRO, to change in opposite directions. Figure 8 shows the ily understood by using the graphical analysis. In addi- compaiison-mode graphics that appear for the condi- tion the graphical analysis has seemed to help the tions QT = 6.0 l/min and FS = 0.3 (designated as 1st) students gain confidence in using the microcomputer and for the conditions OT = 3.0 l/min and Fs = 0. I program, since they know they have a tool they can fall (designated as 2nd). This particular demonstration back on to explain the results. generally stimulates the student to return to the graphical analysis and block diagram to explain this Microcomputer Analysis result and also drives home the point that a logical and The O2 model has been programmed on an Apple II orderly approach is necessary to understand the O2 microcomputer with graphics. The computer graphics transport system. plots PAo,, Pa0,, PVo,, and PACT, on the Y-axis. The The following are notes about the O2 transport com- user can choose the parameter to be changed puter program. The program has been written in Apple- systematically on the X-axis and then either keep the soft BASIC and can be run on a 48-K Apple II system normal values for the other parameters or enter known with an Applesoft BASIC language card. values. In this mode the effect of each parameter on the I) The disk operating system (DOS 3.3) has been pro- O2 transport variables can be examined. The graphics grammed so that when the computer is turned on, the that appear on the screen in this mode are shown in Fig. system will automatically begin to run the O2 transport 7. In this example the effect of the parameter @r on the program. Thus, after turning the computer on, the user O2 transport variables is shown. needs only to follow the instructions on the screen. Another program choice is the comparison mode, 2) Acceptable ranges for parameter values have been which allows examination of the effect of a single programmed into the computer. If a parameter value is parameter change and then the additional effects that entered that is not within the acceptable range, the pro- may result from concqmitant parameter or variable gram will continue to ask for reentry of the parameter. changes. For example, VO, increases when body temp- 3) The O2 transport system has been programmed to erature increases, and VT and F are altered by arterial automatically scale the Y-axis so that maximal utiliza- pH, Pco,, and PO,. Thus parameter and variable in- tion of the screen is obtained. terdependence can be examined in the comparison mode 4) The O2 saturation curve used in this model is that in a stepwise manner that facilitates the understanding of Gomez (1). The corrections for pH, temperature, and of the effects of the initial disturbance and the physical PCO~are those used by Kelman (2). The equation used changes or physiological responses that accompany it. to calculate PH,O from temperature is from Siegel (5). The comparison mode has also been used to demon- 5) Since the original program was too long to run strate to the students unusual system behavior. One ex- without erasing the graphics page of memory, a utility ample is a change in conditions that causes Pao, and program was applied to the Applesoft BASIC program to reduce it in length. A listing of this reduced program is unreadable, since all of the internal documentation Figure 7 has been eliminated. A flowchart of the computer pro- Microcomputer graphics showing effect of cardiac output on O2 transport variables. gram is given in Figs. Al and A2 of the Appendix. A 115 t diskette copy, which includes the symbols table and 110 character generator (both in binary) and additional 105 documentation of the program, is available by sending a MM HG blank diskette to Wesley M. Granger, Dept. of Physi- 100 t + . . . . . . . + . :I.*. * . . * t ology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912. In conclusion, this presentation is viewed as an elementary but fundamental teaching package for O2 transport. The block diagram allows a logical and orderly examination of influences that act on one or MM more parts of the system. The graphical analysis pro- vides a visual operational tool to predict the magnitude 10 7.5 5.0 2.5 and direction of these influences. The microcomputer QT (L/M IN) program with graphics facilitates the examination of the Figure 8 system and provides ready access to correct responses. Microcomputer graphics in comparison mode (see text for This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health explanation). General Research Support Grant 2507-RR05365- 19. , P 2ND References I. Gomez, D&l. Considerations of oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium 200: in the physiological state. Am. J. HZJAS~OZ. 135-142, 1961. 2. Kelman, G.R. Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation. J. A@. Physiol. 21: 1375-1376, M6. 3. Nunn, J.F. Applied Respiratory Physiology. Boston, MA: But- tersworths, 1978, p. 277-298. 4. Riley, R.L., and A. Cournand. Ideal alveolar air and the analysis of ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lungs. J. A&. Ph.Wol. 1: 825, 1949. 5. Siegel, D. An improved program to calculate intrapulmonary shunting. Crit. Care Med. 7: 282-284, 1979. 0.2 0.4 0.6FIog.8 1.0 6. West, J .B. Respiratory Physiology- The Essentials. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1979. The Physiologist, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1982 115 BASED ON 1ST I 4 BLOAD * ASD CHARACTER 1 BINARY PLOT SCALE GFSERATOR i-!RE 1 PROGRAMS. AND FIRST AND LAST VARIABLE VALUES. c v , , EACH PARAMETER1 . CALCULATE INCREMENT ,,\ VARIABLES ,+ PLOT VARIABLE X-AXIS ' FOR NEW VALUE VALUES. PARAMETER OF X-AXIS . 4 b VALUE. 4 v I 9 I t CONTINUE TO DISPLAY "PRESS IGRAPHICS PAGE i ENTER IDISPLAYED 1 GRAPHICS / DISPLAY PLOT , RETURN TO UNTIL PLOT IS 1 ABNORMAL ' UNTIL'RETURN' . CONTINUE" AT / I IS PRESSED. BOTTOM OF PLOT [FINISHED. 1 MODE' \ \ VALUE FOR PARAMETER \/ i SELECT PROGRAM OPTION: 1. DISPLAY GRAPH GO TO:A. 2 1> #FROM HIGH-RES < 7, ' 1. REDRAW GRAPH. ABOVE. 2. NEW GRAPH. MEMORY. I 3. LIST PARAMETER VALUES. . 1 1 1 t 1 4. COMPARISON GRAPH. I 5: EXIT PROGRAM. ALSO LABELS DRAW X-AXIS, ‘5, \ WITH PARAMETER; Y-AXIS , SA.?:E AND VALUE1 ! AND TICS. I \,3. ----~~ I\ 9 LIST VALUES FOR ALL I I * ‘s’AI,L’E DEPEND- ’ PARAMETERS. ISC OS X-AXTS VARIABLES FOR I I 1ST AND LAST Figure Al Flowchart for first half of O2 transport computer program. RECALL VARIABLE VALUES FROM r-l FIRST GRAPH SCALE Y-AXIS BASED ON BOT 1ST AND LAST VALUES. I 1 1 ALSO PLOTS I FIRST AND LAST 1 AND FIRST AND GRAPH \'AR IAKLE \'ALUEtj LAST VARIABLE FRO?1 1S-I’ GRAPH.1 PARAMETER GRAPHICS PAGE I DISPLAYED LQTIL PLOT IS 'I FISISHED. PAGE 2 ---- HIGH-RES GRAPHICS n 1 COSTINUE T O x \ ' DISPLAY PLOT UNTIL'RETURN' IS PRESSED. DETERMINE LABEL GRAPHS POSITIONS AS "1ST" AND < 1 OF 1ST AND 2ND PLOTS. l r GO l-0 DISPLAY GRAPH ' 1. 1 T O FAR RIGHT INCREMENT FOR A. IS SELECT PROGRAM OPTION: L >FROM HIGH-RES FIGURE Al. 1. REDRAW GRAPH. MEMORY. (,i,Et,, c 2. NEW GRAPH. 6 1 FOR SECOND SET 1 3, LIST PARAMETER VALUES. l 9 1 OF PARA?lETERS , \ 4. COMPARISON GRAPH. LIST ALL PAR- GO T O 4. 5. EXIT PROGRAM. AMETER VALUES'+ B. ABOVE. +' Figure A2 Flowchart for second half of O2 transport computer program.
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