Parenthetical Citations Using MLA Format by tho13076


									                      Parenthetical Citations Using MLA Format

1. Parenthetical citations tell readers where a writer has drawn material from a source.

2. The basic elements of the parenthetical citation are the author‟s last name and the
   page number of the material used in the source [Ex: (Brown 52) ]. However, it is not
   necessary to repeat any information that is already clearly provided. In other words,
   omit the author‟s last name from the parenthetical citation if you have identified it in
   the text shortly before the material being cited.

       Ex: Constance Brown argues that in Richard III, Lawrence Oliver uses a cyclical
           theme of the crown to create a “central device of coherence” (133).

3. Other parenthetical citations in which the author‟s name is not included within the
   text, the citation should appear as follows:

       A. Work by one author

               Oliver creates Richard III‟s “central device of coherence” by using a
       cyclical theme of the crown (Brown 133).

               U.N. investigators who have studied the extent of child labor in third-
        world countries estimate that “as many as 200 million children go to work         rather
than to school . . . making everything from clothing and shoes to                   handbags and
carpets” (Schapiro 205).

       B. Work by two or three authors

              High software prices mean that “education must do without this resource,
              prices must come down, or new strategies for development must be
       devised” (Holdstein and Selfe 27).

       C. Work by more than three authors

              In one important study, women graduates complained more frequently
       about “excessive control than about lack of structure” (Belenky et al. 205).


             In one important study, women graduates complained more frequently
       about “excessive control than about lack of structure” (Belenky, Clinchy,
       Goldberger, and Tarule 205).

       D. Authors with the same last name

               If your citations include authors with the same last name, use the
       initials of their first names to distinguish them.

                As early as 1966, government studies showed that dioxin-contaminated 2,
        4, 5-T caused birth defects in laboratory animals. Later studies also found        that
this herbicide was to blame for miscarriages, liver abscesses, and                  nerve damage
(J. Adler 32).

       E. Separate works by the same author

              If your references include 2 or more works by the same author, add
       shortened forms of the titles to your in-text citation.

              As the rangers evacuated students, the marines launched another offensive
       at Grand Mal Bay, then moved south to seize the capital and free the
       governor (Mullin, “Why the Surprise” 33).

              For Northrope Frye, one‟s death is not a unique experience, for “every moment we
              have lived through we have also died out into another order” (Double Vision 85).

       F. Two separate sources for the same citation

              If two sources provide essentially the same information and you wish
       to mention both in one parenthetical citation, alphabetize them
       according to their authors’ last names, group them together with a
       semicolon between them, and position the citation as you would any
       other citation.

              In contending that a 3 percent reduction in state funding for community
       colleges would not significantly hamper their operations, the governor
       overlooked the fact that community college enrollment was expected to
       jump by 15 percent during the next year (Byrce A4; Warshow A2).

       G. Citing a work listed by title

           In a parenthetical reference to a work alphabetized by title in the list of works
           cited, the full title (if brief) or a shortened version precedes the page or section
           number or numbers unless the title appears in your text.

           A presidential commission reported in 1970 that recent campus protests had focused on
           “radical injustice, war, and the university itself” (Report 3).

       H. Citing Religious Source

           In one of the most vivid prophetic visions in the Bible, Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be
           four living creatures,” each with the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New
           Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10). John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing
             his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).

4. Indirect quotations: If you use a quotation from person A that you obtained from a
   book or article written by person B, or you paraphrase such a quotation, put “qtd. in”
   before the name of the publication‟s author in the parenthetical reference.

        Ex: Rudolph Giuliani favors the death penalty for “the murder of a law-
enforcement officer, mass murder, a particularly heinous killing” but would
impose it only “when there is certainty of guilt well beyond a reasonable               doubt”
(qtd. in Klein 37).

5. Quotation within Short Quotation:

       Ex:   The report further stated, “All great writing styles have their wellsprings
             in the personality of the writer. As Buffon said, „The style is the man‟”
       (Duncan 49).

6. Block quotations: Quotations of five lines or more should be indented one inch or
ten spaces from the rest of the text. No quotation marks are needed for block quotes, and line
numbers should be placed immediately following the closing punctuation. Block quotes are
double-spaced along with the rest of the text.

       Ex: Barbara Tuchman‟s The Proud Tower presents a somewhat different view of
           the new conservative leaders. Besides riches, rank, broad acres, and ancient
           lineage, the new government also possessed, to the regret of the liberal
           opposition, and in the words of one of them, “an almost embarrassing wealth
           of talent and capacity.” Secure in authority, resting comfortably on their
           electoral majority in the House of Commons and on a permanent majority in
           the House of Lords, of whom four-fifths were conservatives, they were in a
           position, admitted the same opponent, “of unassailable strength.” (4)

7. THE GOLDEN RULE: If you quote, comment on the quotation. Let the reader
   know what you make of it and why you quote it.

       As Janice Rushing and Thomas Frentz put it in their book Projecting the Shadow: The
       Cyborg Hero in American Film, “To survive, a man must be technological, and to thrive,
       he must be technologically adept” (147). The new heroes cannot be sustained without
       technology, which counteracts their human weaknesses with cyborg prosthetics that give
       them an inhuman capacity for human salvation.

8. Blend quotations into your own sentences. Quotations should never be brought in
   unless you prepare your reader for them in some way. DO NOT, for example, bring in
   quotations in the following manner:

       Economist Richard M. Cybert, president of Carnegie-Mellon University offers a
       sad prediction about the steel industry‟s future. “It will never be as large as an
       industry as it has been. There are a lot of plants that will never come back and
       many laborers that will never be retired” (43).

  This abrupt quotation throws the reader off balance because it is not blended into the
  previous sentence. It is better to prepare the reader to move from the discourse to the
  quotation, as in the following revision:

       Economist Richard M. Cybert, president of Carnegie-Mellon University offers the
       following sad prediction about the steel industry‟s future: “It will never be as
       large as an industry as it has been. There are a lot of plants that will never come
       back and many laborers that will never be retired” (43).

  Here the quotation is made an actual part of the sentence. This sort of blending is
  satisfactory, provided the quotation is brief. Signal phrases and verbs also help blend quotes
  into sentences and alert readers to upcoming quotations.

   Signal verbs:
   Acknowledges       allows          believes       concludes
   Advises            answers         charges        concurs
   Agrees             asserts         claims         confirms
   Criticizes         emphasizes      offers         reveals
   Declares           expresses       opposes        says
   Describes          interprets      remarks        states
   Disagrees          lists           replies        suggests
   Discusses          objects         reports        thinks
   Disputes           observes        responds       writes

9. Use three spaced periods (an ellipsis) to show omissions. Whether your quotation is
   long or short, you will often need to change some of the material in it to conform to
   your own sentence requirements. You might wish to omit something from the
   quotation that is not essential to your point. Indicate such omissions with three spaced
   periods ( . . . ).

   Use square brackets to insert your own explanations within quotations. If you add
   words of your own to integrate the quotation into your train of discourse or to explain
   words that may seem obscure, put square brackets around these words.

       Ex:    In the “Tintern Abbey Lines,” Wordsworth refers to a trance-like
              state, in which the “affections gently lead . . . [him] on” (42-3). He is
              unquestionably describing the state of extreme relaxation, for he
              mentions that the “motion of . . .human blood [was] / Almost suspended [i.e.,
              his pulse slowed]” (44-7) and that in these states he considered himself to be “a
              living soul” (49).

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