EIGHTH GRADE ENGLISH BENCHMARK 3 GRAMMAR, USAGE

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EIGHTH GRADE ENGLISH BENCHMARK 3 GRAMMAR, USAGE Powered By Docstoc
					EIGHTH GRADE
ENGLISH
BENCHMARK 3

    GRAMMAR, USAGE,
A    AND MECHANICS
                      PASS GUM 3.1.a.
     Identify the principal parts of verbs
             to form verb tenses.
Oh! The Eiffel Tower! I’ve went… no, wait… I’ve gone all the way
from Edmond, Oklahoma, to Paris, France, and now I’ve saw…
   no… hey…shouldn’t I say I’ve seen?... And now I’ve seen
 everything I’ve ever wanted to see! Wow, I need to work on my
                     principal parts of verbs.


                 PRESENT           PAST         PAST PARTICIPLE
                                Ends in -ed          Ends in -ed
                                                 Uses a helping verb:
                                                  has / have / had
                    talk          talked            have talked

                    write         wrote            have written
                               (No –ed; it is       (No –ed; it is
                                irregular.)          irregular.)
                             PASS GUM 3.1.a.
          Identify the principal parts of verbs
                 to form verb tenses.



1. Ashley (had ran, had run) from the
   plane to catch her limo to the Eiffel Tower.
2. Ashley met Pierre in a sidewalk café, but
    Pierre had already (ate, eaten).
3. Pierre said, “I’ve (went, gone) to Rome two
    times, but I’ve never traveled to Edmond.”
4. Ashley said to herself, “I’ve (fell, fallen) in love
    with Paris!”



Write down what you think the correct verb forms are.
Answers are on the next slide.
                              PASS GUM 3.1.a.
           Identify the principal parts of verbs
                  to form verb tenses.
                                          This is a good way to think of
                                          present, past, and past participle:
1. Ashley (had ran, had run) from
the plane to catch her limo to the        Today Yesterday      Many times
Eiffel Tower.                             I…    I…             I… (have,
2. Ashley met Pierre for lunch in a                            had)
sidewalk café, but Pierre had
already (ate, eaten).                     run     ran          had run
3. Pierre said, “I’ve (went, gone)
to Rome two times, but I’ve never         eat     ate          had eaten
traveled to Edmond.”
4. Ashley said to herself, “I’ve (fell,   go      went         have gone
fallen) in love with Paris!”
                                          fall    fell         have fallen
                       PASS GUM 3.1.a.
      Identify the principal parts of verbs
             to form verb tenses.
…so anyway, Mila, Pierre has just           Really? Has he gave you
     completely fell for me!                       any gifts?

           Well, he has flew me home to          Has he
            meet his parents, and we‟ve         took you
           went to visit his grandmother.       anywhere
                                                  else?
                 Well, once after he had
                 tore his shirt, he took
                    me to the tailor.    Hmmm…has
                                         he wrote you
                                           any love
                                            letters?
                    Yuh…well, I mean he has
                   gave me some sweet cards
                           anyway.

   Did you find all of Ashley’s and Mila’s mistakes?
   Check the next slide to be sure.
                            PASS GUM 3.1.a.
          Identify the principal parts of verbs
                  to form verb tenses.
Use the Principal Parts of Verbs Chart       Principal Parts of Verbs
to check the girls’ verb tense choices.                           Past
                                          Present     Past       Participle
  1. Pierre has just completely fell        fall       fell     has fallen
  for me!                                   give      gave      has given
  2. Has he gave you any gifts?
  3. … he has flew me home…                 fly        flew     has flown
  4. …we’ve went to visit…
                                            go        went      have gone
  5. Has he took you anywhere
  else?                                    take        took     has taken
  6. …after he had tore his shirt…          tear       tore      had torn
  7. Has he wrote you any…
                                           write      wrote    has written
  8. …he has gave me…
                                            give      gave      has given
                          PASS GUM 3.1.a.
         Identify the principal parts of verbs
                to form verb tenses.
                                                        I look
Wow, my verb tense use is a bit messy! That could      beautiful
have been pretty embarrassing! My English teacher      with this
  Ms. Peppermint told us, though, that it’s not that    blush.
  messy verb users aren’t smart – we just use the
verb tenses that we grew up hearing. If our friends,
   relatives, day-care staff, TV personalities, and
  others around us used verb tenses incorrectly,
  that’s how we learned to use them! That’s what
                 sounds right to us!
 She said we just have to figure out which ones we
    use incorrectly, make a list of them, and then
memorize the right forms. I’ve already began…uh, I
            mean begun to make my list!
Ashley, which ones are on your list? We don’t want
      to make grammar mistakes all our lives!
                      PASS GUM 3.1.i.
             Use conjunctions correctly.

Conjunctions join one part of the sentence to another part.
       Boxing is good     Coordinating Conjunctions:
       exercise, and it    and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so
        is lots of fun!
                        Correlative Conjunctions:
                   either… or neither… nor both… and
                       not only… but also whether… or

           Common Conjunctive Adverbs:
   additionally, also, anyway, besides, consequently,
 furthermore, however, instead, likewise, meanwhile,
moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore

          Common Transitional Expressions:
   as a result, at any rate, by the way, for example, for
   instance, in addition, in fact, in other words, on the
                 contrary, on the other hand
                 Coordinating Conjunctions:

                 and but or nor for yet so

                         Use these conjunctions to join
                          two independent clauses.

                              Put a comma before
                               the conjunction.


 sub.     verb    dir. obj.    conj.      sub. verb   dir. obj.
Monique likes running          , and      she likes boxing.


subject   verb                         subject   verb
                      PASS GUM 3.1.i.
               Use conjunctions correctly.

 Watch out! Sometimes you have a compound VERB –
             not a compound sentence!

Monique boxed for two hours and blistered her
knuckles badly.
What is the best change, if any, to make to hours and in
the above sentence?
                              A. hours, and
                              B. hours; and
                              C. hours. And
                              D. No change.


                                  See next slide for answer.
                            PASS GUM 3.1.i.
                   Use conjunctions correctly.


  subject     verb     ---prep. phrase--- conj.   verb
Monique boxed for two hours and blistered
adj.   dir. obj.     adv.
her knuckles badly.



Monique (subject) has two verbs
(boxed, blistered). The sentence has a compound verb.
This is not a compound sentence. It does not need a comma
to separate the two independent clauses because there are
not two independent clauses. There are just two verbs.
                  PASS GUM 3.1.i.
          Use conjunctions correctly.



  sub.   verb   dir. obj. conj.   verb.   dir. obj.
Monique loves reading but dislikes shopping.


                         What is the best change, if
                         any, to make to reading but
                         in the above sentence?
                         A. reading, but
                         B. reading; but
                         C. reading. But
                         D. No change.
                             PASS GUM 3.1.i.
                  Use conjunctions correctly.



           sub.      verb     dir. obj. conj.   verb.   dir. obj.
      Monique loves reading but dislikes shopping.


  D. No change. This sentence has one subject and two verbs. It has a
compound verb, but it is not a compound sentence. No comma is needed.


    sub.      verb     dir. obj.   conj. sub.   verb.    dir. obj.
 Monique loves reading, but she dislikes shopping.


   This is a compound sentence; it has two sets of subjects and verbs,
                separated by a comma and conjunction.
            Correlative Conjunctions:

     either… or neither… nor both… and
        not only… but also whether… or
Be careful to check subject-verb agreement with
               these conjunctions.


Either the boys or Hannah (want, wants) to go.
(With either…or… look at the subject that is next
to the verb – is it singular? Then the verb should
be singular.
Either Kate or her sisters always (leave, leaves)
the door open.
Both Kate and her sisters (want, wants) to go.
(With both…and… the verb is always plural. It‟s
like adding two plus two.)
              Common Conjunctive Adverbs:
      additionally, also, anyway, besides, consequently,
    furthermore, however, instead, likewise, meanwhile,
   moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore

These interrupt in order to connect two thoughts.
They can be used two ways:
   1. to separate two independent clauses
        (semicolon /conjunctive adverb /comma.)
Example:
 subject   verb                      sub.     verb
Monique likes boxing ; however, she also likes running.

   2. in the middle of one independent clause
         (comma /conjunctive adverb /comma.)
Example:
 subject               verb
Monique , however, likes both running and boxing.
             Common Transitional Expressions:
as a result, at any rate, by the way, for example, for instance,
  in addition, in fact, in other words, on the contrary, on the
                             other hand

These, just like the conjunctive adverbs, interrupt to connect
ideas; they “transition” from one idea to another.
   They can make transitions in two ways:
   1. They can connect two independent clauses.
     subject   verb                                 sub. verb
 Ex: Monique likes boxing ; on the other hand, she likes
running. (semicolon/transitional expression/comma)
   2. They can interrupt one independent clause,
 connecting the first part of the clause to the second part.
     subject                verb
Ex: Monique , by the way, is a championship boxer and a
first-place marathon runner. (comma/trans./comma)
                  PASS GUM 3.1.i.
         Use conjunctions correctly.
    Now – can you use conjunctions correctly?
    Try this sample test question:
Either Sara‟s downloads or her keyboard were not
working properly.
What is the best change, if any, to make to
keyboard were not in the above sentence?

                             A. keyboard weren‟t
                             B. keyboard was not
                             C. keyboard are not
                             D. No change.
                   PASS GUM 3.1.i.
          Use conjunctions correctly.


       Try another one:


Sara works hard; in other words, she is a good
employee.
What is the best change, if any, to make to hard
; in other words, in the above sentence?
A.   hard, in other words,
B.   hard, in other words
C.   hard in other words,
D.   No change.
             PASS GUM 3.1.j.
Distinguish and correctly spell commonly
            confused words.

           I can‟t believe that I, Dawn McTaffy,
           am all ready here on this beautiful
           dessert island. Tomorrow their taking
           us to it‟s capitol city.

           Which is the best change, if any, to make to
           the underlined words in the sentence above?
           A. all ready / desert / their / its / capital
           B. already / dessert / they’re / it’s / capitol
           C. already / desert / they’re / its / capital
           D. No change.
     These are some of the commonly
     confused words. One of the most
            abused pairs is its/it’s.
                  No worries:
        It’s always means IT IS. It’s a
                  contraction!
    The other one (its) always means the
   possessive pronoun…like…the puppy
                licked its paw.

         Commonly Confused Words:
                 to, two, too; our, are;
            accept, except; affect, effect;
               past, passed; red, read;
 there, their, they’re; dessert, desert; lead, led;
its, it’s; loose, lose; peace, piece; break, brake;
     choose, chose; capital, capitol; all right;
            all ready, already; altar, alter;
                all together, altogether
Here are a few more…
                            What effect will the new
                         luggage restrictions have on
                        you? Will they affect you very
                          much? They‟re saying that
                        their effect will be felt both in
                         America and clear over there
                        on the islands. To enforce the
                         airlines‟ two-bag restrictions
                            will be just too difficult!
                        Packing is already hard for us.
                         Oh well, I‟m all ready to pay
                          whatever I must in order to
                                      travel!
                It’s time for you to look in your grammar book,
                     make a list of the “commonly confused
                    words” that you still get mixed up in your
                   mind, and study them every now and then
                     until you familiarize yourself with them!
You know, you need to realize at some point that you are in
charge of what you learn. If you see something in this lesson –
or in any lesson -- that you don’t know, take responsibility for it.
Make a list of what you don’t know and learn it. It will be on your
ACT and SAT.                                       Don’t always
                                   I’ve got to     wait for your
                               remember to get     teacher to
                                 my teacher to     identify what
                                 email me that
                                                   you need to
                                    grammar
                                                   know. Instead,
                                 PowerPoint at
                                      home!        if you see
                                I need to study    something
                                 several of the    you don’t
                                slides. It’ll help know, learn it!
                               my little brother,
                               too! My parents
                                    will be
                               impressed with
                                my work ethic!
              GUM 3.1.k.
       Use the correct forms of
plural and possessive forms of nouns.

                         OK – Noun –
                  person, place, thing, idea –
                             right?

                  OK – Plural form is how we
                  spell it when there is more
                  than one – like rose/roses
                     or man/men – right?

                    OK – Possessive form
                    means when the noun
                   shows ownership – like
                         Jeff’s rose or
                   my friends’ cars – right?
         Singular: one bag
         Plural: two bags


        Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL:
Most nouns: Add s
Ex: bike(s), shop(s), the Graham family/the
Graham(s), the Devoe family/the Devoe(s), the Frame
family/the Frame(s), the Kettler family/the Kettler(s),
the Willhite family/the Willhite(s)

Nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, sh: Add es
Ex: church(es), box(es), dress(es), waltz(es),
brush(es), the Katz family/the Katzes, the Jones
family/the Jones(es), the Evans family/ the Evans(es),
the Barghols family/ the Barghols(es), the Butts
family/ the Butts(es), the Burch family/the Burch(es),
the Mills family/ the Mills(es), the Hughes family/ the
Hughes(es), the McWatters family/ the McWatters(es)
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued

Nouns ending in vowel-y: Add s
Ex: key(s) essay(s) journey(s), the Toney family/
the Toney(s), the Lashley family/ the Lashley(s)

Nouns ending in consonant-y: Drop the y
and add ies*
Ex: baby/babies, sky/skies, comedy/comedies,
trophy/trophies, cavity/cavities
*Proper nouns ending in consonant-y: You
cannot change their spelling, so just add s.
Ex: The Gundy family/the Gundys (not the Gundies!),
There are two Circuit Citys (not Circuit Cities!), the
McElvany family/the McElvanys (not the
McElvanies!), Principal Geri Woody/ the Woodys (not
the Woodies!)
  Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued

Nouns ending in vowel-o: Add s
Ex: radio(s), video(s), studio(s), Antonio(s), igloo(s),
patio(s)
Nouns ending in consonant-o: Add es*
Ex: hero(es), tomato(es), potato(es), veto(es),
torpedo(es)
*Exceptions: Music words - piano(s), solo(s)
*Other common exceptions: taco(s), photo(s)…
For proper nouns ending in consonant-o, you
can‟t change their spelling, so just add s.
Ex: the LoPresto family/the LoPrestos, the Alvarados
For some nouns ending in consonant-o, add
either s or es.
Ex: tornado/tornado(s) tornado(es), motto/motto(s)
motto(es), banjo/banjo(s) banjo(es)
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued

Some nouns ending in f or fe: Drop the f or
fe and add ves.                      No, people,
Ex: knife/knives, leaf/leaves, shelf/shelves   you are not
But…roof/roofs, safe/safes                       going to
                                               memorize all
                                               these rules!
Some nouns have irregular plurals.               You are
Ex: child/children, tooth/teeth, goose/          going to
geese, woman/women, mouse/mice                  remember
                                                 one key
                                               word in each
Some nouns stay the same from                   category!
singular to plural forms.
Ex: one deer/two deer, one sheep/
two sheep, one species/two species
  Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued

Most compound nouns:
Ex: notebook/notebook(s), disc jockey/ disc jockey(s),
blueprint/blueprint(s), two-year old/two-year-old(s),
Other compound nouns: Form the plural of the
actual noun
Ex: brother(s)-in-law

Nouns from other languages use the plural
form in the original language:
Ex: alumnus/alumni, phenomenon/ phenomena
Some nouns from other languages have two
plural forms – an original one and an English
one. The English one is preferred.
Ex: index/indexes or indices, appendix/appendixes or
appendices, cactus/cactuses or cacti, cherub/cherubs
or cherubim
Rules for Making Nouns PLURAL, continued

    Use ‘s to form the plural of numbers,
            letters, symbols, etc.
Ex. #1 There are two a’s in the word separate.
(Without the apostrophe, the word a’s would look
like as. Very confusing!)
Ex. #2 Your i’s look like e’s. (Without the
apostrophe, the word i’s would look like is.)
Ex. #3 There are two 8‟s in the address. The Civil
War was in the 1860‟s. I have several CD‟s. (These
are understandable with or without apostrophes.)

FYI: Many grammar books allow either s or ‘s with
example #3 (CDs or CD‟s, 1860s or 1860‟s).
Grammar rules insist, though, on using ‘s with
examples #1 and #2, when the absence of the
apostrophe would cause confusion.
Rules for Making Nouns POSSESSIVE
Singular nouns: Add „s
Ex: the player‟s uniform, student‟s car, the Jones
family‟s house, Sam‟s cap, Francis‟s baseball

Plural nouns ending in s: Add „
Ex: the players‟ uniforms, the
students‟ cars, the Joneses‟ house

Plural nouns not ending in s:
Add „s
Ex: the children‟s uniforms, the
women‟s team, the men‟s team


        Isn’t there some little trick for checking my
           possessive forms after I write them?
Hey, I know a great trick! You can check your
   possessive forms by mentally circling
  everything to the left of the apostrophe.
 Then ask, “Is that what I’m talking about?”
                  Try these:

1. Bubba put all of his (sister’s, sisters’) toys
in the toy box. His three sisters thanked him.
       Hmm… sister’s… or… sisters’ …
     Am I talking about sister or sisters?
       Right! It’s “three” so it’s sisters’.

2. I don’t have all of this (recipe’s, recipes’)
                 ingredients.
      Hmm… recipe’s… or… recipes’ …
    Am I talking about recipe or recipes?
      Right! It’s “this,” so it’s recipe’s.
                        GUM 3.1.k.
           Use the correct forms of
    plural and possessive forms of nouns.
My Plural Example   My Possessive
Words:              Example Words:
bikes               the player’s
churches            uniform
keys
                    the players’
babies
                    uniforms
Gundys
radios              the children’s
heroes              uniforms
pianos
tornado(s,es)          If I can memorize
knives                 how to form these
children                key words, I can
deer                    remember each
notebooks                   plural and
brothers-in-law         possessive rule!
cactuses
a’s
               PASS GUM 3.2.b.8
           Use a comma after an
      introductory participial phrase.

                  What is a
                  participia
                  l phrase?


              Participial phrase
1. Phrase – a group of words without a subject
                   and a verb
  2. Participial – beginning with a word that
             ends in –ing or –ed
3. A participial phrase always functions as an
          adjective in the sentence.
                   PASS GUM 3.2.b.8
                 Use a comma after an
            introductory participial phrase.



             Dancing with her friends, Krista
enjoyed the school party.




              Tired of dancing, Krista still
continued to dance until it was time to go
home.
               PASS GUM 3.2.b.8
            Use a comma after an
       introductory participial phrase.


Doing crunches Angelina prepared for
the rowing competition.
What is the best change, if any, to make to
crunches Angelina in the above sentence?
A. crunches; Angelina
B. crunches, Angelina
C. crunches. Angelina
D. No change.
                  PASS GUM 3.2.b.8.
             Use a comma after an
        introductory participial phrase.

Broken by the puppy; Lea‟s alarm clock
failed to wake her early enough.
Which is the best change, if any,         Hey, I
                                      thought the
to make to puppy; Lea‟s               first word in
in the above sentence?                      the
                                        participial
A. puppy. Lea‟s                        phrase had
B. puppy: Lea‟s                         to end in
C. puppy, Lea‟s                       –ing or –ed!
D. No change.                         Broken ends
                                         in –en.
       Yes, participial phrases do begin with
          words ending in –ing and –ed.
 Some –ed words, however, are irregular. Examples:

      Verb           Present Participle     Past Participle
                        (-ing form)           (-ed form)
      keep                keeping               keeped kept
       go                   going               goed gone
      break               breaking          broked broken
      build               building              builded built
      bring               bringing          bringed brought

           Participial phrase
is an adjective modifying the subject, clock.

 Kept safely on a high shelf, Lea‟s new clock
          was safe from the puppy.
                    PASS GUM 3.2.b.8.
               Use a comma after an
          introductory participial phrase.
Write two original sentences beginning with introductory
participial phrases. Start one with an “-ing” participial
phrase and one with an “–ed” participial phrase.
1._________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2._________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
                       PASS GUM 3.2.b.5.
          Use commas to set off
      nonessential participial phrases.
 Thank goodness! I get the whole introductory          But why do you
thing, but what if a participial phrase isn’t at the    care, Cole?
           beginning of the sentence?
                                                                Oh,
   Allie, I care
                                                               Cole,
  because of my
                                                              you are
 music! Everyone
                                                                so
  knows that in
                                                              smart!
     writing,
   punctuation
controls meaning!
                     PASS GUM 3.2.b.5.
          Use commas to set off
      nonessential participial phrases.
Review: Participial Phrase – Group of words beginning with a
word that ends in –ing or –ed
Introductory Participial Phrase – Always put a comma after it.


Essential vs. Nonessential – This just means necessary
vs. not necessary. Is the phrase necessary – is it
“essential” to the main point (the independent clause) of
the sentence, or is it just interesting, extra, added
information?

Now, the comma rule:
If the phrase is “nonessential,” set it off with commas.
If the phrase is “essential,” do not set it off with commas.
                   PASS GUM 3.2.b.5.
        Use commas to set off
    nonessential participial phrases.

Nonessential:
Cole Rambler, blinking back the tears, accepted the
People‟s Choice Award for Best New Male Recording
Artist.
                                      Oh, I get it!
                        The main point is in the independent
                         clause! It’s all about me – Cole –
                                accepting the award!
                        The whole “blinking back the tears”
                                thing is nonessential!
                         Put commas around it to show it’s
                            interesting but nonessential!
                         It’s almost like you’re putting it in
                             parentheses or something!
                  PASS GUM 3.2.b.5.
        Use commas to set off
    nonessential participial phrases.

Nonessential:
Allie, worried about Cole‟s concert, practiced her yoga
for twelve hours yesterday.

                                     I get it!
                   The big point is the independent clause!
                   Allie practiced her yoga for twelve hours
                                   yesterday!
                 Never mind the extra, added information that I
                   am worried about Cole’s concert – that is
                 nonessential! (blah-blah-Cole’s-concert-so-what?
                   blah-blah-interesting-but not the main point!)
                                Put it in commas!
                  This is an Allie/yoga sentence, not a Cole’s
                         concert sentence! Yay, I get it!
          PASS GUM 3.2.b.5.
    Use commas to set off
nonessential participial phrases.
               Could I see an
              “essential” one?

                 Allie is the girl practicing
                 yoga in the green room.
                      I totally get it!
          This participial phrase is essential!
         Without it, the independent clause is
       “Allie is the girl.” That is just plain crazy!
        What girl? In this sentence you have to
         have the participial phrase; thus, it is
        essential. If it‟s essential, you don‟t use
                      commas! Yay!
                   PASS GUM 3.2.b.31.
              Use quotation marks
          to enclose a direct quotation.




  …and when I said, “Yes,
  I will be honored to be
   Spring Sports Queen,”
      I could hear my
    parents cheering in
          the gym…


Place the comma or period inside
the ending quotation mark.
             PASS GUM 3.3.b.
Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.

                   O GR8. DO U NO MODIFIER?
                        CWOT. IDK, IDC!
                            OK CU.

                  Modifiers are any phrases or
                  clauses that “modify” or
                  “describe” any other
                  words in the sentence.
                  …Prepositional phrases
                  …Participial phrases
                  …Appositive phrases
                  …Adverb clauses
                  …Adjective clauses
              PASS GUM 3.3.b.
Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.

     How do they get “misplaced”?


            You have to write the “modifier” as
            close as possible to the word it
            “modifies.” Sometimes you mess up.
                      .
            BAD: Asking questions, the rules
            became clearer to Jenny.
            (“Asking questions” is a participial
            phrase that modifies “Jenny.” It is,
            though, very far away from “Jenny.”)

            GOOD: Asking questions, Jenny
            understood the rules more clearly.
               PASS GUM 3.3.b.
  Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.

Determined to improve his grammar, bad
telephone reception did not keep Con from
studying.

                   Hey Jenny. Now what did you
                   teach me earlier about those
                   misplaced modifiers? Jenny?
                     Jenny? Can you hear me?


                 Do you think the above participial
                 phrase, “Determined to improve his
                 grammar,” is close enough to the noun
                 it is supposed to modify?
                               PASS GUM 3.3.b.
     Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.

This is bad! The modifier is
right next to the words
“bad telephone reception.”

Determined to improve his grammar, bad telephone
reception did not keep Con from studying.   Jenny? Can
                                                 you hear me
                                                    now?

Ahhh! This is nice!
The modifying phrase
is right next to “Con.”

Determined to improve his grammar, Con did not let bad
telephone reception keep him from studying.
                 PASS GUM 3.3.b.
 Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.



Con thanked Jenny for helping him with his
grammar lesson while he was texting some
friends.


               We have two modifiers:

  1. Prepositional phrase – for helping him with
     his grammar lesson (modifies the verb
     thanked – answers thanked why?)
                   PASS GUM 3.3.b.
   Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.

 Con thanked Jenny for helping him with his grammar
      lesson while he was texting some friends.

2. Adverb clause – while he was texting some friends –
(Is this in the right place?)
Was Con “texting some friends” while Jenny was
“helping him with his grammar lesson”?
No! Try it this way…


While he was texting some friends, Con thanked Jenny
      for helping him with his grammar lesson.
                      PASS GUM 3.3.b.
       Identify and correct misplaced modifiers.

Rewrite these sentences, correcting the misplaced modifiers.
1. Allie saw her dog Boomer, running down the street to
catch the school bus.
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
2. Con told Allie about the song he heard on the radio that
had a huge impact on him.
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
         OK, now…
   if you don‟t need the
 modifer, you do need the
commas; if you do need the
 modifier, you don‟t need
       the commas…
    so… it‟s… don‟t/do;
         do/don‟t.
       Got it! Weird.