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EDT 300 MATH LESSON PLAN STUDENT GUIDE Target Content Math Area(s): Target Grade Level 4-8 Unit Title Averaging Data Lesson Title Rocket Balloons Prerequisite Skills Basic skills with computer functions (handling mouse) Understanding of how the average (mean) of three numbers is calculated Ability to perform basic measurements with measuring tape Fourth grade reading level Objectives Students will launch a balloon rocket and will measure the distance traveled. Students will calculate the sum and average (mean) of the three trials with a computer spreadsheet. Student teams will graph data and compare results to other groups’ data. Arizona State Math: Standards 1M-E6. Recognize that the degree of precision needed in calculating a number depends on how the results will be used and the instruments used to generate the measurements. 2M-E1. Construct, read, analyze and interpret tables, charts, graphs and data plots. 5M-E1. Estimate, make and use measurements (U.S. customary and metric) to describe and make comparisons. Technology: 1T-E1. Communicate about technology using developmentally appropriate and accurate terminology 3T-E2. Use a variety of technology tools for data collection and analysis 6T-E1. Determine when technology is useful and select and use the appropriate tools and technology resources to solve problem Technology To Be Spreadsheet software (ClarisWorks 4.0-6.0) preloaded Used on each computer Rocket Balloon Spreadsheet Template One computer w/ CD-ROM drive per team of students Printer (optional) Materials/Resources 30 student copies ―Rocket Balloon Trial Sheet‖ Needed Blank floppy disks (one per team) Materials for balloon rockets (one set per group of 3 to 5 persons): piece of fishing line (11-12 ft.) balloons of the same size (plus a few extra in case one pops) plastic, 3-inch straw segment rolls of clear tape measuring tape permanent marker large paper clip Lesson Preparation: Collect rocket launch materials for the class and assemble one of each item listed above in a Ziploc bag Choose a site for launching the rocket balloons (classroom or outside). Students will need about 10 ft. of ―launch space.‖ Tips for good launch sites: A place to anchor the fish line (either by tying to a doorknob or back of a chair, or by taping it to a wall). One other option is tacking the fish line to a bulletin board, but this can easily be pulled out. Load ―Rocket Balloon Spreadsheet Template‖ on each computer from CD. Note: If computer access or space is limited, set up the following stations: Launch station: students launch rocket balloons and measure the distance traveled. Computer Station A: for data calculation using the “Rocket Balloon Spreadsheet Template.” Students should take their results, enter them into the template, save it on floppy disk, and take it to Station B. Computer Station B: for compiling each group’s data into one class data spreadsheet. Anticipatory Set 1. Blow up a balloon and ask students some leading questions: What will happen if I let this balloon go? How far will it go? What makes the balloon go? Etc… 2. Ask: How can I get the balloon traveling on a straight path? (solicit: put it on a string) 3. Ask: How am I going to attach the balloon to the string? (solicit: use a straw, attach it to a straw) 4. Ask: How would I attach the balloon to a straw? (solicit: use tape) 5. Ask: Would the size of the balloon matter? (solicit: yes, the more air in the balloon, the further it will go). 6. Ask: How will we measure the distance traveled? (solicit: use ruler, measuring tape). Tell students that they will be conducting an experiment using a rocket balloon in which they will collect data, enter the data into a computer spreadsheet, and perform calculations on this data using the spreadsheet application. 7. Explain that using a spreadsheet allows them to enter numbers into an ―electronic‖ table and perform automatic calculations with the numbers. It performs the task of a calculator. In this case, they will measure distances traveled by their rocket balloons and calculate the sum and average of the three trials. 8. Tell them that they will calculate the sum and average (mean) by using the pre-formatted formulas in the spreadsheet template, as well as graph the trials of the other groups so they can see who had the longest rocket balloon launch. 9. OPTIONAL: Explain that a scientist, Isaac Newton, predicted the behavior of the balloon that they observed many years ago and he stated that there are three laws that control all motion. This experiment relates to Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion (for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction). Lesson Procedure Part I: Rocket Launch (approximately 20 minutes) 10. In a class discussion, develop ground rules for launching rocket balloons so that all groups will have a basis for comparison. Lead students to understand the importance of controlling the experiment as much as possible. Ask: How will you ensure that all balloon sizes are equal? (solicit: measure it, use string, etc.) Ask: How should the fishing line be anchored? (solicit: tie it, tape it, etc.). Stipulate that the line will be parallel to the floor. Discuss what that means and how they can achieve it. Ask: How many trials are needed? (solicit, but keep in mind 3 is a pretty good number) Ask: How will the distances be measured to ensure as much accuracy and consistency as possible? (solicit: choose a consistent point on the straw as the start/finish point, mark it on the line with permanent marker, and measure the distance using measuring tape). Ask: How should the balloon be anchored? (solicit: tape it to straw. NOTE: due to balloon’s center of gravity, straw needs to be placed closer to the tied end than the round end. You can give students this tip, or you can let them discover this on their own by telling them to experiment with the placement of the straw). 11. Distribute ―Rocket Balloon Trial Sheets‖ – one per student. Stress to students that we will be comparing the data collected among the teams and it will be important that the activity be performed in the same manner in all groups. Review the design decisions made by the class The size off the balloon will be consistent per the discussion. The materials to be used The configuration of the balloon apparatus How to anchor the string How to mark start and stop points Measurement techniques and units to be used. Demonstrate how to launch the rocket balloon. Refer students to graphic on the Rocket Balloon Trial Sheet. Put the string through the straw. Make sure that one end of the string is anchored (to a wall, chair, door knob, etc.). Inflate the balloon and seal the end with a paper clip. Tape the straw to the balloon. Mark your balloons starting point. Let it go! Have one team member mark the distance traveled. Measure and record the distance on the worksheet. Address the units to be used and the degree of precision you expect. For example, when using inches and round to the nearest quarter of an inch; for centimeters, round to the nearest half. NOTE: Have a few student volunteers assist in demonstrating the launch process. 12. Discuss classroom management strategies and behavior issues This is not a competition between teams. Specify how much time will be allowed. About 20 min. is sufficient. Assign students to teams of 3 or 4 according to: Mixed abilities Behavior issues Random Seating arrangements Assign jobs within each team: Launcher Responsible for setting the balloon in place and releasing it Marker: Responsible for marking the furthest point reached by the balloon Measurer: Responsible for measuring the distance traveled Recorder: Responsible for recording the results on the worksheet Note: ”Inflator” may be an additional job assignment for a fifth team member. 13. Tell students that they will conduct a test run. After the test run, they can make any necessary adjustments to the design of their rocket balloon (i.e. placement of straw). 14. Direct students’ attention to the place on the worksheet where they can record the distance their balloon traveled. 15. Distribute materials for rocket balloon launch (one bag per team). 16. Direct student teams to the Launch sites and set time to return (approx. 20 minutes later). 17. Have students conduct three trials. They can enter the distance values on the worksheet until they can be transferred to the spreadsheet. Monitor groups’ progress and limit time allowed for data collection. Part II: Enter Data (Approximately 20 minutes) 18. Using projection system, show the students how to enter data into the spreadsheet: (see ClarisWorks Job aid for help). Demonstrate moving from cell to cell. Demonstrate adding a formula to the spreadsheet—in this case, show them what the formula is for averaging the distance of their trial flights from their ―rocket balloons‖. ―Average‖: =average (first cell in the calculation..last cell in the calculation). Example: =average(b6..d6) Demonstrate graphing option on the toolbar. 19. Have the students open the spreadsheet template on their computer. The students can save the spreadsheet with their ―rocket balloon‖ information to a disk or to a student work folder. Step 1: save as ―your team name.‖ Step 2: Identify the location where you want to save the file (desktop folder, floppy disk, etc.). Step 3: enter data Step 4: save, save, save Note: Caution them to save the template as their own file first, then enter data. Sample spreadsheet data table: 20. Walk around the room and check to see if any students need help with their rocket balloons or their spreadsheets. Part III: Graphing (approximately 20 minutes) 21. Reassemble students. 22. Tell students to follow directions on their worksheet for producing a graph of their results. Explain that they will have approximately 20 minutes for this part of the activity. 23. Highlight the information that you want to graph. You will be highlighting the labels ―Trial 1, 2, and 3‖ as well as the distance data entered below each trial label. 24. Select the ―Options‖ option from the top tool bar and select ―Make Chart‖. The box below will appear. 25. Select the appropriate type of graph— (top arrow in chart options diagram). Note: A bar graph is selected in this case. However, you may want to invite students to explore which graph type best explains the data. 26. Click labels button. Give the graph a title (see bottom arrow). 27. Click axes button. Label the two axes (see middle arrow). 28. OPTIONAL: Groups that finish early can collect the trial averages from the other groups and enter them in the spreadsheet in the same column under their own average. Assessment Activity 1. Have the students save and print their spreadsheets and graphs using their team name as the file name. Closure 1. Regain students’ attention. 2. Using projection system from teacher computer, open ―Class Results‖ Spreadsheet Template from the CD. 3. Ask each group to tell you their average of the three trials. 4. Enter as each group reports. Class Results Team Name Average Distance 5. Graph the results. 6. While the graph is displayed, ask the following questions: Ask: What can you tell by looking at the graph? Ask: Which group got the highest? Why? (ask group to describe how they set up the trial) Ask: What are the differences? How do you account for them? Ask: How does the graph help us see the results? Ask: What other variables could we add to this experiment? (solicit: angle of fish line, size of balloon, length of straw, adding mass) Extensions For the purpose of expanding the notion of student lead inquiry, challenge students to develop new questions to explore regarding the balloon rockets. Each team can design, implement, and summarize an experiment which might answer one such question. For example: How does the angle of the fishing line (with respect to the floor) affect distance traveled? What needs to happen to increase speed (or distance) of the rocket? What can be done to increase the mass and maintain the distance traveled? Objectives: This lesson will help you learn to use the tools of a spreadsheet: Enter number and word data into a table Calculate sums and averages Graph data What You Need Balloon plastic straw 10 feet of fishing line or kite string 1 computer per team plastic tape spreadsheet template measuring tape Clarisworks 4.0 or better. Rocket Balloon Straw Tape Balloon What Happens? In this activity, an untied balloon releases air and races across the room along a string. The air escapes from the balloon because the air around the balloon pushes against it. As air escapes, the balloon is pushed backward (Newton’s Second Law of Motion). A string through a straw keeps the balloon rocket on a straight course. Practice: 1. Put the string through the straw. 2. Make sure that one end of the string is anchored to a wall, chair, doorknob, etc. 3. Inflate the balloon and seal the end with a paper clip. 4. Tape the straw to the balloon. 5. Mark your balloons starting point on the string. 6. Let it go! 7. Have one team member mark the furthest distance traveled. 8. Measure and record the distance. Our Practice Distance Was: ______________ The Experiment: 1. Repeat the above steps three times 2. Record the measurements in the table below: Trials Distance Traveled 1 2 3 The Data and the Spreadsheet: 1. Use the spreadsheet layout provided on your computer to enter your trial results. It should be named ―Rocket Balloon Spreadsheet Template‖. 2. Enter your ―team name‖ in the cell beneath the label ―Team Name‖. Team Name Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 3. Enter the distance data under the labels ―Trial 1, Trial 2 and Trial 3‖. Team Name Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 4. In the cell directly after the cell labeled ―Trial 3‖, type in ―Sum‖—the cell beneath this one will calculate the total of each of the trials. Team Name Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 5. Insert the formula into the cell beneath the cell labeled ―Sum‖: =sum(first cell in the calculation..last cell in the calculation). Example: =sum(b6..d6) Team Name Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Sum 6. In the cell directly after the cell labeled ―Sum‖, type ―Average‖—the cell beneath this one will calculate the average the trials. Team Name Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Sum 7. Insert the formula into the cell beneath the cell labeled ―Average‖: =average(first cell in the calculation..last cell in the calculation). Example: =average(b6..d6) Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Sum Average 8. Save your spreadsheet as your ―team name‖ and print. Graphing: 1. Highlight the information that you want to graph. You will be highlighting the labels ―Trial 1, 2, and 3‖ as well as the distance data entered below each trial label. Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Sum Average (data) (data) (data) 2. Select the ―Options‖ button from the top tool bar and select ―Make Chart‖. The screen below will appear. 3. Select the appropriate type of graph. For this lesson, select Bar Graph 4. Click Labels to give the graph a title 5. Click Axes to label the X and Y axes. 6. Save the graph as your ―team name‖ and print. Try Other Data! Enter the trials for other groups in the class. Graph your average trial distance and their average trial distance. Which group had the farthest traveling rocket balloon? Class Results Team Name Average Distance Discussion

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posted: | 8/28/2010 |

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