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Excel VBA Basics Outline Excel – Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced Excel – Basic Elements Column - characters Each Row is uniquely designate designated by each column. integer number Cell – intersection of row and column. In the example the ID of the cell: B4 Excel Basic Data Types Label – anything that is just a text My daughter is 3 years old! Constant – any type of number 50%, 3.5, 775$, 10, -7.8 Formula – any math equation, always starts with an equal sign “=” =5+3, =45*7-3 Excel Spreadsheet Example Using Formulas in Excel Assignment: Suppose, we have a class of four students and we need to calculate an average of the three assignments they had for each one of them. Given the following spreadsheet: Solution I We have inserted absolute constants and invoked AVERAGE excel function After update of cell “B2” Can you see anything wrong? Solution II – Using Cell References Solution II – Using Cell References Now let‟s add a constant factor! “$A$8” Now let‟s continue the calculations… - using “copy” Select cell E2 and click <Ctrl> + C Starting from E3 and till E5 drag the mouse and select the needed group of cells Press <Ctrl> + P That is all! Solution II – using Excel Graphical User Interface 2. Click this button 1. Select a cell to be updated Solution II – using Excel Graphical User Interface 3. In the opened dialogue select the needed function Solution II – using Excel Graphical User Interface 5.Then with mouse select the needed cells 4. Go with mouse to the first argument (here Number1) See how we refer to a range! 6. Finally click “OK” Finally, Using “If” Expression in Excel =If(A2>1,”Yes”,”No”) If it is true that the value in the cell A2 is greater then 1, then the value of current cell is “Yes” Otherwise (else), the value is “No” Using “Sin/Cos/Tan” Expression in Excel Sin, Cos, Tan formats: for degrees formula “= sin (angle * pi()/180)”, the argument angle is in degrees for radians formula “= sin (angle)”, the argument angle is in radians Formatting Cells Formatting Cells – cont. Adding Graphs/Charts Outline Excel – Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced Using Macros Now let‟s create a simple macro that formats a single cell Changes its background Changes its font Recording a new Macro Recording a new Macro – cont. Recording the new Macro – cont. Working with Excel while recording the macro Finishing the Macro Running the Macro Running the Macro – cont. The Output! Looking inside the VB code of our Macro What does the row mean??? Guess what does this Macro do? What is different now? Outline Excel – Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced VB example – “Hello World!” Running the Example The Output Creating User From Using Toolbox This is a label This is a button Using the Toolbox select a GUI element and by mouse-click place it on the frame Adding Code to the Button In the open Window fill-in the function •The name of the method was automatically generated •CommandButton1 – is the name of the button object •Click – type of the event of the object •The method will be invoked whenever user clicks on the CommandButton1 button Do you remember the code? Running the code The Output!! Using Combo-Box Select The Combo- Add Source of Box range for the combo-box Add Code to the Combo Box The output after user makes combo box selection Outline Excel – Basic Elements Using Macros Excel VBA Basics Excel VBA Advanced Modules & Procedures Module – collection of logically related procedures grouped together Procedure – a group of ordered statements enclosed by Sub and End Sub Function – the same as a procedure, but also returns some value and is closed between Function and End Function key words Procedure & Function Examples The procedure places the current time Sub ShowTime)( inside cell C1 Range("C1") = Now)( End Sub The function returns sum Function sumNo(x, y) of two input numbers, sumNo = x + y whose values are in the parameter variables x & End Function y Calling procedures vs. calling If there are few functions sumNo functions, the full name of the function is needed Sub z(a) Sub ShowSum() MsgBox a MsgBox _ End Sub Module1.sumNo(3,5) Sub x() End Sub Call z("ABC") End Sub Function sumNo(x, y) sumNo = x + y Sub y() z "ABC“ End Function End Sub Passing Arguments by Value or by Reference Passing arguments by reference – Is the VBA default Means, if any changes happened to the argument variables, they will be preserved after the function/procedure finishes Passing arguments by value – Is possible in VBA (by explicit definition) Means, the pre-calling state of the argument variables will be preserved after the procedure/function finishes Arguments by Ref/by Val. Examples Sub TestPassing1() public Sub TestPassing2() Dim y As Integer Dim y As Integer y = 50 y = 50 AddNo1 y AddNo3 y MsgBox y AddNo2 y MsgBox y MsgBox y End Sub End Sub private Sub AddNo3(ByVal x _ Sub AddNo1(ByRef x As Integer) As Integer) x = x + 10 x = x + 10 End Sub End Sub Sub AddNo2(x As Integer) x = x + 10 End Sub Functions/Procedure Scope Use public to allow any module to call the function/procedure Use private to make limited access to the function/procedure (only from the owning module) VBA Variables A variable is used to store temporary information within a Procedure, Module… A variable name Must start with letter and can‟t contain spaces and special characters (such as “&”, “%”, “\”) Can‟t be any excel keyword (“if”, “while”…) Can‟t have identical name to any existing class (“Wroksheet”, “Workbook”…) VBA Data Type Byte – positive integer numbers (0:255) Integer – integers (-32,768 : 32,767) Long – 4-byte integer Currency – for fixed-point calculations Single – 2-byte floating-point numbers VBA Data Type Double – double-precision floating-point numbers Date – used to store dates and times as real numbers. String – contains a sequence of characters The Variables Advantage by Example In VB the end of statement is in the end of line. To write the same Sub NoVariable() statement in few lines use “_” at the end of line! Sub WithVariable() Dim _ Range("A1").Value = _ iValue as Integer Range("B2").Value iValue = _ Range("A2").Value = _ Range("B2").Value Range("B2").Value * 2 Range("A1").Value = _ Range("A3").Value = _ iValue Range("B2").Value * 4 Range("A2").Value = _ Range("B2").Value = _ iValue * 2 Range("B2").Value * 5 Range("A3").Value = _ End Sub iValue * 4 Range("B2").Value = _ iValue * 5 End Sub Using Variables Declaring Variables Format: Dim varibaleName AS dataType Examples: Dim myText As String Dim myNum As Integer Dim myObj As Range The default value of any numeric variable is zero any string variable – “” (empty string) an Object variable – is nothing (still the declaration will store space for the object!!!) Variant “Data Type” In VB you don‟t have to declare variable before its usage Then, VB will by itself declare such variable as “Variant” You can also declare variable as “Variant” Dim myVar as Variant Variant – means that the variable may contain any data type The price is very high!!! – any time VB access such variable, it will spend time on “deciding” what is its “current” type! Variables Assignment To assign a value to a Numeric or String type Variable, you simply use your Variable name, followed by the equals sign (=) and then the String or Numeric To assign an Object to an Object type variable you must use the key word "Set" Variables Assignment – cont. Sub ParseValue )( Dim sWord as String Dim iNumber as Integer Dim rCell as Range Set rCell = Range("A1") sWord = Range("A1").Text iNumber = Range("A1").Value End Sub VBA Variables Scope & Lifecycle The scope & lifecycle of a variable defines the code where the variable can be accessed and time when the stored data is kept inside the variable Procedure-Level Variables defined inside procedures Can be accessed only inside the procedure and keep their data until the End statement of the procedure Module-Level Defined in the top of a Module Any procedure inside the Module can access the variable The variable retains the values unless the Workbook closes Project-Level, Workbook Level, or Public Module-Level Defined as “Public” in the top of a Module Can be accesses by any procedure in any module The variable retains the values unless the Workbook closes VBA Variables Scope & Lifecycle – cont. Sub scopeExample() Dim x as Integer Procedure level variables x=5 End Sub Dim y as Integer Module level variables „all the module procedures are here… Public z as Integer Project level variables „all the module procedures are here… Basic Excel Classes Workbook: the class represents an Excel file Worksheet: represents a single worksheet Sheet: represents a single worksheet or chartsheet Cell: represents a single cell VBA Entities by Example A Current Workbook A Cell A Range E2:E5 A current Worksheet Excel Containers Workbooks: a collection of objects of class “Workbook” Worksheets: a collection of objects of class “Worksheet” Sheets: a collection of Sheet objects Range: a range of objects of class Cell Referencing the Objects - Examples This will take the whole square between the two cells Sub Test1() Worksheets("Sheet1").Range("A10", "B12") = "Hello“ Worksheets(1).Range("A13,B14") = "World!" End Sub Two equal ways to The range of two refer Sheet1 cells The Output Which Workbook was Used? What does this procedure do? Sub ShowWorkSheets)( Dim mySheet As Worksheet For Each mySheet In Worksheets MsgBox mySheet.Name Next mySheet End Sub The Output! How many times the user will click on the button? Referencing Cells Cells indexing format: Cells(row, column), where both row and column are given as integers (starting from 1) Cells(index) – see the next slide Following expressions are equivalent and refer to the cell A1 in the currently active sheet: ActiveSheet.Range.Cells(1,1) Range.Cells(1,1) Cells(1,1) Referencing Cells with Offset See how we calculate cell 12 In the given Range(“B1:F5”).Cells(12) = “XYZ” range! Referencing Cells with Offset – cont. ActiveCell.Offset(4, 5) = 1 This is the currently active cell The assignment result Few methods/properties of Excel Classes Workbooks.Close – closes the active workbook Workbooks.Count – returns the number of currently open workbooks Range(“A1”) is the same as Range(“A1”).Value Worksheets(1).Column(“A:B”).AutoFit Worksheets(1).Range(“A1:A10”).Sort_ Workbooks.Open fileName:=“Hello.xls”, password:=“kukuriku” Defining and Assigning a new Object of type Range Dim myRange as Range Set myRange = Range(“A1:A10”) VBA Arrays Suppose, we want to keep a collection of all the books that we loan, Or we want to keep lists of tasks for all the days of the week The naïve solution is to keep a lot of variables Another solution is to create array keeping the whole collection together Declaring object of type Array The array declaration. The size must be defined here! Dim LoanBooks(3) LoanBooks(1) = “Winnie The Pooh” LoanBooks(2) = “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” LoanBook(3) = “Frankenstein” Multidimensional Arrays Dim WeekTasks(7,2) WeekTasks(1,1) = “To buy milk” WeekTasks(7,1) = “To dance” What will the … code print? MsgBox WeekTasks(1,1) & ” ” & WeekTasks(1,2) _ & vbCrLf & WeekTasks(2,1)… Resizing the Arrays There are two ways to resize the existing array: ReDim LoanBooks(7) – will erase the old values ReDim Preserve LoanBooks(7) – will preserve values in indexes 1-3 Upper & Lower Index Bounds of an Array Dim A(1 To 100, 0 To 3, -3 To 4) UBound(A, 1) – will return “100” UBound(A, 2) – will return “3” UBound(A, 3) – will return “4” LBound(A, 1) – will return “1” LBound(A, 2) – will return “0” LBound(A, 3) – will return “-3” Write code calculating the size of each one of the sub-arrays VBA Control Structures - If If Age >= 18 Then Status = "Adult" End If If Age >=18 Then Status = “Adult” Vote = “Yes” Else Status = “Child” Vote = “No” End If VBA Control Structures - If If Age >= 18 Then MsgBox "You can vote" ElseIf Age >=22 and Age < 62 Then MsgBox “You can drive” End If VBA Control Structures – Select Select Case Grade Case Is >= 90 LetterGrade = "A" Case Is >= 80 LetterGrade = "B" Case Is >= 70 LetterGrade = "C" Case Is >= 60 LetterGrade = "D" Case Else LetterGrade = “E" End Select VBA Control Structures – Loops For i = 10 to 1 Step -2 Cells(i, 1) = “AB” Next i i=1 Do While i =< 10 Cells(i, 1) = i i=i+1 Loop i=1 Do Cells(i, 1) = i i =i+1 Loop While i < 11 Test yourself! What does the procedure do? Sub CellsExample)( For i = 1 To 5 For j = 1 To 5 Cells(i, j) = "Row " & i & " Col " & j Next j Next i End Sub References http://www.usd.edu/trio/tut/excel/13.html Tutorial on Excel http://www.anthony- vba.kefra.com/index_011.htm Great place to learn VBA basics! http://msdn.microsoft.com/en- us/library/aa224506(office.11).aspx MSDN online help, a good place to learn about Excel classes (their data and functions set) Assignment #1 Create Excel file with grades The data: There are 4 students with ids & names There are 4 assignments and two exams Each student has grades for each one of the assignments and exams, the grades are from 20 to 100 Some cell in the worksheet keeps factor of 10 Create VBA module that will calculate final grade for every student and places it in the new column allocated to keep the final grade 20% for the assignments average and 80% - for the maximal grade of the two exams plus factor If the grade becomes higher than 100 – it should be 100 Create VBA that accepts a column name from user and sorts the whole file according to the given column Create VBA that adds additional column with grades translated to A, B, C, D, E, F. Next week in class I will collect your solutions You should submit Excel file, and three VBA modules (only hardcopy)