Hearing Loss Hypothesis in Cases Subsequently Diagnosed as Autistic

Document Sample
Hearing Loss Hypothesis in Cases Subsequently Diagnosed as Autistic Powered By Docstoc
					HEARING LOSS HYPOTHESIS IN CASES SUBSEQUENTLY DIAGNOSED AS AUTISTIC
A.C.Tamanaha; J. Perissinoto; MF Azevedo; B.M.Chiari & EC Souza
Speech and Language Disorders Department / Speech Language Pathology Research Laboratory - Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP - BRAZIL
chiaribra@uol.com.br

anacarina.otor@unifesp.epm.br

jacyperi@terra.com.br

marisa.frasson@uol.com.br

elainefonop@yahoo.com.br

INTRODUCTION
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders present qualitative impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication and in reciprocal social interaction. They also have a markedly restricted repertoire of activities and interests (WHO, 1998; American Psychiatric Association, 2002). Atypical response to verbal and nonverbal stimuli has often been one of the first signs picked up by parents and may be incorrectly associated to hearing loss. (Jure, Rapin & Tuchman, 1991; Perissinoto, 2003). Procedures:
• The procedure was to confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis of hearing

Figure 3 - Correlation between audiological results and communicative performance

Figure 4 - Correlation between hearing loss hypothesis (suspicion),communicative performance and audiological results

loss initially raised by parents in their interviews. • The results of audiological tests were analysed. • The correlation between presence or absence of hearing loss hypothesis and communicative performance was analysed. • The audiological test results, hearing loss hypothesis and communicative performance were correlated.

100 80 60 40 20 0
20 0 80 100

100
82,6 100 100

80 60 40 20 0
28,6

71,4

OBJETIVE
The aim of this research was to verify how often the hearing loss is one of the first hypothesis for individuals subsequently diagnosed as having autism spectrum disorders.

17,4

0
Nonverbal/without Nonverbal/with suspicion suspicion Verbal/without suspicion

0
Verbal/with suspicion

RESULTS
Figure 1 - Presence and absence of hearing loss hypothesis regardless of communicative performance. Figure 2- Correlation between hearing loss hypothesis and communicative performance

Nonverbal

Verbal

METHOD
Design: Retrospective study • Sample : 54 interviews with parents of children with PDD • Period: March 2000 to March 2006 • Age: 3 - 18 years old • Sex: 47 boys (87%) and 7 girls (13%) • Multidisciplinary Diagnose: 39 as having Autism, (72%), 20 with Asperger Syndrome (22%), 2 with Rett Syndrome (4%) and 1 PDD NOS (1%) (DSM IV R, 2002). • Communicative performance: 30 only nonverbal (55,5%) and 24 verbal (44,5%) • Audiologic tests : 50% ABR and 50% Pure Tonal Audiometry

normal hearing impaired hearing

impaired hearing normal hearing

100 80 60 40 20 0 presence absence 63 37

100 80 60 40 20 0
12,96 20,37 42,59 24,07

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Parents initially suspected the condition was related to hearing loss in 42% of the children, who were nonverbal, and in only 20,4% of the children, who were verbal. In other words, parents suspected hearing loss more when the child was nonverbal than when he was verbal, the difference being statistically significant. As far as the audiological assessment was concerned, 50% of the children underwent an objective exam, ABR, an auditory brainstem response, and the remaining 50%, pure tone audiometry. The result was normal thresholds in 89% of the cases, ie absence of hearing loss. The results show that parents are more likely to initially suspect the condition is related to hearing loss when the child is nonverbal. The fact that so many parents initially suspected there might be a hearing loss leads us to reflect on the importance of informing the different professionals involved in child care as to the characteristics of autism spectrum disorders which would improve the management and counselling of these children.

Nonverbal

Verbal

REFERENCES
American Psychatric Association - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised. Washington, 2000 Perissinoto, J - Histórico do Autismo In Perissinoto, J Como atender bem a criança com autismo, Pulso, São José dos Campos, 2003: 15-19 Rapin, I; Dunn, M - Update on language disorders of individuals on the autistic spectrum. Brain Dev, 25 (3), 2003: 166-72 World Health Organization - International Classification of Diseases, 10@ ed, Geneva, 1998

With suspicion Without suspicion


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:34
posted:4/18/2008
language:English
pages:1