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					           The JEDI - Training
                     A Playful Evaluation of
                   Interactive Head-Mounted
               Augmented Reality Display Systems




      Christopher S. Oezbek, Björn Giesler and Rüdiger Dillmann
        Institute for Computer Design and Fault Tolerance (IRF)
Chair for Industrial Applications of Informatics and Microsystems (IAIM)
                   Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany

                   Electronic Imaging Conference
                   Thursday, 22nd January 2004
                            San Jose, CA
              Background (1/2)
Augmented Reality (AR) is the concept of adding 3D virtual
elements to the real world.

This is in contrast to simulation or virtual environments
where a real world does not exist. AR therefore requires:
 Tracking of the position of real-world elements of interest
 Registration of the user in relation to the virtual world

Furthermore, interactive AR does require easy and precise
control of a set of virtual elements by the potential user.
Some definitions of AR require interactivity as a mandatory
characteristic.
              Background (2/2)
Although other senses like hearing, touching, and even
smelling are included in this definition, the main focus of
AR research is on the visual sense so far.

Besides the limited exception of projection display systems,
visual augmentation is most commonly achieved by using
head-mounted displays.

Two types of head-mounted displays have been realized
and are available:
 Optical See Through (OST)
 Video See Through (VST)
    Optical See Through (OST)
Using a partially transmissive mirror, the real world image
is combined with virtual pictures generated in the HMD.
Since no input is generated by the head-mounted display,
head tracking needs to be done using an extra device.
Advantages:
   Real-world directly visible (Resolution, delay, eye
    offset)
   Safety
System used in Jedi-Training:
   Sony Glasstron
   Stationary NDI Polaris infrared tracker
      Video See Through (VST)
Video cameras capture the real world. Those pictures are
combined with virtual elements and displayed to the user.
Since input is gathered from the surrounding world, no
special tracking device needs to be attached.
Advantages:
    Better composition strategies (opacity, delay)
    No registration required
System used in Jedi-Training:
    Trivisio ARVision 3D-HMD
    ARtoolkit image based marker tracking
       Goals of the Experiment
Compare both systems with respect to:

    Performance and Effectiveness
    3D feeling
    Tracking
    Comfort
    Acceptance
    Effect of preexisting knowledge
                 Methods (1/2)
 To achieve the named goals, a game was introduced
  resembling the laser light saber training from the film
  Star Wars.

 A small spherical remote robot was displayed in the
  user´s field of view. Moving randomly inside a predefined
  area, the drone fired laser rays against the player who
  had to fend them off with his light saber.

 For each succesful defend the player scored one point
  and the session ended after five unsuccessful defends.
A little Mock-up
                Methods (2/2)
Players were divided into two groups:
 Group A started with OST and after three sessions
             crossed over to the VST system for another
             three sessions.
 Group B started with VST and moved on to OST

After each run each player was asked to enter his name
using a conventional keyboard and scores were recorded.

A questionnaire on a scale of 0 - 10 was deployed
afterwards to gather subjective data.
               Study Population
   31 CS students from University Karlsruhe
   27 male, 4 female
   13 participants wore spectacles
   15 participants started with OST
   16 participants started with VST
                Study Population
With OST-System Starting Group; n=15
With VST-System Starting Group; n=16
                                                                  N: 31
Capability to adapt                                      7,06
new technologies                                          7,27   n.s.


  Experience with                              4,88
  computer games                                  5,53           n.s.

  Experience with
                                        3,94
 sports with similar                                             n.s.
                                                5,20
        skill


     Previous              0,31
experience with AR           0,73                                n.s.


                       0            2   4          6        8           10
                    Results
100
      Scores with OST-System
      Scores with VST-System
                                            N: 31
80
                            65                 75
      p<0,05                              n.s.
60

        34                                     41
40
                                          p<0,05
                                   28
20
             22
                    n.s.

 0
         1                     2           3
                     Initial 3 games
                   The learning periode
                                 Results
  100
             OST-System
             VST-System
                                                           N: 31
   80
                    65               75               67
                                                                   64
                                           56
   60                         p<0.05
Score                                                p<0.01
                  p<0.01                  n.s.                p<0.05
        34                           41
   40
        n.s.                                34
                         28                           29        31
   20
             22


    0
         1           2           3         4          5         6
               Initial 3 runs                   Final 3 games
               Learning effect                 Experienced level
                             Results
OST-System
VST-System
                                                                     N: 31
                                                         7,03 p<0,05
 Image quality virtual
                                             5,35

                                                 5,90             n.s.
 Image quality reality
                                         5,00

                                         4,84                     p<0,05
 Real/virtual merger
                                     4,10


          3D Feeling                            5,68              p<0,05
                                      4,39

                                                       6,58       p<0,05
 HMD strap comfort
                                          5,10


                         0   2   4              6             8            10
                           Results
 OST-System
 VST-System
                                                            N: 31
                                                   7,23 p<0,05
Keyboard handling
                                 3,23

      Comfort with                                 7,13   p<0,05
      spectacles                 3,19

       Job related                                 7,19   p<0,05
        usability                       4,58


Every day usability              3,32                     p<0,05
                          1,65

                                                   7,13   p<0,05
        Eye strain
                                 3,19


                      0   2        4           6      8            10
                 Conclusions
 The optical see through system achieves higher scores,
  is more comfortable to use, and more accepted than the
  VST solution.
 No measure of preexisting knowledge/skill correlated
  with score results.
 Image based tracking via the ARtoolkit should not be
  used for object tracking.
 High framerates and low delay are the most pressing
  issues for VST solutions.
 With forthcoming improvements comparative testing will
  become more neccesary.
 From the perspective of today both systems have the
  potential to become the gold standard.
Thank you

				
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