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                         GCSE History

                    Medicine through Time
An outline guide to the teaching and assessing of the Study in
Development required for completion of the NEAB GCSE
History Syllabus A (Schools History Project).

                    Syllabus Requirements.


7.2 Study in Development:

Medicine Through Time

(Assessed in Paper 1)
The study in development should enable candidates to gain an
overview of the main changes and trends in medicine from earliest
limes to the present. The content, defined through the key features
of the areas studied over lime, should be approached from the
following perspectives:

      Key issues people and developments
      Key features and characteristics of the periods studied
      Key concepts


Content: key features of eras and developments
      studied
Prehistoric times
 The difficulties faced by historians investigating prehistoric ideas
 about medicine and illness because of the lack of written
 evidence; the role of magic as a treatment for illness;
 The use of evidence provided by the Aboriginal way of life and
 their approach to the treatment of illness to make suggestions
 about ideas in prehistoric limes.

The Ancient World
(i) Ancient Egypt
                       Laisterdyke High School
             History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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  The magical and rational aspects of Egyptian medicine; the
  connection between the Egyptians' beliefs and way of life and
  their treatment of illness;
  The importance of writing in ensuring the continuity and
  development of medical knowledge in the ancient world; the
  possible connection between the Egyptian code of hygiene and
  their religious practices;
The influence of Egyptian doctors in the development of medicine
in the ancient world.

(ii) India and China
  Knowledge of anatomy and surgical practice in India; Chinese
  attempts to provide rational explanations for illness, including the
  idea of 'balance' (Yin and Yang).


(iii) Ancient Greece


 The religious and rational aspects of Greek medicine, including
 astrology;
 The influence of Egyptian doctors on Creek medicine;
 The connection between the beliefs and way of life of the Greek
 and their attitude to illness and death;
 The importance of Greek ideas about health in the history of
 medicine, especially the theory of the Four Humours;
 The importance of Hippocrates and the beginning of scientific
 ideas of diagnosis and treatment in the history of medicine.

(iv) Ancient Rome

The Roman attitude towards Greek medicine; the Roman attitude
towards public health;
The detailed planning and organisation which went into providing
public health schemes;
Possible reasons why the Roman attitude to medicine and public
health was different from that of the Greeks;
The influence of military considerations on Roman ideas about
public health;
The importance of Claudius Galen, especially his beliefs about
anatomy, in the history of medicine.

Medieval times

The nature and importance of Islamic medicine, including the work
                        Laisterdyke High School
              History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
               e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.   Created by
                                    Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 3 of 3
of Rhazes and Ibn Sina (Avicenna);
The influence of Christianity on ideas about the causes and the
treatment of illness;
The continuity of the influence of superstition and astrology on
beliefs about the cause and cure of illness;
The medical ideas and treatments of medieval physicians and
surgeons, including Hugh and Theodoric of Lucca;
The reasons why there were comparatively few changes in
medicine in medieval times; the extent to which and reasons why
standards of public health and hygiene deteriorated in medieval
times including the development of group hygiene in monasteries,
poor standards of health and hygiene in towns and the Black
Death.
The Medical Renaissance (c1500AD- 1800AD)

The role of the Renaissance in art and literature and the
development of printing in stimulating changes in medicine in the
15th and 16th centuries; the influence of Galen on the medical
renaissance; the importance of Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Pare
and William Harvey in the history of medicine;
The importance of the Italian Wars in stimulating changes in
surgery; improved methods of dealing with epidemics of the
plague; the continuing importance of the theory of the Four
Humours, herbal remedies and bleeding in the treatment of illness.

Era/ development

The 19th and 20th centuries
   i) The cause and cure of illness

Key features

The role and importance of the following in the development of the
understanding and treatment of illness:
      individuals such as Pasteur, Koch, Ehrljch and Fleming;
      teams of research workers;
      improved microscopes;
      War e.g. the Franco Prussian War, the First World War, and
       the Second World War;
      the development of the chemical industry;
      the development of the science of biochemistry;
      improved communications, e.g. railways and telegraph;
      the development of a nursing profession;
      alternative medicine and the continuing importance of herbal
       treatments.
                         Laisterdyke High School
               History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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  ii) The revolution in surgery

The problems which faced surgeons in 1800 (pain, bleeding,
infection) and the changes in surgery and medicine which helped
to overcome them;
the importance of the work of individuals such as Sir James
Simpson, Joseph Lister and Robert Koch;
the technological, scientific and medical knowledge which made
possible the development of antiseptics, anaesthetics, blood
transfusion and
abdominal surgery;
the reasons why some doctors m the 19th century were opposed
to the introduction of anaesthetics;
the reasons why some doctors and nurses in the 19th century
  were opposed to antiseptic surgery;
the role of the two world wars in stimulating changes in
surgery, including the work of Sir Archibald Maclndoe;
the importance of recent developments such as transplant surgery.

   iii) The development of public health

Problems connected with housing, water supply and drainage in
early 19th century towns;
the causes and effects of cholera;
the role of cholera epidemics in stimulating changes in public
health; the reasons why few improvements were made in public
health in towns despite the legislation of 1842 and 1848;
the role played by new discoveries about the cause and spread of
disease in bringing about changes in public health;
the role of individuals, including Edward Jenner, Edward Chadwick
and Jonas Salk;
the role of government intervention in bringing about changes in
public and personal health in the 19th and 20th centuries, including
the development of vaccination and mass inoculation;
the role played by international organisations such as the WHO
in combating and preventing disease.




                       Laisterdyke High School
             History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
              e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.   Created by
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Overview: key issues, people, ideas and developments

Candidates should be able to relate relevant people, ideas and
developments, as detailed in the list of content to the key issues in
the development of medicine over time.

Key issues                            People, ideas and
                                      developments
Progress in the understanding         Ideas of cause and cure of
of the cause and cure of illness      illness, from the supernatural to
                                      the natural to the scientific. The
                                      work of individuals including
                                      Rhazes, Hippocrates, Louis
                                      Pasteur, Robert Koch, Paul
                                      Ehrlich, Alexander Fleming.
Developments in anatomy               Knowledge of anatomy and
and surgery.                          surgical techniques from
                                      prehistoric to
                                      modern times.
                                      The work of individuals including
                                      Claudius Galen, Andreas
                                      Vesalius, Ambroise Pare,
                                      William Harvey, Sir James
                                      Simpson, Joseph
                                      Lister, Sir Archbald Maclndoe,
                                      Christian Barnard.
Continuity and change                 Preventative measures, from
in preventative medicine.             individual and group hygiene to
                                      national and international public
                                      health initiatives. The work of
                                      individuals including Edward
                                      Jenner, Edwin Chadwick, Jonas
                                      Salk
The development of a                  The development of a separate
medical profession.                   profession, from medicine men
                                      through barber-surgeons to the
                                      highly qualified doctors, nurses
                                      and technicians of today.
                                      The work of individuals including
                                      Hippocrates, Claudius Galen,
                                      Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Andreas
                                      Vesalins, Florence Nightingale,
                                      Elizabeth Garrett Anderson.
                       Laisterdyke High School
             History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
               e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.   Created by
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.
             Overview: key features and characteristics of the
                 periods studied.

Candidates should have some understanding of how the following
key features in the history of medicine are linked with important
changes in society which were instrumental in enabling
developments in medicine.

             Key features in medical development

The establishment of a separate medical profession using a written
body of knowledge.
The firm establishment of theories of the natural cause of illness:
the theory of the four humours.
Scientific medical investigation leading to: exact anatomical
knowledge; the theory of the circulation of the blood; the germ
theory of disease.
The development of technically complex drugs and surgical
methods.
Greatly increased involvement of the state with health.
            Changes in society

    The emergence of organised and literate societies in ancient
    times.
    The Greek idea that logical and rational knowledge of nature
    was possible.
    The development of exact and experimental science from the
    17th century onwards.


    The development of technological research and knowledge in
    the 19th and 20th centuries.
    The gaining of political rights by all classes of people in many
    countries throughout the world in the 20th century.



                        Laisterdyke High School
              History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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Key Concepts

Change
Candidates should have some understanding of:
 the varying pace of change including some periods of stagnation;
 the ways in which change may not lead to progress for all
people;
 the ways in which some aspects of change lead to progress
whilst others do not; how change may lead to apparent progress in
the short term but not in the long term.

Continuity
Candidates should show an appreciation that:
 old ideas and technologies continue to be used in some areas
long after they have been superseded in others;
 old and new ideas and techniques often continue side by side in
the same place.
Causation and consequence
Candidates should be able to show some understanding of the
causes and consequences of change, including:
   the role played by factors which have encouraged or
    inhibited change at different limes, e.g. superstition, religion,
    science, warfare, industry, technology, chance;
   the role of organised groups in causing or preventing
    change, e.g. governments; professional opposition to
    antisepsis; political and social groups pressing for a National
    Health Service;
   the links between factors which brought about particular
    developments at particular limes, e.g. the germ theory of
    disease, the development of penicillin;
   The ability to distinguish between long and short term
    causes, and to understand that some factors were more
    important than others in a given context;
   the ability to distinguish between immediate and long term
                       Laisterdyke High School
             History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                  Dan Moorhouse.
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     consequences, and to understand that some consequences
     were unexpected or unintended.
Note: technical knowledge
Candidates will not normally be required to explain technological or
scientific principles. They will be given credit for such explanation
only where it is relevant to the historical problem posed in the
question.


The teaching of this course will take into account the
requirements of the Certificate of Achievement where
appropriate. There is also scope to integrate the NEAB’s
Unit award scheme into the department at a later date:

NEAB Unit Award Scheme: Medicine through Time

Unit 1: History of Medicine: Medicine in Ancient Times

NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no: 22800

Unit 2: History of Medicine: The Middle Ages to circa 1700

NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22801

Unit 3: History of Medicine: from 1800 to the present day

NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no; 22802

Unit 4: History of Medicine: Surgery

NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22803

Unit 5: History of Medicine: Disease

NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22804

Unit 6: History of Medicine: Public Health

NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22805

                       Laisterdyke High School
             History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.       Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                       Page 9 of 9



                          Teaching Guide.

Total Time Allotted: 28 weeks (Two Terms)

These tasks act as a CORE of the learning activities. They
SHOULD be supplemented with use of Video, CD ROM and
other resources regularly and group/ paired activities can be
utilised effectively in place of a number of these learning
activities.

Provide each student with a Glossary booklet. They should
add to this as and when appropriate. (At LEAST once per
unit).

Provide each student with a Timeline of the full era with major
events already printed on it. They should add medical
developments to the timeline as and when they learn them.
*This can be done as part of the revision process


Unit 1: Prehistoric Medicine
Differentiation within Unit 1: Prehistoric Medicine is primarily through
outcome. Homework set during lesson 3 will be differentiated for Gifted and
Talented, Core, Foundation and Certificate of Achievement students.

Time allowed: One Week.

Learning outcomes:

In successfully completing this unit students will have demonstrated the ability
to
Use a variety of sources to acquire knowledge of disease and treatment
methods in prehistoric times.
Completed a chart explaining prehistoric beliefs about the cause of disease.

Teaching method



                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.          Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 10 of 10
Lesson One

Use chapter one of the class textbook, ‘Medicine through Time’, Rees and
Shuter, to develop an understanding of what the term ‘prehistoric’ means.
Ask students how people in prehistoric times would have passed on
information about effective cures for disease: they could not write, therefore it
had to be word of mouth. No recording system, thus practise remains
primitive.

Students should answer the following questions to provide them with a
background understanding:


What does ‘Prehistoric’ mean?
How do we know what types of disease existed during Prehistoric times?
What type of evidence can we use to identify things that happened in
prehistoric times?

Lesson Two

Inform the students that many skulls have been uncovered dating back to
prehistoric times. Many of these skulls have holes drilled into them. Ask why?

Make a note of the suggestions made by students, they could provide an
insight later into the reasons for historical variations relating to Trephining.

Would the drilling of holes in the head be fatal? Ask for suggestions and
remind students that there were no hospitals, anaesthetics or sterile
conditions around in prehistoric times. Nor were there specialist tools to
perform surgery with.

Provide Evidence: Bone grows. It can be clearly seen on many of the skulls
recovered that there has been substantial growth around the holes. This
means that people lived for quite some time after Trephining. What does this
tell us about people in Prehistoric times?

Demonstrate roughly what would have happened during Trephining.

Students complete tasks, Unit 1.3.

Lesson Three

Read through the information relating to Aboriginal beliefs. Explain that the
Aboriginal lifestyle is as close to that in prehistoric times as we can get.
Discuss the beliefs of aborigine’s relating to a variety of illnesses. Answer
Question 4 from Unit 1.4.
                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.        Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 11 of 11


Homework: students are to complete the chart on Medicine in
Prehistoric times. This chart has been amended for different ability
groupings within the teaching group.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.


Unit 2: Egyptian Medicine
Time allowed: Three weeks

Learning Outcomes

Students will understand the Egyptians understanding of medicine
They will recognise that medical practices were advanced by the Egyptians.
They will know that Public Health is a major issue in preventative medicine.

Week One, Lesson 1

Identify on a timeline when ancient Egypt happened.

Read through Unit 2.1, ‘Ancient Egypt’, and ask students what the basic
beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians were.
Then investigate how modern historians know about practises in Ancient
Egypt (Unit 2.2). How does these sources of evidence differ from those
available for prehistoric medical practices?

Complete tasks in textbook.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Begin by providing background information for students (Unit 2.3). Provide
students with definitions of key phrases and words. These should be added to
the student’s glossary of phrases.

Look in detail at the types of source material relating to medicine in Ancient
Egypt.

Read through each of the sources in the textbook.
Which of these refer to knowledge of the human body and which are related
to spiritual beliefs?




                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.        Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 12 of 12
Complete source based tasks on worksheet ‘Religion and anatomy in Ancient
Egypt’. This worksheet is differentiated to three levels, Gifted and Talented,
Core and Foundation.

Week 2, Lesson 1.

Read through Unit 2.4 of the class textbook then analyse the following
questions.

Provide writing frame for Certificate of Achievement students.

What advances did the ancient Egyptians make in the study and
understanding of Disease?
How did the Egyptians make these discoveries?
What evidence is there that the Ancient Egyptians made medical advances?

Week 2 Lessons 2&3.

Discuss and define the terms Surgery. Add this to the student’s glossary.

Read through Unit 2.5 of the textbook. Evaluate the extent to which the
Ancient Egyptians used surgery and how advanced their understanding of
surgery was. What evidence is there that the Egyptians understood how to
treat a variety of illnesses? (The papyrus Edwin Smith and Papyrus Ebers
provide written evidence). Make notes on the board for students to use later in
lesson.

Then read through Unit 2.6. ‘Egyptian Public Health’.

Discuss the way in which Egyptians prevented disease. Did they understand
the causes of disease?

Complete the tasks at the end of Unit 2.6.

Provide Gifted and Talented students with additional material to use. Ask
them to make reference specifically to previous medical knowledge and
encourage them to debate whether or not the Egyptians had ‘learnt’ these
medical facts.

Lower attainers will require assistance with this task. Provide them with
prompt sheets to guide them to the evidence.

Week 3 Lesson 1

Provide all students with a time line for Public Health and Surgery. These
timelines should then have information relating to Ancient Egyptian

                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.     Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 13 of 13
understanding/ development of Surgery and Public Health added to them.
Work through exactly what is required on each timeline and explain that they
will become useful revision tools later in the course.

Store these timelines separately. They will be added to throughout the
study of Medicine through Time.
*Can be used during revision process instead.

Homework:

Complete chart from Unit 2.7.

Study sources and answer questions (Exercise 2.7).

Differentiated to three levels.

Additional/ Alternative Resources:
Revise for History GCSE.
http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/medicine.htm (revision quiz in Egypt section
to be completed by all students during period AFTER this section has been
taught).




Unit 3: Medicine in Ancient Greece
Time allowed: Three weeks

Learning Outcomes

Students will know who Hippocrates was and what work he conducted.
They will know how the Greeks advanced the ideas of the Egyptians and
recognise that there were several reasons for the changes that occurred.
Students will understand the cult of Asclepios and the advancements made
through its emergence.

Week 1 Lesson 1

Introduce Ancient Greece and provide an overview of the developments in
medical knowledge (Unit 4.1)

Complete tasks from textbook. For lower attainers break this down into a
series of more accessible questions.

Week 1 Lessons 2&3

                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 14 of 14
Introduce the Cult of Asclepios. Discuss with students whether or not the
medical practices of the cult were based on knowledge or belief. If the
students agree that they are based on belief then question how the cult
remained so successful for so long.

Students should plan and write an essay entitled:

‘Asclepions were both popular and successful.’ What evidence can you find to
support this statement?

A planning grid and writing frame should be provided for all students here.
Additional source material can be provided for most able students.

Empathy task available: Stored in the filing cabinet.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Read through Unit 4.3 Hippocrates. Complete tasks on differentiated
worksheet, ‘Hippocrates’.

Homework: create a biography of Hippocrates

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Add the developments made by Hippocrates and the work conducted by the
Asclepion cult to the timeline on Disease and Public health.

This will require guidance on construction and content.

Homework: What medical developments were made by Hippocrates and the
Asclepions?

Provide writing frame for lower attainers.

Week 3, Lesson 1

Alexandria –a great medical centre.

Read through unit 4.5, discuss and answer the questions in the textbook.

Week 3, Lesson 2

Greek Public health and exercise.

Read through and discuss the ideas of the ancient Greeks. Add these to the
timeline of Public Health started by each student.

                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                    Dan Moorhouse.
                                     Page 15 of 15


Guidance on what to write down will be required.

Week 3, Lesson 3.

Complete exercises in Unit 4.8.

Homework: complete the chart on Ancient Greek medicine using notes and
book.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.


Unit 4: Roman Medicine

Time allowed: Three weeks

Learning Outcomes

Students will recognise that the Romans made several advances in medical
Knowledge.
They will be able to explain the reasons for and benefits of the Public Health
provision of the Romans.
They will see that things have changed over time and be able to offer reasons
for these changes.

Week 1, Lesson 1

Read through Unit 5.1 ‘Roman Medicine’ Discuss the benefits that the
Romans may have gained from the work conducted in Medicine by the
Egyptians and the Greeks.

Look at Unit 5.2, Medicine in Early Rome. Analyse the source material
available. Where did the Romans acquire much of their medical knowledge?

Answer the questions in Unit 5.2.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Look at sources C-H in Unit 5.3. How did each of these things improve the
standard of Public Health in Roman times? Are these advances on previous
techniques or continuations of methods employed by the Greeks?

Complete worksheet ‘Public Health in Roman Times’
                         Laisterdyke High School
               History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                      Dan Moorhouse.
                                       Page 16 of 16


Homework: Students to add details of Public Health in Roman Times to their
timeline of Public Health.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Read through Source J in unit 5.4. Establish if the source is Primary or
secondary evidence, how useful is it? Is it reliable? What does it tell us?

All students:
What does Source J tell us about the Romans understanding of medicine?

Plan the response with the class.

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Read through the unit on Galen (Unit 5.5). Discuss the impact that he had on
medical ideas. Complete the tasks in Unit 5.5. This work should be completed
as Homework.

Certificate students will require writing frame for this task.

Homework: Create biography of Galen.


Week 3, Lesson 1

Work through the following question.

Exam Type question: ‘The Romans just copied the Greek ideas about the
cause and cure of disease. Do you agree? Use Sources A and B and your
knowledge in your answer. (8 marks)

Source A: When all these humours are truly balanced a person feels the most
perfect health. Illness happens when there is too much or too little or it is
entirely thrown out of the body.
From the writings of Hippocrates.

Source B: Give them food which reduces heat, like soup of yellow lentils and
minced meat. Their drink should be cooled with Ice.
A treatment based on the work of Roman doctors.

Homework:
Complete chart from Chapter 5.
Read through Chapter 6: ‘The fall of the Roman Empire in the west.’
Complete the tasks.

                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 17 of 17



Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.


Unit 5: Oriental Medicine
Time allowed: Two Weeks

Learning Outcomes

Students will understand that different cultures have different sets of beliefs.
Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments
and changes in medicine.
Students will be able to distinguish between Islamic and Chinese medicines.
Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological
framework.
.


Week 1, Lesson 1

Introduce the students to oriental medicine: ensure that they understand the
term Oriental and identify the area on a map.

Put the time into context. Add the period to the classes timeline.

Read through Unit 7.1 and answer the questions.
Ask students to read Unit 7.2 and make brief notes at home.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Answer the questions underneath these two sources:

A: Parts of the Islamic holy book, the 'Hadith'

The Holy Prophet (peace be on him) said: Cleanliness is half of Faith. Keep
your houses and yards tidy. God does not like dirt and cleanses the mouth not
trim his nails and untidiness. Brushing the teeth and pleases God. He who
does his moustache is not one of us. He who goes to sleep while his hands
smell of food has only himself to blame if harm comes to him. Every Muslim
must have a bath once a week, when he must wash his head and the whole
of his body. Do not put up a sick man and a healthy one together. If you hear
of the plague keep away from it. If the plague breaks out in the area where
you are, do not leave.
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B: from ‘The Cultural side of Islam’ by Muhammad Pickthall

The Muslims set out on their search for learning in the name of God at a time
when Christians were destroying all the learning of the ancients in the name
Christ. The Christians had destroyed the library at Alexandra. Learning for
them was only for the devil and unbelievers. The priests publicly burnt the
books of Greeks and Romans. However, the educated men of Islam set to
work on translation of the ancient books. So the Muslims saved the ancient
learning from destruction and passed its treasures down to modern times. The
Greek contribution to medicine would have been lost without efforts of the
Muslims.


Questions:
1) What did the prophet say about the Plague and why was this good advice?
2) Why do you think that Arab hospitals were so clean? Quote evidence from
Source A to help you answer the question.
3) Read through the two sources and the information in Unit 7.3/ 7.4 and find
examples of how the Islamic religion helped and hindered medicine.
4) Look again at the map of the Islamic Empire. Do you think that having such
a large empire would help or hinder medical development? Give reasons for
your answer.


Week 2, Lesson 1

Read through and complete the tasks in Unit 7.5/ 7.6

Homework: complete the tasks.

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Chart on Oriental medicine: ensure that students include the way in which
Oriental medicine utilised the ideas and knowledge of the Greeks and
Romans on their chart.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.


Unit 6: Medicine in the Middle Ages
Time allowed: Three weeks



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This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of
the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and
contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme.

Learning Outcomes

Students will understand that regression as well as progression is possible.
Students will be able to use data to substantiate responses.
Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments
and changes in medicine.
Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological
framework.
Students will learn the role of religion in Medieval medicine and be able to
make interpretations as to whether it helped or hindered medical
development.


Week 1, Lesson 1

Explain the role of the church in medieval society and ask how this could
influence the beliefs of people relating to Medicine.

Use sources A-C from Chapter 8 (Units 8.1 and 8.2) to form the basis of an
investigation into the beliefs of people in the Middle Ages. What were the
complaints and how were they treated?

Were these ideas new or old ideas on the cause and cures of disease?

Complete tasks in Unit 8.2.

Homework: Complete notes on Growing Professionalism and Ordinary people
(Units 8.3 and 8.4)

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Surgery and anatomy in Medieval Times (Unit 8.5).

Read through Unit 8.5. Discuss the problems with this method of dispensing
medical knowledge.

Complete tasks in book.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Public Health in the Middle Ages.


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               History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                     Dan Moorhouse.
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Watch Black Adder: episode where he’s selling his house, need the section
where they talk about toilets and Blackadder claims to have the best in
modern latrines, ‘Crap out of the window.’

Look at Source L (Unit 8.6). How realistic was the Blackadder sketch?

What problems were relating to public Health in the Middle Ages and what
caused them to continue?

Homework: tasks relating to Source M, the unhealthy streets, Monasteries
and Hospitals of the time.

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

The Black Death. Develop group based activity on the spread of the Black
Death and the reaction to it.

Video on the black death if available.

Week 3, Lesson 1

Complete tasks on the Black Death from Unit 8.7. Finish as homework.

Week 3, Lessons 2&3

Assessment based on the tasks at the end of Unit 8.7 and the exercises in
Unit 8.8.

Homework. Complete chart on Medieval Medicine.


Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.

Unit 7: Medicine in Early Modern Europe
Time allowed: Three weeks

This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of
the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and
contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme.

Learning Outcomes

Students will understand that different cultures have different sets of beliefs.

                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
               e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.      Created by
                                    Dan Moorhouse.
                                     Page 21 of 21
Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments
and changes in medicine.
Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological
framework.
Students will be able to explain why Galen’s work was still so relevant and
make assertions as to the significance of Islamic medicine on modern
European practices.

Week 1, Lesson 1

Provide students with a timeline of the Early Modern period. Students should
add to this as they work through the Unit.

Read through Section 9.1. Discuss and answer the questions.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Look at source material relating to Galen’s work. How does this compare with
medical theories previously taught? Which of his ideas are new and which are
‘borrowed’.

What changes in society helped Galen and other medical practitioners
conduct their research and medical practises?

Homework: Complete the tasks in Unit 9.2.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Resources: Text Book, String/ rope, knife.

Use Source L as the basis for a demonstration of how an amputation may
have occurred.

Discuss the methods used by Pare. What enabled him to make improvements
to Medical knowledge?

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Work through the questions on Pare in unit 9.3. Provide a writing frame for
Question 1e and 2a.

Discuss the possible answers to question 4 in detail.

Students to finish work at home and make notes on William Harvey in
preparation for the following lesson.


                         Laisterdyke High School
               History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
               e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.     Created by
                                    Dan Moorhouse.
                                     Page 22 of 22
Week 3, Lesson 1

Work through the answers to the tasks in Unit 9.4. These tasks should be
completed as homework.

Week 3, Lessons 2&3

Assessment: Based on the source material in Unit 9.5

Homework: Complete chart from Unit 9.6.

Students should make notes on Unit 10.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.




Unit 8: Infectious Disease
Time allowed: Three weeks

This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of
the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and
contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme.

Learning Outcomes

Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments
and changes in medicine.
Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological
framework.
Student will be able to explain how Jenner made his discoveries.
Students will be able to describe the significance of Jenners work.
Students will be able to define key words and use them with good effect in
answers.

Week 1, Lesson 1

Read through Sources B-G, Unit 11.1 Answer questions from text book.

Homework: Biography of Edward Jenner.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3
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               History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
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                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 23 of 23


Read through pages 82-87.
Add each new word to the students glossary.
Complete tasks at end of unit. (These can easily be broken down into sections
to address at various stages of the lesson).

Homework: Complete the tasks and create biographies of Pasteur and Koch.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Read through Unit 11.5. (pages 88-89) answer questions (page 89)

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Identify the stages of progress made relating to Drug usage in the 20th
Century using pages 90-93. Complete a chart outlining the developments and
indicating whether they were the result of chance or specific research.

What developments aided the progress of medical understanding the most?

Homework: Complete tasks on page 93.

Week 3, Lesson 1

Exercise 11.6 ASSESSMENT

Unit 9: Surgery
Time allowed: Two weeks

This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of
the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and
contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme.

Learning Outcomes

Students will understand that different cultures have different sets of beliefs.
Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments
and changes in medicine.
Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological
framework.
Students will be able to explain the reasons for surgical improvements.

Week 1, Lesson 1



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                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
               e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.       Created by
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Introduce the idea of Surgery and ask what the major concerns of doctors and
patients would be when undertaking surgery. These ought to include the
success of the operation and the amount of pain caused by having the
operation. How are these problems dealt with nowadays?

Read through page 96.
Answer questions on page 96.
Add Anaesthetics to the glossary.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Read through pages 97-98. make a timeline of the progressions and changes
in the use of anaesthetics. For each development or discovery make a brief
note as to what the change was and how it had been discovered.

Answer questions on page 98.

Homework: make notes on the problem of infection and create a brief
biography on the life and works of Joseph Lister and William Halstead.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Provide students with a series of events relating to the rapid progress made in
surgery in the late 20th century. Students need to make notes on each of the
events and add detail such as name of the surgeon and the way in which the
developments were made.

Homework: Complete tasks on page 104.

Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Read through pages 105-107. Answer questions on page 107.

Homework: Complete Exercise 12.6.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.


Unit 10: Public Health
Time allowed: Three weeks

This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of
the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and
contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme.
                         Laisterdyke High School
               History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.        Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 25 of 25
Learning Outcomes

Students will understand that different cultures have different sets of beliefs.
Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments
and changes in medicine.
Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological
framework.
Students will apply previous knowledge with increasing confidence and draw
upon it to substantiate responses.

Week 1, Lesson 1

Read through Unit 13.1.
What were conditions like in British towns? Discuss what the consequences of
these conditions were likely to be.

Read through the following section on disease: make a chart showing the
links between poor public health and the spread of endemic diseases. Make
sure that methods of solving the problem are added to the chart with along
with an evaluation of their success.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3

Edwin Chadwick: investigate the reasons for and the consequences of his
report into the Sanitary conditions of the labouring population of Great Britain.

Students should create their own version of the report using source material
from the time. Pictures and evidence will be made available for them to
compile the report, which could be word-processed.

Book IT room for the second lesson.

Week 2, Lesson 1

Students complete their IT based report on the conditions encountered by the
working classes.

Book IT room for this lesson.


Week 2, Lessons 2&3

Investigate the need for State Intervention in Public health.

What findings led to Government intervention in Public Health issues and
what were the consequences of this intervention?

                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work
                e1fe31ee-cca7-4f36-8de6-eea4ab797703.doc.       Created by
                                     Dan Moorhouse.
                                      Page 26 of 26


Use Unit 13.2 as a basis for these inquiries.

Homework: Students should complete the tasks on Unit 13.2. Page 116.

Week 3, Lesson 1

Discuss the impact of the welfare state on Public Health. Use the source
material in the second half of Unit 13.2 to establish whether or not the reforms
were successful.

Week 3, Lessons 2&3

Complete tasks in exercise 13.3. This can be counted as an assessment.

Homework: complete chart on Public Health.
Revise Medicine through Time using charts created in each Unit, the glossary
and the biographies.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.


Unit 11: Themes in Medical History
Time allowed: One week

Week 1, Lesson 1
Assessment: Source based activity on Public Health in Roman Times.

Week 1, Lessons 2&3
Assessment: Part one: Source based questions on Developments in Surgery.
            Part two: Knowledge and Understanding test.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students
during this lesson.




                          Laisterdyke High School
                History Department: GCSE Scheme of Work

								
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