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					       The Partition of India
   Roots: Hindu-Muslims riots in 1881
   Time: August 14, 1947—birth of the
    Islamic Republic of Pakistan / August 15—
    birth of the secular state of India
   “A moment comes, which comes but rarely
    in history, when we step out from the old to
    the new, when an age ends, and when the
    soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds
    utterance.” —Jawaharlal Nehru
                  Timeline 1
   1600-British East India Company is established.
   1905-First Partition of Bengal for administrative
    purposes. Gives the Muslims a majority in that
   1906-All India Muslim League founded to
    promote Muslim political interests.
   1909-Revocation of Partition of Bengal. Creates
    anti-British and anti-Hindu sentiments among
    Muslims as they lose their majority in East
                Timeline 2
   1929-Congress calls for full independence.
   1930-Dr. Allama Iqbal, a poet-politician, calls for
    a separate homeland for the Muslims.
   1940-Jinnah calls for establishment of Pakistan in
    an independent and partitioned India.
   1947-Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan
    for partition of India, 3 June. Partition of India
    and Pakistan, 15 August.
   1971-East Pakistan separates from West Pakistan
    and Bangladesh is born.
         Impact and Aftermath
   "ghost trains"
   15 million refugees
   Division of the provinces
    of Punjab and Bengal,
   Ruined economies and
    lands; no established,
    experienced system of
   Separation of Pakistan and
    Bangladesh in 1971.
   Wars between India and
    Pakistan; deadlocked over
     EARTH (1998)
 Director: Deepa Mehta
 Adapted from Bapsi Sidhwa's
  semi-autobiographical novel
  Cracking India
 Setting: Lahore
            Deepa Mehta
  Born in India in 1949
 Based in Toronto since
 Her Indian film trilogy:
Fire—lesbian plot
Earth—the partition of India
Water—lives of Indian
   widows in the 1930s
What is the meaning of the
   film’s title?
EARTH—Narrative Structure
  Narrative frame: Lenny 58 (1997)
   Lenny 8 (1947)
 A child’s perspective—a witness of the
   trauma of partition
—the breaking up of the nation, the violence,
   and the distortion of human nature (the
   image of lion, beast)—love and sexuality
Why does the director choose to tell the story
   from Lenny’s perspective?
innocence + Parsee’s neutrality
     EARTH—Themes and Motifs
 Religious and ethnic conflicts—Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs
  migrations and uprooting (6 million Muslims to
  Pakistan+ 5 million Hindus and Sikhs to India)
 What are the metaphors for partition in the film?
 broken plate, torn doll
 Indian customs: kite flying, Child bride
 The Parsees and their identity problem
 Love—a love triangle
 Park
What are the significances of the park scenes?What is the
  symbolic meaning of the park?
   Who is your favorite character in the film
    and why?
   Compare the characters of Hassen and Dil
   Discuss Dil Navaz’s changes in the film.
    Why do think the original novel is subtitled
    The Ice candy Man
   What do you think about the betrayal at the
    end of the film?

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