America’s Diet Problem Diets diets everywhere Little is really known about diet Diet and You I cannot help you with diet What are carbs, fats, proteins? Carbon based life forms C H H C H H Covalent Properties Covalent Bonds + + + Ionic Bonds Hydrogen Bonds Complexity of Carbon • Carbon forms chains H H C H H C H C H H C C H C H H H C H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H • Branches H H C H • Rings Why is structure important? Sickle Celled Anemia More than just structure Flammable Gas Drinking alcohol H H C H H C H O H H H C H H C H H Building big molecules Polymer Monomer 4 types of important C molecules Four Major Classes of Macromolecules st 1 Group: Carbohydrates Basic Structure Glucose: C6H12O6 Starch Glycogen Cellulose Chitin Carbohydrates central to energy use and storage 2nd group: Lipids (fats) Glycerides Saturated vs. Unsaturated Saturated vs. Unsaturated Why the nutritional difference? Use of glycerides as food Comparison of carbohydrates and fat Lipids continued - Steroids Basic Structure Note the four ring structure common to all steroids. Phospholipids Basic Structure Membrane creation rd 3 Group: Proteins Basic Structure Snapping into shape Primary structure List of aminos Stretched out slinky Secondary “coils of slinky” Tertiary “Twisting the slinky” Quaternary “Combining 2 or More slinkys” What do you use Proteins for? Undoing Protein Structure Last but not least – Nucleotides The Macromolecules Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Starch Glycogen Cellulose Chitin Too many To list Glycerides Steroids Phospholipids DNA/RNA So, what about diets? Example w/ Atkins Traditional diets never More than 35-40% protein Fat and Protein What does this mean about diets? Some scientific studies Data What does this mean for you?