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					       July 2007




                     Spotlight on Development
                      Towards the Millennium Development Goals
                       An occasional newssheet from The NANGOF Trust, the umbrella for Civil Society in Namibia

Millennium                Poverty in Namibia                          Civil Society seeks programmes that
Development
                                                                      improve the coverage, quality of and
Goals                     Namibia    is today a lower middle-
                                                                      access to basic social infrastructure
                          income country with an average per          and services and take account of local
By 2015 all UN
                          capita income of US$2,975. Despite an       needs and specific needs of the most
member states,
                          improvement in the Gini coefficient         vulnerable and disadvantaged, thus
including Namibia,
                          from 0.707 in 1993/94 to 0.6 in 2003/4,     reducing the inequalities of access to
have pledged to:
                          Namibia still has one of the highest        general services. In short, economic
                          rates of inequality in the world, with      growth needs to be closely linked to
                          parts of society having standards of        the Millennium Development Goals.
    Eradicate             living equal to levels to be found in
 extreme poverty          Europe with other parts of society          For example, Civil Society has been
   and hunger             experiencing levels of poverty to be        lobbying through the Basic Income
                          found in any part of Southern Africa.       Grant Coalition for a national income
                          Classed as a middle-income country,         grant to provide a basic income for all.
Achieve universal         30% of the population – mostly black –      Civil Society programmes of small
    primary               are considered poor.                        business support are based upon clear
                                                                      evidence that encouragement of small
   education              High unemployment in particular mong        businesses is one major tool in
                          young people adds to growing                enabling the unemployed, marginalised
                          discontent about the persistence of         and disadvantaged to gain access to
Promote gender            inequalities.   Cheap     manufactured      economic activity; women in particular
  equality and            imports from South Africa and Asia          are able to gain a livelihood through
empower women             limit possibilities for job creation        running small businesses.
                          outside the civil service, farming, the
                          growing tourism sector and the capital-     Civil Society notes and welcomes the
                          intensive mining sector.                    fact that the economic growth targets
   Reduce child                                                       set as part of the 2
                                                                                                     nd
                                                                                                        National
     mortality            Namibia’s economy relies heavily on         Development Plan were exceeded. It
                          extraction and processing of minerals       also notes that the main source of that
                          as well as on processed fish for export.    performance came from the private
Improve maternal          Namibia is the world's fifth largest        sector and believes that an important
     health               producer of uranium and a primary           feature of this, in relation to Social and
                          source of gem-quality diamonds. Cattle      Economic Justice, was the growth of
                          and      sheep      rearing    dominates    small    businesses.       Policies    that
                          agriculture, and the country has one of     advance small businesses need to be
     Combat               the richest potential fisheries in the
HIV/AIDS, malaria                                                     encouraged.
                          world.     Policies     adopted    since
    and other             independence        have     aimed     at   In addition, Civil Society believes that
    diseases              sustaining        economic       growth,    accountability and transparency are
                          diversifying the country's productive       essential    components      for   both
                          base and attracting foreign investors.      economic and social justice. Namibia
     Ensure                                                           needs a Freedom of Information Act.
                          The civil service employs 4.3% of the       But even without this, all sections of
  environmental           population, a share 2.5 times larger        society need to work to the highest
  sustainability          than the sub-Saharan average. The           standards of openness and integrity.
                          current wage bill eats 43% of               The government, in particular, needs to
                          government spending and is, in the          lead by acting upon the highest
Develop a global          IMF's    assessment     unsustainable,      standards of public accountability and
 partnership for          making civil service reform an urgent       needs     to     challenge    corruption
  development             requirement.                                wherever it is found.
Page 2

                             Social safety nets                            Development Plans which articulate
                                                                           priorities and the focus of government
                               While Namibia is one of the few             over a given timeframe. Since
                               countries in Africa maintaining social      inception in 1995, the policies have
                               safety nets for vulnerable groups such      identified poverty, unemployment and
                               as senior citizens, orphans, and people     income inequality as major threats to
                               infected and affected by HIV/AIDS,          economic development.
                                            disabled people and war        The effects of social challenges
Challenging poverty                         veterans,      there    are    including the HIV/AIDS pandemic are
                                            challenges to these social     having devastating effects on the
practically through income                  grants due to a host of        nation     and     hence    influence
redistribution: being BIG on                problems. As a result, too     government planning and spending
action                                      many beneficiaries do not      patterns.    There   are,   however,
A practical response to poverty in          receive their entitlement      commendable efforts and strides have
Namibia is the proposal for a Basic         due to factors such as lack    been made in sectors such as health,
Income Grant (BIG). This is                 of awareness, insufficient     fisheries and marine resources, and
proposed as a monthly cash grant            legal documents such as        community based natural resources
(e.g. N$100) paid to every Namibian         Identity cards and social      management.
citizen. The money paid to people           exclusion. Moreover, while
not in need or in poverty is recovered      social    pensions    were     The importance of the
                                            recently increased from
through taxation. Every Namibian
would receive such a grant up until         N$250 to N$300 per             MDGs
pension age – a household of 6              month, pension incomes
                                            have not kept up with          The Millennium Development Goals
would receive N$600 per month.                                             cover all spheres of development aims
                                            general prices increases
The impact:                                 and in real terms pensions     notably:

 Better chances for employment:            today are 14% lower than            Economic Development is an
     resources (like clothing, postal       in 1990.                             extricable part of Human
    address, telephone etc.) are          Traditional        support             Development
    needed to successfully enter the      structures and safety nets
    job market                            are under tremendous                 “States have the right and duty to
   the working poor: remittances to      pressure primarily due to            formulate     appropriate    national
    the extended families are a           the AIDS epidemic, which             development policies that aim at the
    regressive tax on the poor. The       erodes savings and coping            constant improvement of the well-
    BIG is a tax reduction for the        strategies of communities            being of the entire population and of
    poor, freeing resources for                                                all individuals, on the basis of their
                                          and families.
    economic investment.                                                       active,    free    and    meaningful
   Rural employment: N$1billion          Namibia has over the                 participation in development and in
    buying power would be brought         years developed policy               the fair distribution of the benefits
    into rural Namibia                    instruments            geared        resulting therefrom.”
   Education: the BIG by securing        towards addressing past
    nutrition is a human capital          imbalances inherited from            Declaration of Right to Development
    investment, increasing                the legacy of apartheid
    capabilities and real choices.        and colonialism. A series             Peace and stability are
   HIV/AIDS: nutrition is a              of    national       strategic         prerequisites
    prerequisite for healthy lifestyle    frameworks have been put              Good Governance is essential for
    and taking medicine.                  in place to guide the                  Human Development
   Economic insecurity: Cash             development process. The              Human Rights, Equality and Equity
    security enables people to save       primary guiding tool is the            are fundamentals of Human
    and to invest taking                  country’s     vision     2030          Development
    entrepreneurial risks (see social     aimed at transforming the             The MDGs represent the most
    pensions)                             country from a lower                   critical challenges facing Humanity
   Power: income security gives          middle-income        to    an          for its development
    bargaining power against              industrialized nation by the
    exploitative employment and
                                          2030. The vision gives
    social labour practices
                                          impetus and meaning to
                                          the traditional National
Page 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme                                                                                                                                         Youth Unemployment: 15-19 year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  olds: 40% 20-24 year olds: 47%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Poverty and Hunger                                                                                                                                             Other aspects of      poverty   remain
          180,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Eradication of absolute     disturbingly high:
                                                                                                                                                           US$ 1


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                           per day
          160,000



          140,000                                                                                                                                                                                             Poverty line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  extreme poverty has             Malnutrition in Under Fives shows
          120,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  made            progress.       little improvement: 26% (1992)
          100,000

                                                                                     poor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Statistics   from     the
              80,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24% (2003)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  National        Planning       Poor households are differentially
              60,000



              40,000



              20,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Commission in 2007              located by birth groups; for
                          0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  reveal that:                    example, the Khoisan speaking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N$ 10,034
                              per adult eq.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N$ 1,019

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N$ 1,356

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   N$ 1,805

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                N$ 2,402

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           N$ 3,197

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          N$ 4,255

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        N$ 5,664

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N$ 7,538
                                                                                                                                             N$ 103

                                                                                                                                                         N$ 138

                                                                                                                                                                   N$ 183

                                                                                                                                                                             N$ 244

                                                                                                                                                                                      N$ 325

                                                                                                                                                                                                 N$ 432

                                                                                                                                                                                                              N$ 575

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                N$ 765
                                                 N$ 11

                                                          N$ 14

                                                                   N$ 19

                                                                           N$ 25

                                                                                     N$ 33

                                                                                                N$ 44

                                                                                                                N$ 58

                                                                                                                                N$ 78




                                              N$ 0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N$ 10,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  households suffer the highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Poor        households
Poverty distribution before BIG                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   poverty incidence (63%) compared
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (spending more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to 0% of German speaking
180,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60% of income on food)          households.
160,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           declined from 38% in
140,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1993/94 to 28% in           Moreover, the Participatory Poverty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Assessment results (2003 – 2005),
120,000



100,000                                                  Destitution is                                                                                                                                                                             Many people                                                                                                                                                   2003/04; however, rural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    escape poverty.
 80,000
                                                          effectively
                                                          eradicated.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             communities still face      which are more subjective in nature
 60,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  real poverty with nearly    (being based on what communities
 40,000
                                                                                                                                                                            Inequality
 20,000                                                                                                                                                                     is reduced                                                                                                                                                                                                                            half   of    households     feel, as opposed to what a household
     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (42%) spending more         survey suggests) show that HIV/AIDS,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N$ 10,034
          per adult eq.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             N$ 1,019

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N$ 1,356

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              N$ 1,805

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           N$ 2,402

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             N$ 3,197

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              N$ 4,255

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N$ 5,664

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           N$ 7,538
                                                                                                                                        N$ 103

                                                                                                                                                      N$ 138

                                                                                                                                                                  N$ 183

                                                                                                                                                                             N$ 244

                                                                                                                                                                                        N$ 325

                                                                                                                                                                                                     N$ 432

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       N$ 575

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N$ 765
                          N$ 11

                                              N$ 14

                                                         N$ 19

                                                                   N$ 25

                                                                             N$ 33

                                                                                        N$ 44

                                                                                                        N$ 58

                                                                                                                        N$ 78




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  than 60% of their           unemployment, inadequate access to
Poverty distribution after BIG                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    income      on     food     quality social services, inadequate
                              40%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (compared with 7% of        assets such as livestock and land and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               34
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   33
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  urban households).          poor road infrastructure are seen to be
                              30%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   30                                                                                                                                                         the major problems in the Regions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Extremely         poor      Consistently       throughout        the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  households      (where      assessments,      people     in    rural
                              20%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20
                                                                       18
                                                                                                                                                                                                          19                                                                                                                                                                                                      more than 80% of            communities feel that they are worse
                                                                                                                                                                                  14                                                                                                                                                                                                                              household income is         off than they were at Independence.
                                                                                             11                                                          12
                              10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  spent on food) declined

                                    0%
                                                                                                                                5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 from 9% in 1993/94 to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4% in 2003/04.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Goal 2: Achieve Universal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Primary Education
                                                                  poorest 2nd                                             3rd                            4th                    5th                       6th                              7th                                   8th                         9th                               top


Buying power to poorer people before                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Gini Coefficient,
BIG                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               which measures the          There is no doubt that Namibia has
                              30%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  degree of inequality in a   made significant progress in terms of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  society, narrowed from      access to basic education, but the
                              20%
                                                                       23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.7 to 0.6 between          quality of the education system
                                                                                             19                            18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1993/94 and 2003/04;        remains a critical challenge that needs
                                                                                                                                                                                  17

                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  however, this remains       to be addressed urgently. Education
                              10%                                                                                                                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             11                                                                                                                                                                   one of the highest rates    has received the highest allocations of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8                                                        in the world.               public expenditure - 8.3% of GDP in
                                    0%
                                           Despite progress on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2000 or 23.5% of GRN expenditure
                                           poverty, unemployment  poorest 2nd                                             3rd                            4th                    5th                       6th                              7th                                   8th                          9th                                  top
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and 6.7% of GDP and 20.7% of total
Buying power redistributed to poorer       is rising. In 2003/04 the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GRN expenditure in 2005/6. About
people after BIG                           unemployment rate of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               59% of spending goes on primary
                                           36.7% compared with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                education. Of N$8.094bn expended
                            33.8% in 2000 and 19% in 1993/94.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 during 2002/3 – 2004/5, about
                            Moreover,        unemployment          is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N$7.528bn       was     budgeted     for
                            particularly concentrated in rural areas                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          operational expenditure while only
                            and among youth. In 2003/04:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N$0.4568bn was earmarked for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              development budget.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Rural unemployment stood at 44.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          per cent                                                                                                            Primary enrolment was 91.5% in 2000,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Urban unemployment stood at 29                                                                                      with 94% of children reaching grade 5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          per cent                                                                                                            Indeed, between 1992 and 2004 net
                  Page 4

                                                                  primary school enrolment shows                           Development Report, ranked Namibia
                                                                  improvement, rising from 89% to 95%.                     at 101. However there is much to be
                                                                                                                           done towards the empowerment of
                                                                  Yet there are major issues:
                                                                                                                           women in general.
                                                                        Language Group disparities in
                                                                         enrolment rates: only 18% of San                  Women in employment
                                                                         compared to 92% German and                        A look at the estimated earned income
                                                                         89% Oshiwambo                                     in the same report indicates a major
                                                                        Adult Literacy Rate is stagnating at              discrepancy between female and male
                                                                         89%                                               incomes and workforce participation:
                                                                        NER Secondary School: 52%
                                                                        High quality primary education is                    Male/Female labour force
                                                                         still a challenge                                     participation: 60/48%
                                                                                                                           Violence towards women
                                                                  Goal 3: Promote Gender
                                                                                                                           Increasing violence against women
                                                                  Equality and Empower                                     and girls is to be found. Reported rape
                                                                  Women                                                    and attempted rapes have doubled

                                                                                                                           “I would particularly like to express
                                                                  The 2004 gender-related development
                                                                                                                           my concern about the recent spate
                                                                                                                           of violent crimes directed at women
                                                                                                                           and     children.    These     crimes
                                      Unemployment by age and sex, 2000                                                    represent a gross violation of the
                                                                                                                           fundamental rights of our citizens
                    80%                                                                                                    and must therefore be condemned”
                                                                                               Both sexes
                    60%                                                                        Male                        Dr Sam Nujoma, opening of Parliament
                                                                                               Female
                                                                                                                           11 February 2003
                    40%


                    20%
                                                                                                                           since independence; a recent UN
                                                                                                                                                                 rd
                           0%
                                                                                                                           survey ranked Namibia’s rape rate 3
                                  15-19   20-24   25-29 30-34    35-39   40-44 45-49   50-54    55-59 60-64   65+    All   highest out of 53 countries (although
                                                                                                                    ages   the high level of reporting could be
                                                                                                                           indicative of positive factors such as
                                                                                                                           higher official sensitivity to rape and
                                                                                                                           good crime reporting practices). Gun
                                                                  index, published in the UN Human                         crimes are significantly biased against
                                                                                                                           women – between 2002 and 2006, the
                                                                                                                           number of reported crimes in which
                                                                                                                           firearms were pointed at women were
                                           Reports of rape & attempted rape combined:                                      4.5 times as many as against men and
                                                 1991 - 2005, Source: LAC 2006                                             4.8 times as many women were
                                                                                                                           murdered with a gun as were men.
                           1150

                                                                                                                           Goal 4 Reduce Child
Number of cases per year




                           1050


                            950
                                                                                                                           Mortality
                            850                                                                                            The current efforts of government in
                                                                                                                           terms of reducing infant mortality rate
                            750
                                                                                                                           seem largely successful but slow and
                            650                                                                                            are under threat due to the impact of
                                                                                                                           the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Effectively
                            550
                                          1991            1995              2000               2005
                                                                                                                           addressing    this    Goal    requires
                                                                  Years
                                                                                                                           composite efforts in the areas of
                                                                                                                           HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment,
                                                                  Total cases
                                                                                                                           general improvement of access for the
            Page 5
                                   poorest sections of our society to safe        partnership         with      faith-based
                                   water and sanitation, while also looking       institutions, traditional authorities, the
                                   at strategies that will tackle poverty.        school community and society at large
                                   Strategies      to   address     regional      is required to ensure meaningful
                                   inequalities in terms of access to public      progress in this area.
                                   health facilities coupled to educational
                                   programmes targeting mothers and               Goal 5 Improve Maternal
                                                                                  Health
                                   caretakers will also contribute to
                                   success in this area. Redoubling of
                                   efforts in primary health care would
                                                                                  A look at the government’s 2004
                                   also contribute positively towards
                                                                                  progress report on MDGs suggests
                                   reducing the infant mortality rate as
                                                                                  that the relevant data in this area is
                                   well as the under 5-years mortality
                                                                                  insufficiently good to be able to
                                   rate, since that is the area in which
                                                                                  determine       real  progress.      Thus
                                   least progress is being made.
                                                                                  indicators such as the proportion of
                                                                                  births attended by trained health
                                                                                  personnel or the use of contraceptives
     INDICATOR                                       1992 2000        2006        show progress; but the maternal
                                                                     Target       mortality ratio suggests that these
     Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)     67     52        36         inputs are not necessarily translating
     Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live         87     71        54         into reduced mortality rates among
     births)                                                                      women – with the mortality rate
                                                                                  apparently rising from 225 per 100,000
     Underweight among children under five           26% 24%          17%
                                                                                  births in 1992 to 271 in 2000. With birth
     Stunting among children under five              28% 24%          19%         rates declining as a result of the impact
     Wasting among children under five                9% 9%            6%         of HIV/AIDS and increased use of
     Proportion of one-year old children             63% 72%          80%         family planning, the country should be
     immunized against measles                                                    able to see a downturn in maternal
    Other than immunisation against measles, all under 5 children                 mortality     arising  from     improved
    indicators are behind target                                                  maternal health.
                                                                                  Success in this area will have a
                                   Civil society organisations believe that
                                                                                  positive spin-off on MDG 4 targets
                                   the general degeneration in the social
                                                                                  (reduce child mortality) and similar
                                   fabric, that is characterized by erosion
                                                                                  strategies need to be explored to
                                   of societal norms, growing numbers of
                                                                                  address this area successfully.
                                   single-parents, increasing number of
                                   teenage pregnancies, impacts on this
                                   Goal significantly. A much wider
                                                                                  Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS,
                                                                                           Malaria and
                            HIV/AIDS Trends by age group                                   Other Diseases
  35%                                                                                           Goal 6 is the biggest
                                                                                                challenge to Namibia,
  30%
                                                                                      30-34     affecting    all   other
  25%                                                                                 25-29     progress. Namibia is at
                                                                                      35-39     the impact stage of HIV
  20%
                                                                                      40-44     and AIDS with multiple
  15%
                                                                                      20-24
                                                                                                impacts on economic and
                                                                                                social development
  10%                                                                                 15-19

   5%
                                                                                      45+          Life expectancy is
                                                                                                    dropping
   0%                                                                                              Human Resource
          1994       1996      1998      2000      2002       2004       2006                       capacity is
                                                                                                    diminishing
While falls in prevalence are seen in younger age groups (below 25), above 25 years the            The burden of care
prevalence rates continue to rise                                                                   on families and
     Page 6
                                             communities is rising                                 issue of food poverty) and supporting
                                                                                                   those who have lost carers. AIDS
                                        HIV/AIDS prevalence declined from
                                                                                                   related deaths are expected to have
                                        22% in 2002 to 19.7% in 2004;
                                                                                                   risen from 13,880 in 2001 to about
                                                    however, hopes that this
                                                                                                   23,220 in 2006. The figure of AIDS
                70                                  reduction     represented
                                                                                                   orphans is expected to follow a similar
                                                    the “turning of the tide”
                60                                                                                 trend with about 118,050 orphans as a
                                                    were put on hold when
                50    61                                                                           result of HIV/AIDS by the same date.
                                                    the 2006 overall figure
                                                                                                   Life expectancy is following a similar
 Age in years




                           52
                40               49                 stabilised at 19.9%.
                                                                                                   trend that will result in 40.2 years being
                                            40
                30
                                            HIV/AIDS is the leading                                the life expectancy at birth for
                20                          cause of death in                                      Namibians.
                                            Namibia for the past few
   10                                                                                                          On a positive note, government has
                                            years.          Similarly,
                                                                                                               under     its    expenditure     priorities
    0
                                            tuberculosis and malaria
        1991      1998     2001     2006                                                                       recognized that “HIV/AIDS affects
                                            account for a significant
Life expectancy is falling fast because of                                                                     every     sector     of   the    society”.
                                            number of deaths in
AIDS                                                                                                           Consequently under the Medium Term
                                            Namibia. Each of the
                                                                                                               Expenditure Forecast 2005/6 – 2007/8,
                                            killer diseases interacts
                                                                                                               the government has made special
                                 on the others, with studies now
                                                                                                                         allocations relating to anti-
                                                                                        2000                             retroviral programmes for all
                      1992
                                                                                                                         district              hospitals,
                                                               Son/daughter-in-                                          maintenance and foster care
                                                                      law
                                                                       3%
                                                                                                                         grants for orphans and other
           Not related Son/daughter-in-
               11%           law                               Not related                                               vulnerable     children,      the
                                                                                                            Grandchild
  Adopted/foster
                             3%                                    6%
                                                                                                               61%
                                                                                                                         continued funding of a special
       child
        1%
                                                           Adopted/foster                                                HIV/AIDS      Programme to
                                                               child
                                                                5%                                                       mitigate its effect on the
                                        Grandchild
                                           44%
                                                                                                                         education of the nation’s
 Other relative                                                                                                          children and provision under
     39%                                                                                                                 its medical aid scheme for
                                                                 Other relative
                         Brother/sister
                                                                      21%                                                HIV/AIDS related treatment of
                              2%                                                                                         its employees. What is of
                                                                                    Brother/sister                       concern, however, is the
                                                                                         4%
                                                                                                                         extent to which investment in
                                                                                                                         HIV/AIDS prevention is not
The burden of care has shifted significantly towards grandparents, with the rising                                       having the desired impact in
number of orphans meaning that the absolute number of grandparents involved in                                           terms of behaviour changes
care has risen by even greater numbers.                                                                                  and ultimately prevalence
                                                                                                                         dropping to signify a turn-
                                                   suggesting that malaria deaths are
                                                                                                               around of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
                                                   higher as a result of the HIV/AIDS
                                                   epidemic. While Namibia is making                           Moreover, government efforts are
                                                   good progress in terms of treatment –                       being outstripped by the scale of the
                                                                                in     particular        in    problem – for example, only 44% of
                100
                                   84
                                                                                achieving roll out of          orphans are presently registered and in
                           81
                 80
                      75                         73
                                                                                ARV             treatment,     receipt of support; and food support for
                 60
                                                                                more effort to raise           those on ARV is currently dependent
                 40
                                                                                public         awareness       on donor funds.
                 20
                                                                                and                improve
                  0
           Dual Orphan      Maternal
                            Orphan
                                          Paternal
                                          Orphan
                                                      Non-Orphan                                   Goal 7 Ensure
                                                                                            preventative

                                                                                                   Environmental
                                                                                measures                 is
                                                                                needed.
Orphans are concentrated in the rural                     As      importantly,                     Sustainability
communities, where poverty is the greatest                more needs to be
                                                          done in relation to                      Rural-urban migration of people in
                                        care of those infected (including the                      search of employment and better
                                                                                                   livelihood  results   in   informal
   Page 7
                                settlements in most semi-urban and         towards Africa, this falling trend must
                                                urban centres. Most        be reversed.
Indicator                  1990   2001    2006  informal settlements
                                         Target face          serious      Foreign Direct Investment
                                                challenges in terms        (FDI)
Protected areas           13.6%  16.8%   15.1%
                                                of access to basic         Namibia has sought, with some
Registered conservancies  0.0%    4.9%   10.9%  amenities such as          success, to replace falling aid inflows
                                                sanitation, access to      by promoting FDI, although studies
Freehold land             5.0%    6.1%   8.5%
                                                water, etc., with          show that outflows from FDI into the
%age of rural population   15%    21%     50%   many inhabitants of        broader economy are not as great as
with access to sanitation                       these poverty traps        they might be.
                                                having to use the
Mixed progress on sustainable environment use                              The country’s investment promotion
                                                surrounding       open
                                                areas as toilets.          efforts have been complemented by a
                                                                           spate of international trade agreements
                                As   is often the case, the legal          that    offer   reduced     tariffs and
                                             framework in relation to      preferential market access for certain
Sustainable energy for                       the           environment     products from Namibia. More recently,
Namibia                                      sometimes fails in the        the “democratization of the SACU
Although energy is not addressed in any      implementation.      There    agreement” and the subsequent
of the eight MDGs, access to clean and       are inconsistencies in        deployment of a SACU Secretariat in
affordable energy is a prerequisite to       applying      Environment     Windhoek seems to have further
achieving sustainable development.           Impact Assessment study       entrenched this regional trading block
Energy services have cross-cutting           findings, a lack of nation-   as a preferred arrangement to be
influences on both social and economic       wide            awareness     emulated as regional integration in the
development, thereby influencing a           campaign on the fragility     sub-region intensifies.
nation’s ability to achieve the MDGs.        of our environment and
                                             environmental protocols;      The positive impact of the Cotonou
Over 26m hectares of agricultural land       alternative income and        Partnership Agreement’s development
in Namibia have become uncultivable          employment opportunities      assistance seems in contrast to the
because      of     bush encroachment,       presented by the natural      SADC-EU        Economic      Partnership
preventing the growth of useful grass        environment      are    not   Agreement being negotiated for
species and resulting in the compaction      pursued as vigorously as      completion by the end of 2007. The
of soils. This biodiversity loss leads to    they should.                  regional level integration efforts are
land     degradation      and     reduced                                  already under threat as member
agricultural production. With over 70%       Goal 8 Develop a              countries of SADC and COMESA are
of Namibia’s population relying on                                         induced to consider national interest
agriculture, the resulting economic loss     Global                        above regional integration objectives,
and increased poverty is enormous,
having been estimated at N$700million.
                                             Partnership for               forging new alliances that could
                                                                           threaten the deepening of the regional
Removing the bush has proved too             Development                   integration process in the sub-region.
                                                                           While we may applaud the apparent
costly. The most promising method is to      Overseas Development          benefits to
use the bush is to generate electricity      Aid (ODA) has been                                        ODA inflow Namibia
                                                                           be
through gasification. The project,           falling           sharply,
                                                                                                          250

                                                                           accrued
Combating Bush Encroachment for              particularly since 1999
                                                                                                          200
                                                                           from trade
Namibia’s      Development      (CBEND),
                                                                                            Million US$




                                             and this is a cause of        pacts such                     150

being conducted by DRFN, Namibia             serious concern. ODA          as SACU,                       100

Agricultural Union and the Namibia           per head has fallen from      AGOA and                       50
National Farmers Union will put to trial a   US$130 in 1992 to             the     free                    0
0.6MW       wood     gasification  plant.    US$60 in 2003, despite        trade
                                                                                                             90

                                                                                                             91

                                                                                                             92

                                                                                                             93

                                                                                                             94

                                                                                                             95

                                                                                                             96

                                                                                                             97

                                                                                                             98

                                                                                                             99

                                                                                                             00

                                                                                                             01

                                                                                                             02
                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                           20

                                                                                                           20

                                                                                                           20




Preliminary studies have indicated that      the target being US$90.       agreement       Sources: UNDP, 2000 & NPC-DDC
the sustainable harvesting of current        The justification for the     with     the    Development assistance is falling
invader bush can generate enough             fall is the fact that         EU,      the    sharply and well behind a target of
electricity to meet the country’s entire     Namibia is seen as a          eventual        US$90US
needs. Manual harvesting of the bush         middle income group.          erosion of
will create much needed jobs and             But, given international      tariffs and introduction of reciprocal
displace the 52% electricity presently       commitments being made        trading    regimes     will   have            an
imported from South Africa.
      Page 8

                               undesirable impact on government
                                                                            The role of Civil Society
        NANGOF                 revenue, nurturing of indigenous or
                               infant industries and the stability of the
The NANGOF Trust is the                                                     Government call for Private Sector and
                               emerging regional blocks. Previous           Civil Society “smart partnerships” are
umbrella body of NGOs in
                               experience      with    anti-competitive     critical:
Namibia, which, through the
                               behaviour of larger economies such as
combined resources of its                                                      HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care
                               South Africa and capacity constraints
membership, works towards                                                       and Support – affects every facet
                               in terms of addressing supply-side
the creation and sustenance
                               issues and meeting prohibitive sanitary          of society – Government cannot do
of an enabling environment                                                      it alone.
                               and phytosanitary measures imposed
for NGOs, with an emphasis
                               by major trading blocks does not augur          CSOs as actors: blame game or
on democracy, poverty                                                           ownership and becoming part of
                               well for the private sector, which is
eradication and human
                               already struggling to compete with their         the solution?
rights promotion.
                               international competitors.                      Churches with the greatest
The NANGOF Trust has a                                                          outreach potential are still relatively
vision of a vibrant nation     There seems to be little effort accorded         untapped for social development.
which harnesses the skills     to building and mobilizing local                Traditional Leaders are a critical
and resources of its entire    partnerships for development as                  bridge between social and
people towards a socially      opposed to the preference given to               economic development and how
and economically just          global partnerships. To the contrary,            this is responded to in communities
society.                       adequate strategies to create an
                                                                            However, the creation of smart
                               environment more conducive to local
    Contact Us                 level partnership with CSOs including
                                                                            partnerships has to be resourced.
     196 Ceasar St,                                                         Funds have to be available if civil
                               the private sector could potentially
      Wanaheda,                                                             society interest and engagement is to
                               benefit      the   MDGs        campaign
                                                                            be translated into further action.
       Windhoek,               significantly. The country seems
        Namibia
         Phone
                               committed to the opening up of our
                               borders to international trade, while we
                                                                            Gap Areas for Possible
    +264 61 222860             seem unable to manage international          Civil Society Action
          Fax                  dialogue to advocate for favourable
    +264 61 222864             conditions that serves our national          Civil Society already contributes hugely
         E-mail                interest.                                    towards the challenges of the
    nangof@iway.na                                                          Millennium Development Goals. It is
          Web                  The challenge for                            estimated that over 20,000 volunteers
                                                                            are engaged in tackling HIV/AIDS
  www.nangof.iway.com          government                                   alone. More can be done, if the
                                                                            resources are made available:
                               So much of the progress towards the
                                        MDGs comes back to the                 HIV prevention and behaviour
 Contributors                           challenge of poverty. At the            change
                                        end of the day, this is in the         Stemming reversals in poverty,
 Our thanks for material contained in                                           hunger, child and maternal
                                        hands of government which
 this report go to:                                                             mortality and basic education
                                        must:
 Claudia Haarman, Basic Income                                                  access and retention
                                         Improve the current                  Gender equality and
     Grant Coalition
                                             income support                     empowerment
 Khin-Sandi Lwin, United Nations
                                             mechanisms (for                   Reaching vulnerable families,
     Children Fund
                                             example in real terms              areas and communities to assist
 Kudakwashe Ndhlukula,
                                             pensions today are 14%             with community capacity
     Polytechnic of Namibia
                                             lower than in 1990;                development towards the full range
 The Legal Assistance Centre
                                             grants for orphans for             of MDGs – Community Health;
 The National Planning Commission
                                             where both parents are             home-based care; voluntary
 Theo Uvanga, Namibia
                                             dead are very difficult to         counselling and testing; care of
     Development Trust
                                             obtain)                            orphans
 Edited by:
 Andrew Harris, The NANGOF Trust         Challenge poverty                    Environmental awareness and
                                             through redistribution –           care – particularly water usage in a
                                  the Basic Income Grant is offered             fragile ecology and promoting
                                  as a mechanism                                alternative energy solutions