Transfer】 【Inquiry Learning: 18 Principles
Abstract: The new basic education curriculum reform advocate in the branches of all the
students to carry out a variety of inquiry-based learning. This requires in the
teaching process, students dialectical address the relationship between autonomy and
guidance of teachers, not only stressed the students to listen to teachers, but also
emphasizes that teachers should listen to students, students explore the personal
values concept, a unique feeling and experience, and guide students to actively
reflection. Meanwhile, we should emphasize the interaction between the students listen
to, exchange and cooperation. Of course, can not believe that inquiry-based learning is
advanced, the only teachers teach and students learn listening mode is backward,
outdated and should be discarded. In fact, different learning styles have their own
strengths, should complement each other and promote each other, can be neglected.
Keywords: inquiry learning, listening to students, the original concept, communication
and cooperation, hands, brains
Currently being carried out in full swing with great emphasis on the new curriculum
reform to change the way students learn, promote inquiry learning. How should we
conduct inquiry learning? To carry out the process of inquiry learning should pay
attention to? Some of this personal learning and thinking, those who choose it to be,
as the principles of inquiry learning, 18, to discuss with you.
Principle 1 should promote a variety of learning styles and each other.
Inquiry learning is not the only way to learn, teachers teach, students attendance
(giving of learning, tell-listen) is not the only way to learn. The two should
complement each other and promote each other. From our current reality, we should
vigorously promote inquiry-based learning research and practice.
Of course, in order to meet the students the spirit and soul of desire, students must
learn to accept a large number of human-style cultural heritage of the essence, in
order to enrich their mind and soul; and, for most of the learning content, they can
not self-discovery to carry out construction. But that does not mean that this will be
the only way to learn. And does not imply the acceptance of indirect knowledge of
learning can only take a passive, passive listening manner. In fact, children around
certain situations or issues in the initiative to collect information on the process
(after the access to books and to ask questions and other information sources in order
to understand the existing knowledge), although the acceptance of learning, but active,
positive part of the process of inquiry learning. Therefore, it should be promoted in
order to explore proactive way to learn a large number of indirect knowledge, the
indirect knowledge of a variety of inquiry learning into the process.
In addition, because those who explore the process needs to explore the integrated use
of their existing knowledge and experience, it has been for the promotion and deepen
the understanding of knowledge, to digest, is essential. We often have such an
experience: a new inquiry in context, their knowledge and experience already gained new
understanding, generate new meaning. Is the so-called &quot;knowledge and learn new
Students in the school learning process, should be integrated use of various learning
styles. Each have their own learning strengths and weaknesses, the use of good will can
not replace learning to play other special effects, the use of poor also will have this
or that problem: give and accept the use of good learning, such as teachers, good
teaching can also be lively convey to students a lot of useful information; use bad
words, teaching will be very boring people sleepy. Inquiry learning can inspire and
train students in thinking, but the use of good, so that class discussion may also
become disorganized, irrelevant miles.
Overall, the giving of learning and inquiry learning are important in learning students
should each learn from each other and promote each other, can be neglected.
Principle 2 should be carried out in a variety of subjects in inquiry learning.
The mere mention of inquiry learning, we tend to think in science subjects for
scientific inquiry. In fact, inquiry learning is a focus on the students own an active
part in one of the learning, all subjects should be strongly advocated. Therefore, not
only in primary school science, middle school science (physics, chemistry, biological)
subjects, but also in language learning, learning in mathematics, in English, in the
study of history, geography study, in the arts (music, art) Learning should promote
inquiry-based learning. Inquiry learning is that curriculum is a common topic to
explore. Here, we will look at the most difficult people to think of using
&quot;explore&quot; the language.
In fact, the language courses not only put great emphasis on exploration, but also in
the new curriculum standards in language, to explore even the basic concept of the new
curriculum referred to the third to be treated. Standard Chinese Course opened the
first one, &quot;basic concept of course,&quot; a total of four: &quot;(a)
fully improve their language literacy,&quot; &quot;(b) correctly grasp the
characteristics of language education&quot; &quot;(d) efforts to build an open
and dynamic language course &quot;, while the third is&quot; actively promote
independence, cooperation, explore learning side? quot;.
Under the new curriculum materials prepared by the new language (in this example to PEP)
after modernism, constructivism and curriculum design process models and other advanced
concepts for the support, fully reflects the strengthening &quot;independent
research&quot; this new concept, which highlights performance in the back of the
class &quot;discussion and practice&quot; in the. Lesson 1 as &quot;the
other side of the mountain&quot; after-school first problem is? Quot; reading of
the poem, the poem&#39;s thoughts and feelings sentiment. Poetry, in addition to
the literal meaning of things, often have deep meaning. Inquiry about the
poem&#39;s &#39;sea&#39; and &#39;Mountain&#39; contains mean?
&quot;Here, tips for students to independently explore a topic. The second
question&quot; link context, taste and add a little poem below the words (in
brackets the question for reference). &quot;Suggests not only for students to
explore issues, and problems through the brackets provided for the students explore the
direction and guidance.
In addition, the language of new material in a semester to design a comprehensive study
six units (three three small), for students to focus on larger-scale exploration
Historical materials from the overall design of the temporal and thematic combined
system, a term of five specific activities designed courses, such as search history,
compiled historical stories, debate class, and guide students to focus on carrying out
exploration activities. More importantly, the new class of materials for each are
&quot;activities and exploration&quot;, not only of material exploration
activities, including a number of controversial issues may arise for students to
explore, such as providing two different perspectives, students are asked &quot;
Judgement: Who said they justified? &quot;
Physical, chemical and biological materials in a new easy to difficult, step by step
design of large, colorful, different types of inquiry sections and activities.
Biological materials is also the first unit of new specialized text description Piyou
observation, investigation, collection and analysis of data, the general process of
inquiry, experimental program design. In addition, there are many reading materials in
detail the history of scientific development shows the emergence of some typical
examples of scientific inquiry. If the physical page 8, &quot;Galileo&#39;s
exploration of the swing,&quot; on page 87 of Chemistry &quot;conservation of
mass discovery and development&quot;, p. 128 biological photosynthesis Lisiteli
British scientists experiment (1) (2) ( 3), geography page 34, &quot;accidental
discovery of the great hypothesis - Wegener and Continental Drift&quot;, and so on,
all display a more detailed exploration of these classics have experienced the typical
process and the main method used to provide students with unlimited inspiration.
Principle 3 should be emphasized that the diversity of inquiry-based learning design
When it comes to inquiry learning, we often think of discovery learning. The mere
mention of inquiry learning, people often think is the problem, hypothesis, validation,
conclusions, exchange steps. Although it can be said does not necessarily include all
of the above links, but the inquiry learning can only be found on the right style to
explore only such a problem solving model?
In fact, there are a variety of inquiry-based learning design patterns. Information
obtained from the ready-made self-level points, inquiry-based learning can be divided
into two categories: acceptable type exploration and discovery inquiry.
In an interview-based inquiry learning, information from the students take the
initiative from the existing data or existing resources (such as from the library, the
Internet, science and technology museum, etc.) directly collect or direct inquiries to
the relevant parties, the collected information is readily available at most only
slightly can order. For example, in geography finished world geography, you can give
students to explore the layout of a job:
If you intend to use the holiday to Xin Matai travel, to travel before preparation
(such as the clothing worn when preparing to purchase tickets, reserve funds) what
information you need to get (the climatic characteristics of these countries and the
recent weather, between China and these national modes of transportation and routes,
the yuan exchange rate between the currencies of these countries, etc.), if it intends
to your family and friends back to some specialty or small gifts, you need to know what
information (economic and cultural characteristics of these countries, such as ), which
channels you want to know from the information (&quot;Geographic&quot; magazine,
guidebook, travel companies, television, newspapers, Internet, advertising, etc.).
Write an essay, report the information you get, do not forget to specify the exact
source of this information.
Since this operation is to allow students to actively collect information from existing
resources readily available information, and therefore accept the type of inquiry.
Exploratory Study of the Discovery, there is no readily available information can be
collected directly, but must be by the inquirer through observation, experiment,
investigation, interpretation, research and other activities, processes, and analyzed
to get through or find. Such as:
Observation of snails. (Observation)
Design a one second pendulum swinging once. (Problem solving)
Explore the frequency and what factors put the. (Experiment - variable qualitative
Explore the circumference of a circle with any variables, relationship between their
number. (Variable quantitative analysis)
Discussion: What characteristics of things with life is there. (Concept clarification)
Text &quot;in the mountains on the other side&quot; in a poem,
&quot;Mountain&quot; mean? (Text Reading)
Appreciation of Johann Strauss&#39;s waltz &quot;Blue Danube&quot; (An
From the above example also shows that discovery is also exploring a variety of models.
Such as observation, experiment, problem solving, variable analysis, concept
clarification, text interpretation, and so on.
From a view of the duration of exploration activities, some inquiry may not take a
class time, while others may take several weeks (such as changes in observation phase
of the moon to find out the laws), or even to sustain even half of semester year (the
year observational record of a change in the weather).
Principle 4 should be inquiry-based learning for all students, and care of individual
Is not only good students have the capacity to conduct inquiry, should give every
student the opportunity to participate inquiry. Especially those in the class or group
of students to speak less, they should be given special attention and positive
encouragement, give them the opportunity and confidence to participate in the Inquiry.
Explore cooperation in the group activities, teachers should observe student behavior,
to prevent part of the excellent control and dominated the inquirer situation, guide
the students to pay attention to the attention of everyone to contribute to the
exploration activities to enable each Students share and assume the rights and
obligations of the inquiry.
Of course, for some students with special learning difficulties and those with
Teshucaineng students should also consider using other timing (Ru in extra-curricular
interest group activities) Jiyu them some 需要 tailored to their level and the
Exploration of the task.
Principle 5 should be carried out to explore the learning of the conditions to provide
Inquiry-based learning often takes more time, require the amount of small class
teaching, they need plenty of material, and so on. A number of students in many classes,
if they do not have enough necessary materials, in a short period of time organize the
students to explore a more difficult; even if provoked exploration activities, but also
difficult to launch and in-depth. Of course, not all of the exploration activities
require huge financial support and staffing, but the exploration of time to ensure (to
ensure that students think of the full launch and in-depth), some teacher-student ratio
(in order to ensure the full expression of the students, Shi Sheng full exchange
opportunities) and so is required.
From the time that students may need time to test their new ideas, may elapse from the
time delay error may be time for contemplation, but also a time to conduct discussions
with each other. Students need to set aside ample time to arrange scientific equipment
to do experiments to the field for investigation, or to think about summing up personal
experience to share with each other. Students also need to set aside time for them in
different combinations - or individual, or in pairs or groups, or class - to do such as
reading, experiments, thinking, and discussion of such account a variety of activities.
Therefore, the total knowledge of the course must be controlled so as to scientific
inquiry activities to allow sufficient time.
Also, explore the relatively high demand for teachers, while there should be some
institutional guarantees to encourage teachers able and willing to take the time to do
for the students explore the complex and time-consuming preparations.
The design principle 6 should first explore the issue concerned &quot;the problems
of children&quot; for life, for the community.
Children to pay attention to the concerns and issues of interest is. Our curriculum
should first pay attention to these really are children from the children and the
problem, contact student life and social reality: first, in the design of primary
school science curriculum, the first response of children 6 to 12 years were to
investigate issues of interest Statistics and analysis, as course design and
arrangements for the selection of inquiry into the basis of the order of one subject;
second semester should leave some &quot;free exploration time&quot; for
students to explore their own questions; third, daily curriculum design should be the
immediate interest of the child to make appropriate and timely adjustments.
The following is a real shot in elementary schools, should cause us to reflect on.
First class was still raining, section II stopped. Uneven ground, some small puddles. A
group of students just finished calisthenics squat flower filled lake, something warm
to talk. Section III a few minutes to get on the course, and taught elementary school
science teacher from the tool library, the king carrying a large bag under the class to
use the aids walk towards the classroom. Through the flower beds have not yet found his
students into the classroom, he looked down on the grass in the original they are
interested in two earthworms.
&quot;Why do they drilled out from the soil?&quot;
&quot;Is the lack of oxygen. Rain, the fish will head out from the water,
&quot;May be ready to move. Not ant to move before the rain&#39;s Why.&quot;
&quot;Now the rain is acid rain, the soil gave corrosion, and earthworms in the
soil could not make things up.&quot;
&quot;The earth with air, rain and filled the surrounding soil in water, no air,
earthworms writings to be finished. Earthworms do not like too wet to
&quot;They came out for the rain to give them a bath.&quot;
Wang saw the table, going on to play the bell was. He greeted the students into the
classroom to prepare lessons, this lesson he will explore with the students,
&quot;the sound generation.&quot; He was pleased to maintain students on the
positive nature of curiosity and desire to explore, unfortunately, the inquiry is
related to earthworms explore in the next semester, &quot;animals and the
environment&quot; a lesson. In that class, will guide the students to the main
inquiry &quot;earthworm environment suitable for living in what? Bright or dark
place where? Moist or dry place?&quot;
As a teacher, he has not right to tamper with the process of teaching, or teaching at a
higher level check may be criticized. Into the classroom, he found that the students
are still whispered discussion with earthworms do. Therefore, he had to class the
students interest in exploring away from the worm on, go to this course explore the
subject up. But his classmates say:
&quot;I have already noted the interest the students of the earthworm, on this
issue we will study the next semester, you can find it down today, the future will be
used. However, this lesson, the teacher intends to explore with the students together
look, sound, how is? We first do an experiment. ... ... &quot;
Chinese teachers teaching decision-making power is not sufficient, it is sufficient to
inhibit the teachers listen to students is an important reason. Students came to school
after the inquiry should be carried out by students from spontaneous exploration, that
is, first of all should be concerned about the students explore their own issues and
problems to allow students to conduct the first independent non-guided exploration.
Rather than the students said? Quot; put those issues aside your in school you should
explore such issues. &quot;Students should not always say:&quot; we need to
study is ... ... that you just mentioned, that question later. &quot;
Therefore, teachers should have the right to adjust the teaching plan at any time, you
can always insert a temporary unit or topic. Explore the theme of most of a semester
will be predetermined or design, but should allow a few exceptions. Concentration of
each end of the semester can also be arranged for some hours, and the students, through
observation, experiment or check the information together to discuss some
&quot;hundreds of thousands of students Why? Quot;.
7 key principles of inquiry learning is not explored methods of operation and operating
skills, so do not expect too much on this.
Teachers in guiding students to explore, the need to pursue the level of scientists
explore, not a graduate student instructor Dr. Xiang stressed areas of concern and in
line, in the scientific inquiry method of operation and operating techniques do not
demand too much, this is not the instructor students to focus on exploration activities.
Of course, not satisfied with the level of children&#39;s spontaneous exploration,
but should focus on students &quot;basic scientific literacy,&quot; the
increase. Specifically, under the guidance of scientific inquiry teachers should focus
on four areas: (1) to satisfy their thirst for knowledge through exploration; (2)
obtain information on around the world by exploring the understanding; (3) explore the
development of scientific thinking by ability to exercise problem solving skills,
cooperation and communication skills, and foster a scientific spirit and attitude of
the initial acquisition of the scientific method; (4) step by step, of scientific
inquiry itself and the scientific understanding of nature (scientific inquiry is the
dialogue between human beings and the universe, Science is the human interpretation of
the universe). Here, particular attention should guide students to explore the process
through direct participation and through their own reflection and thought, gained from
personal experience, explore the features on a profound understanding and deep
understanding of how the inquiry is the scientific discovery (human existing knowledge
the obtaining of how we step by step to deepen understanding of the world) series and
the nature of science-related issues.
Although children do not have radio telescopes to observe the wonders of the solar
system, there is no electron microscopy to explore the infinitely small world of
secrets, it does not expect any new material they found, however, children still
spontaneously or under the guidance of the adults with this inquiry the mystery of the
world. Inquiry is not complicated by the unattainable, it exists in every person,
permeates every corner of life. Children are engaged in exploration and scientists
explore, with each adult exploration of their own society in which, essentially no
difference. Teachers in guiding students to explore, they should focus is to enable
students to explore the nature of learning as those common areas, those with a wide
range of migration values in student life and to the society can also have implications
for and application of common aspects, such as the basic process of scientific inquiry,
the basic methods of scientific thinking; without having too much emphasis on specific
methods of operation and operating skills, such as the use of the buret.
Principle 8 dialectical inquiry is necessary to deal with student autonomy and teacher
Inquiry learning emphasizes student autonomy, but does not ignore the teacher&#39;s
guidance. Teachers should emphasize timely, necessary and prudent, and effective
guidance to the pursuit of some real gains from the exploration of, including the
promotion of world understanding and students to explore the continuous improvement of
quality, so that students explore the practice of continually improving and improved.
Elementary school children of groped from experiments carried out, step by step to the
progressive development: the child&#39;s behavior gradually from spontaneous to
take a structured approach to the question from aimlessly selective questions, from
simple reliance on the senses to use a variety of tools, there is no rule from the
observation to a more reasonable and well-structured research, from the obsessive to
the rigorous efforts and precision, from being attracted to magic happy acquisition of
knowledge. No matter what stage or level of inquiry may be accompanied by doubt,
resistance, barriers, focus, stress, hardship, excitement, joy or excitement, but are
not only easy and enjoyable.
The question is, how teachers guide students in inquiry, namely: the progress of
inquiry to determine whether or designed by the teacher in advance; whether it should
first give the students some time to carry out their own exploration of non-guiding;
inquiry process focused on the activities of students own What, teachers focus on what
guide the inquiry; how to guide, when the intervention, intervention number; which
guidance is necessary to guide be regarded as adequate a; when the need to provide
background information or related information, when to teach the preparation of the
corresponding knowledge, when the recommended students to read textbooks, or to the
library, the Internet, adult for help? To know that in the actual teaching, teachers
often intervene too soon (students have not fully independent research how long),
thereby hampering the students could find opportunities for self
(&quot;we&#39;ll find the answer almost!&quot;) sometimes intervene too
late for too long and to allow the students to a state of helplessness and even in
danger. Teachers, guidance is often not necessary and should not be depriving the
students try to - errors and opportunities to learn from the lessons; sometimes
inadequate guidance they so students feel unprepared.
Principle 9 of teachers explore the first to fully listen to the students.
Teachers should pay attention to the students themselves to understand the various
phenomena (student&#39;s personal knowledge), first of all listen to their ideas
now, insight into their origin of these ideas, and to encourage interaction among
students and questions, understand each other&#39;s ideas, this is According to
guide the students to adjust their mutual enrichment and understanding. There is a very
important concept in education called &quot;listening to education&quot;,
stressed not only let the &quot;students listen to teachers&quot;, more
emphasis should first &quot;teacher listening to students.&quot; It should be
said that this new concept of education is very important, very profound and should be
Mr. Li Zhengtao in &quot;listening to the education - of teachers, students listen
to&quot; article (&quot;Education Theory and Practice,&quot; No. 7 of 2000)
wrote the first and the last paragraph:
&quot;Education is the process of mutual listening to educators and the educated
and the response process. ... ... To listen to the educated of the narrative is the
moral responsibility of teachers.&quot;
&quot;This kind of listening is to really listening, it effectively changed the way
teachers, listening to hear them from outside the inner hearing, heard from the
abstract concrete listen, hear the experience from the concept of listening, as a
really listen to those teachers, must be this: a sense of modesty and his patience, to
one full of tenderness of love, open his ears, and look forward with confidence to meet
the sound of those innocent lives. This listening as rooted in the life of the earth,
deep, wind sway, often silent quiet, but hidden to create vitality, it&#39;s all
the aim is: To blooming flowers in the air, setting fruit? quot;
These ideas are very profound and moving.
If exploration activities in the language, teachers should first carefully listening to
the students an initial understanding of the work, understand the feelings of the
students initially, analysis and understanding. Students share their findings in the
inquiry process, teachers often can easily identify which students have a higher
perception and understanding. Students listen to speeches in the process, a good
teacher can find students keen to understand the bias, confusion of students, students
already have experience and background is still a lack of things can judge the students
understand the depth and the decision needs added by teachers which describes the
background work. By listening to students, a good teacher can accurately determine
whether students have completed their basic full exchange can think and understand
everything, to intervene decisively when and discuss ways to intervene. By listening to
students, teachers can understand the level of each student to have a general
understanding, to judge by the complement of teachers for work in depth to what extent
is the student&#39;s acceptance within the scope.
In fact, it is through listening to students, by focusing on real-time performance of
the students, the students point of view and to speak, by focusing on the excitement
and wonder of students, teachers, when their participation, how to participate in
As students experience and the lack of background knowledge, as teachers experience the
professional background and experience, students explore the feelings and experience
exchange process, due to the participation of teachers, the whole discussion takes
place a change of exciting comic.
First of all, the students, explaining their own understanding, the teachers in a
discussion on the identity, timely, and equal participation of the student discussion,
he talked about his personal understanding of this work, experience and knowledge
(which, of course reference textbook writers in the language teachers use the book),
the evaluation of the students want, understanding and support.
Of course, the students listened to praise teachers to understand as much about the
background of this work is likely to be impressed by the teachers in-depth analysis.
However, there will be a small number of students who would not agree, or that doubt,
and teachers should encourage students to challenge and further question, which shows
that students in the further deepening of understanding.
&quot;Reading instruction for students, teachers, the process of dialogue between
the text.&quot; Read the first dialogue between the students and work, and then
students work carried out between the dialogue, teacher participation, the students,
teachers to work the dialogue.
The process of teaching is to teachers, students, teaching materials among exchanges,
dialogue, interaction (&quot;interaction&quot;) process, the
&quot;visions&quot; of the transition, conflict, intervention and integration.
Principle 10 of the inquiry process and to correctly handle the students to value the
existing personal knowledge and original concepts, and guide students to actively
In fact, children born from that moment on, we never stopped exploring. Therefore, the
inquiry as a natural instinct, not a going to learn things from scratch - they do not
need to learn how to ask questions, how to explore the internal structure, how to
express their findings, they are inherently &quot;nasty &quot;the
questioner,&quot; exasperating &quot;the demolition, the&quot; nasty
&quot;spoilers,&quot; hateful &quot;graffiti and&quot; annoying
&quot;noises were. (&quot;How a tiny seed grow into a tree so much? Seeds which
have no magic thing?&quot; &quot;Eat dirt you plant?&quot; ... ...)
Of course, the children&#39;s spontaneous exploration remained at a relatively low
level. Explore not only the limited capacity of children to explore their own process
and methods used are relatively coarse, a lot of problems. However, for
children&#39;s initial understanding of the simple things around him, this inquiry
is basic to competent. Children also do derive great satisfaction. Moreover, pre-school
children after 6 years of self-exploration, indeed around the world have gained a lot
of wealth on the initial experience and have some explanatory power of individual views,
opinions, ideas and knowledge. Around the basic needs of small to large to the universe,
the stars of the run, from natural phenomena to the social life, they almost always
some of my views. Although some of these original ideas are very shallow or even wrong,
but they mostly are not taken for granted by exploring proposed, and often well-founded,
based on direct observation of students and a small amount of the basis of concrete
experience. But they do have to explain much of children perceived around the world on
many of the phenomena, children value their own knowledge of these original, personal
knowledge of these children is also valuable and meaningful.
Children from families and communities into the schools, they are not a blank sheet;
children are not with a blank mind to the classroom. They are the world with their 6
years of experience and personal perspectives to teachers before. A primary school
teacher said: &quot;can not underestimate these little children, they know how to
be more, all are fine lot, actually!&quot; Especially now, children, rich
environment full of stimulation, their many problems (on the nature , and on society,
on the self) have had their own inquiry, formed his own preliminary view, although this
view has errors and omissions crude point: some still not comprehensive enough, some of
the less profound, some are wrong ( If students may think that &quot;The Earth is a
flat,&quot; &quot;must be a bird flying animals, which are birds and bats are
birds, chickens are not&quot;). The original idea is the beginning of
children&#39;s understanding of the world, students constructed their understanding
of the world&#39;s new starting point.
Here are some original ideas on the students (alternative conceptions, prescientific
conceptions, misconceptions) of the study.
Kindergarten to Grade 4 students in learning science concepts, not to know when the
water boiling or evaporation is there as a gas, they are more likely to think that,
after evaporation of water boiling or &quot;disappeared&quot; or go to heaven.
Most children do not know to be in a closed current path in order to flow, they often
think that electricity comes from power, and always enter a target, so they think that
as long as the battery and light bulb with a wire connection between the light bulbs
can be light. They &quot;plant how to find something to eat?&quot; Curious.
Many children grow up to be able to continue to distinguish between biological and non-
living on, he can exercise to distinguish between animals and plants. Many children may
even use the ability of sport to distinguish biological and non-living, and thus to the
list of plants owned by non-biological.
Junior high school students to the concept of power often have many misconceptions:
Many students believe that if an object in motion, then there must be a continuous
force acting on the object, if the force &quot;used up&quot; The campaign will
end. Many students also believe that the reason why objects remain at rest or in need
of power to move, because of friction (not inertia). Many students can not imagine a
book on the table at the same time despite the static but does suffer a few loads. For
energy, many students see it as fuel and some can be stored, used and run out of things
(and in fact will not run out of energy, it is transformed from a form into another
form of it).
Many secondary school students know that life is a body of cells, but they often do not
think that living things are composed by the elements, because students tend to
molecules only link with non-living matter. Many students in the process of biological
evolution natural selection errors in understanding, as they may occur during the
evolution of adaptive mutation, into a purposeful understanding of biological behavior.
Only by further personal inquiry (under the guidance of teachers), so that they have
personally found their experience with the newly discovered phenomenon or the fact that
inconsistency or even conflicts between the Department, they will be convinced to look,
reflect and amend their own experience and knowledge, offer or acceptance of (re)
&quot;more scientific&quot;, the new interpretation, new assumptions, new
concepts. This is the process of construction of learner autonomy is
&quot;responsive&quot; and &quot;assimilation&quot; process of
unification of two terms. In this process, students build up the new self-knowledge
(new interpretation, new assumptions, new concepts), is the real part of
children&#39;s cognitive structure, a truly meaningful and effective
&quot;living knowledge.&quot; This construct replaced by others can not.
Explained simply by teachers and students get lectures the new knowledge (such as
children being told that the earth revolved around the sun, the earth is a sphere,
light and heavy objects while landing, warm clothes, because clothes can not generate
heat, etc.), children may be aware of teachers say, seems to understand its literal
meaning, and when the correct answer in the exam. But each learner is in the experience
of their own systems for the original on the new information is encoded for
constructing their own understanding, so the knowledge of the hearing, children are
often dubious, probably not understand, in their follow-up The thinking is still of
this world, according to their own understanding of the original act, or in different
contexts with different theories (sometimes with a book or heard the theory, sometimes
with their own theory) to explain. Teachers or books to explain the theory and the
experience of children inconsistencies or contradictions between the Department has not
been a reasonable solution.
In short, we must correctly handle the student&#39;s personal knowledge and the
original concept is difficult to correct the work force, and the only way is to give
them experience the opportunity to explore and carry out reflection.
Students explore the principles of the unique values of 11 and experiencing and
Inquiry activities, students have different feelings and experiences, the problem will
lead to different understanding and perception. These are the students to actively
participate and experience the inquiry received after practice and should be treasured.
Such as language learning, because each person&#39;s experience of experience,
knowledge accumulation is different from the understanding of a work will be different.
1000 readers, there is 1000 Hamlet. Teachers are often more profound understanding of
the work, with a higher level. Therefore, exploring in a special position to play a
special role. On the other hand, children&#39;s thinking and perception are often
more sensitive, for natural, more realistic, and background information without the
interference of a number of circumstances are often unique perspective. Therefore,?
Quot; respect for the students in the learning process of a unique experience.
感受和体验应加以鼓励。 &quot;（《语文课程标准》第 2、17、20 页）
原则 12 在探究过程中要强调学生之间的合作与交流（学生间的相互倾听）。
原则 13 在探究过程中体验挫折与成功。
原则 14 不必一次探究透、探究完。
原则 15 不仅强调探究中的动手，更要强调动脑。
原则 16 不同学段，对探究的水平要提出不同的要求。
随着年龄的增长，他们可以设计和完成简单的实验来探究科学问题了。到了 4 年级，许多学生
原则 17 把探究式学习与现代技术（如多媒体与互联网）相结合。
原则 18 探究式学习的评价应以形成性评价为主。