Transfer】 【Inquiry Learning: 18 Principles

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Transfer】 【Inquiry Learning: 18 Principles Powered By Docstoc
					Transfer】 【Inquiry Learning: 18 Principles
Abstract: The new basic education curriculum reform advocate in the branches of all the
students to carry out a variety of inquiry-based learning. This requires in the
teaching process, students dialectical address the relationship between autonomy and
guidance of teachers, not only stressed the students to listen to teachers, but also
emphasizes that teachers should listen to students, students explore the personal
values concept, a unique feeling and experience, and guide students to actively
reflection. Meanwhile, we should emphasize the interaction between the students listen
to, exchange and cooperation. Of course, can not believe that inquiry-based learning is
advanced, the only teachers teach and students learn listening mode is backward,
outdated and should be discarded. In fact, different learning styles have their own
strengths, should complement each other and promote each other, can be neglected.
Keywords: inquiry learning, listening to students, the original concept, communication
and cooperation, hands, brains
Currently being carried out in full swing with great emphasis on the new curriculum
reform to change the way students learn, promote inquiry learning. How should we
conduct inquiry learning? To carry out the process of inquiry learning should pay
attention to? Some of this personal learning and thinking, those who choose it to be,
as the principles of inquiry learning, 18, to discuss with you.

Principle 1 should promote a variety of learning styles and each other.
Inquiry learning is not the only way to learn, teachers teach, students attendance
(giving of learning, tell-listen) is not the only way to learn. The two should
complement each other and promote each other. From our current reality, we should
vigorously promote inquiry-based learning research and practice.
Of course, in order to meet the students the spirit and soul of desire, students must
learn to accept a large number of human-style cultural heritage of the essence, in
order to enrich their mind and soul; and, for most of the learning content, they can
not self-discovery to carry out construction. But that does not mean that this will be
the only way to learn. And does not imply the acceptance of indirect knowledge of
learning can only take a passive, passive listening manner. In fact, children around
certain situations or issues in the initiative to collect information on the process
(after the access to books and to ask questions and other information sources in order
to understand the existing knowledge), although the acceptance of learning, but active,
positive part of the process of inquiry learning. Therefore, it should be promoted in
order to explore proactive way to learn a large number of indirect knowledge, the
indirect knowledge of a variety of inquiry learning into the process.
In addition, because those who explore the process needs to explore the integrated use
of their existing knowledge and experience, it has been for the promotion and deepen
the understanding of knowledge, to digest, is essential. We often have such an
experience: a new inquiry in context, their knowledge and experience already gained new
understanding, generate new meaning. Is the so-called "knowledge and learn new
things."
Students in the school learning process, should be integrated use of various learning
styles. Each have their own learning strengths and weaknesses, the use of good will can
not replace learning to play other special effects, the use of poor also will have this
or that problem: give and accept the use of good learning, such as teachers, good
teaching can also be lively convey to students a lot of useful information; use bad
words, teaching will be very boring people sleepy. Inquiry learning can inspire and
train students in thinking, but the use of good, so that class discussion may also
become disorganized, irrelevant miles.
Overall, the giving of learning and inquiry learning are important in learning students
should each learn from each other and promote each other, can be neglected.

Principle 2 should be carried out in a variety of subjects in inquiry learning.
The mere mention of inquiry learning, we tend to think in science subjects for
scientific inquiry. In fact, inquiry learning is a focus on the students own an active
part in one of the learning, all subjects should be strongly advocated. Therefore, not
only in primary school science, middle school science (physics, chemistry, biological)
subjects, but also in language learning, learning in mathematics, in English, in the
study of history, geography study, in the arts (music, art) Learning should promote
inquiry-based learning. Inquiry learning is that curriculum is a common topic to
explore. Here, we will look at the most difficult people to think of using
"explore" the language.
In fact, the language courses not only put great emphasis on exploration, but also in
the new curriculum standards in language, to explore even the basic concept of the new
curriculum referred to the third to be treated. Standard Chinese Course opened the
first one, "basic concept of course," a total of four: "(a)
fully improve their language literacy," "(b) correctly grasp the
characteristics of language education" "(d) efforts to build an open
and dynamic language course ", while the third is" actively promote
independence, cooperation, explore learning side? quot;.
Under the new curriculum materials prepared by the new language (in this example to PEP)
after modernism, constructivism and curriculum design process models and other advanced
concepts for the support, fully reflects the strengthening "independent
research" this new concept, which highlights performance in the back of the
class "discussion and practice" in the. Lesson 1 as "the
other side of the mountain" after-school first problem is? Quot; reading of
the poem, the poem's thoughts and feelings sentiment. Poetry, in addition to
the literal meaning of things, often have deep meaning. Inquiry about the
poem's 'sea' and 'Mountain' contains mean?
"Here, tips for students to independently explore a topic. The second
question" link context, taste and add a little poem below the words (in
brackets the question for reference). "Suggests not only for students to
explore issues, and problems through the brackets provided for the students explore the
direction and guidance.
In addition, the language of new material in a semester to design a comprehensive study
six units (three three small), for students to focus on larger-scale exploration
activities.
Historical materials from the overall design of the temporal and thematic combined
system, a term of five specific activities designed courses, such as search history,
compiled historical stories, debate class, and guide students to focus on carrying out
exploration activities. More importantly, the new class of materials for each are
"activities and exploration", not only of material exploration
activities, including a number of controversial issues may arise for students to
explore, such as providing two different perspectives, students are asked "
Judgement: Who said they justified? "
Physical, chemical and biological materials in a new easy to difficult, step by step
design of large, colorful, different types of inquiry sections and activities.
Biological materials is also the first unit of new specialized text description Piyou
observation, investigation, collection and analysis of data, the general process of
inquiry, experimental program design. In addition, there are many reading materials in
detail the history of scientific development shows the emergence of some typical
examples of scientific inquiry. If the physical page 8, "Galileo's
exploration of the swing," on page 87 of Chemistry "conservation of
mass discovery and development", p. 128 biological photosynthesis Lisiteli
British scientists experiment (1) (2) ( 3), geography page 34, "accidental
discovery of the great hypothesis - Wegener and Continental Drift", and so on,
all display a more detailed exploration of these classics have experienced the typical
process and the main method used to provide students with unlimited inspiration.

Principle 3 should be emphasized that the diversity of inquiry-based learning design
patterns.
When it comes to inquiry learning, we often think of discovery learning. The mere
mention of inquiry learning, people often think is the problem, hypothesis, validation,
conclusions, exchange steps. Although it can be said does not necessarily include all
of the above links, but the inquiry learning can only be found on the right style to
explore only such a problem solving model?
In fact, there are a variety of inquiry-based learning design patterns. Information
obtained from the ready-made self-level points, inquiry-based learning can be divided
into two categories: acceptable type exploration and discovery inquiry.
In an interview-based inquiry learning, information from the students take the
initiative from the existing data or existing resources (such as from the library, the
Internet, science and technology museum, etc.) directly collect or direct inquiries to
the relevant parties, the collected information is readily available at most only
slightly can order. For example, in geography finished world geography, you can give
students to explore the layout of a job:
If you intend to use the holiday to Xin Matai travel, to travel before preparation
(such as the clothing worn when preparing to purchase tickets, reserve funds) what
information you need to get (the climatic characteristics of these countries and the
recent weather, between China and these national modes of transportation and routes,
the yuan exchange rate between the currencies of these countries, etc.), if it intends
to your family and friends back to some specialty or small gifts, you need to know what
information (economic and cultural characteristics of these countries, such as ), which
channels you want to know from the information ("Geographic" magazine,
guidebook, travel companies, television, newspapers, Internet, advertising, etc.).
Write an essay, report the information you get, do not forget to specify the exact
source of this information.
Since this operation is to allow students to actively collect information from existing
resources readily available information, and therefore accept the type of inquiry.
Exploratory Study of the Discovery, there is no readily available information can be
collected directly, but must be by the inquirer through observation, experiment,
investigation, interpretation, research and other activities, processes, and analyzed
to get through or find. Such as:
Observation of snails. (Observation)
Design a one second pendulum swinging once. (Problem solving)
Explore the frequency and what factors put the. (Experiment - variable qualitative
analysis)
Explore the circumference of a circle with any variables, relationship between their
number. (Variable quantitative analysis)
Discussion: What characteristics of things with life is there. (Concept clarification)
Text "in the mountains on the other side" in a poem,
"Mountain" mean? (Text Reading)
Appreciation of Johann Strauss's waltz "Blue Danube" (An
Interpretation)
From the above example also shows that discovery is also exploring a variety of models.
Such as observation, experiment, problem solving, variable analysis, concept
clarification, text interpretation, and so on.
From a view of the duration of exploration activities, some inquiry may not take a
class time, while others may take several weeks (such as changes in observation phase
of the moon to find out the laws), or even to sustain even half of semester year (the
year observational record of a change in the weather).

Principle 4 should be inquiry-based learning for all students, and care of individual
differences.
Is not only good students have the capacity to conduct inquiry, should give every
student the opportunity to participate inquiry. Especially those in the class or group
of students to speak less, they should be given special attention and positive
encouragement, give them the opportunity and confidence to participate in the Inquiry.
Explore cooperation in the group activities, teachers should observe student behavior,
to prevent part of the excellent control and dominated the inquirer situation, guide
the students to pay attention to the attention of everyone to contribute to the
exploration activities to enable each Students share and assume the rights and
obligations of the inquiry.
Of course, for some students with special learning difficulties and those with
Teshucaineng students should also consider using other timing (Ru in extra-curricular
interest group activities) Jiyu them some 需要 tailored to their level and the
Exploration of the task.

Principle 5 should be carried out to explore the learning of the conditions to provide
adequate support.
Inquiry-based learning often takes more time, require the amount of small class
teaching, they need plenty of material, and so on. A number of students in many classes,
if they do not have enough necessary materials, in a short period of time organize the
students to explore a more difficult; even if provoked exploration activities, but also
difficult to launch and in-depth. Of course, not all of the exploration activities
require huge financial support and staffing, but the exploration of time to ensure (to
ensure that students think of the full launch and in-depth), some teacher-student ratio
(in order to ensure the full expression of the students, Shi Sheng full exchange
opportunities) and so is required.
From the time that students may need time to test their new ideas, may elapse from the
time delay error may be time for contemplation, but also a time to conduct discussions
with each other. Students need to set aside ample time to arrange scientific equipment
to do experiments to the field for investigation, or to think about summing up personal
experience to share with each other. Students also need to set aside time for them in
different combinations - or individual, or in pairs or groups, or class - to do such as
reading, experiments, thinking, and discussion of such account a variety of activities.
Therefore, the total knowledge of the course must be controlled so as to scientific
inquiry activities to allow sufficient time.
Also, explore the relatively high demand for teachers, while there should be some
institutional guarantees to encourage teachers able and willing to take the time to do
for the students explore the complex and time-consuming preparations.

The design principle 6 should first explore the issue concerned "the problems
of children" for life, for the community.
Children to pay attention to the concerns and issues of interest is. Our curriculum
should first pay attention to these really are children from the children and the
problem, contact student life and social reality: first, in the design of primary
school science curriculum, the first response of children 6 to 12 years were to
investigate issues of interest Statistics and analysis, as course design and
arrangements for the selection of inquiry into the basis of the order of one subject;
second semester should leave some "free exploration time" for
students to explore their own questions; third, daily curriculum design should be the
immediate interest of the child to make appropriate and timely adjustments.
The following is a real shot in elementary schools, should cause us to reflect on.

First class was still raining, section II stopped. Uneven ground, some small puddles. A
group of students just finished calisthenics squat flower filled lake, something warm
to talk. Section III a few minutes to get on the course, and taught elementary school
science teacher from the tool library, the king carrying a large bag under the class to
use the aids walk towards the classroom. Through the flower beds have not yet found his
students into the classroom, he looked down on the grass in the original they are
interested in two earthworms.
"Why do they drilled out from the soil?"
"Is the lack of oxygen. Rain, the fish will head out from the water,
breathe."
"May be ready to move. Not ant to move before the rain's Why."
"Now the rain is acid rain, the soil gave corrosion, and earthworms in the
soil could not make things up."
"The earth with air, rain and filled the surrounding soil in water, no air,
earthworms writings to be finished. Earthworms do not like too wet to
children."
"They came out for the rain to give them a bath."
Wang saw the table, going on to play the bell was. He greeted the students into the
classroom to prepare lessons, this lesson he will explore with the students,
"the sound generation." He was pleased to maintain students on the
positive nature of curiosity and desire to explore, unfortunately, the inquiry is
related to earthworms explore in the next semester, "animals and the
environment" a lesson. In that class, will guide the students to the main
inquiry "earthworm environment suitable for living in what? Bright or dark
place where? Moist or dry place?"
As a teacher, he has not right to tamper with the process of teaching, or teaching at a
higher level check may be criticized. Into the classroom, he found that the students
are still whispered discussion with earthworms do. Therefore, he had to class the
students interest in exploring away from the worm on, go to this course explore the
subject up. But his classmates say:
"I have already noted the interest the students of the earthworm, on this
issue we will study the next semester, you can find it down today, the future will be
used. However, this lesson, the teacher intends to explore with the students together
look, sound, how is? We first do an experiment. ... ... "
Chinese teachers teaching decision-making power is not sufficient, it is sufficient to
inhibit the teachers listen to students is an important reason. Students came to school
after the inquiry should be carried out by students from spontaneous exploration, that
is, first of all should be concerned about the students explore their own issues and
problems to allow students to conduct the first independent non-guided exploration.
Rather than the students said? Quot; put those issues aside your in school you should
explore such issues. "Students should not always say:" we need to
study is ... ... that you just mentioned, that question later. "
Therefore, teachers should have the right to adjust the teaching plan at any time, you
can always insert a temporary unit or topic. Explore the theme of most of a semester
will be predetermined or design, but should allow a few exceptions. Concentration of
each end of the semester can also be arranged for some hours, and the students, through
observation, experiment or check the information together to discuss some
"hundreds of thousands of students Why? Quot;.

7 key principles of inquiry learning is not explored methods of operation and operating
skills, so do not expect too much on this.
Teachers in guiding students to explore, the need to pursue the level of scientists
explore, not a graduate student instructor Dr. Xiang stressed areas of concern and in
line, in the scientific inquiry method of operation and operating techniques do not
demand too much, this is not the instructor students to focus on exploration activities.
Of course, not satisfied with the level of children's spontaneous exploration,
but should focus on students "basic scientific literacy," the
increase. Specifically, under the guidance of scientific inquiry teachers should focus
on four areas: (1) to satisfy their thirst for knowledge through exploration; (2)
obtain information on around the world by exploring the understanding; (3) explore the
development of scientific thinking by ability to exercise problem solving skills,
cooperation and communication skills, and foster a scientific spirit and attitude of
the initial acquisition of the scientific method; (4) step by step, of scientific
inquiry itself and the scientific understanding of nature (scientific inquiry is the
dialogue between human beings and the universe, Science is the human interpretation of
the universe). Here, particular attention should guide students to explore the process
through direct participation and through their own reflection and thought, gained from
personal experience, explore the features on a profound understanding and deep
understanding of how the inquiry is the scientific discovery (human existing knowledge
the obtaining of how we step by step to deepen understanding of the world) series and
the nature of science-related issues.
Although children do not have radio telescopes to observe the wonders of the solar
system, there is no electron microscopy to explore the infinitely small world of
secrets, it does not expect any new material they found, however, children still
spontaneously or under the guidance of the adults with this inquiry the mystery of the
world. Inquiry is not complicated by the unattainable, it exists in every person,
permeates every corner of life. Children are engaged in exploration and scientists
explore, with each adult exploration of their own society in which, essentially no
difference. Teachers in guiding students to explore, they should focus is to enable
students to explore the nature of learning as those common areas, those with a wide
range of migration values in student life and to the society can also have implications
for and application of common aspects, such as the basic process of scientific inquiry,
the basic methods of scientific thinking; without having too much emphasis on specific
methods of operation and operating skills, such as the use of the buret.

Principle 8 dialectical inquiry is necessary to deal with student autonomy and teacher
guide.
Inquiry learning emphasizes student autonomy, but does not ignore the teacher's
guidance. Teachers should emphasize timely, necessary and prudent, and effective
guidance to the pursuit of some real gains from the exploration of, including the
promotion of world understanding and students to explore the continuous improvement of
quality, so that students explore the practice of continually improving and improved.
Elementary school children of groped from experiments carried out, step by step to the
progressive development: the child's behavior gradually from spontaneous to
take a structured approach to the question from aimlessly selective questions, from
simple reliance on the senses to use a variety of tools, there is no rule from the
observation to a more reasonable and well-structured research, from the obsessive to
the rigorous efforts and precision, from being attracted to magic happy acquisition of
knowledge. No matter what stage or level of inquiry may be accompanied by doubt,
resistance, barriers, focus, stress, hardship, excitement, joy or excitement, but are
not only easy and enjoyable.
The question is, how teachers guide students in inquiry, namely: the progress of
inquiry to determine whether or designed by the teacher in advance; whether it should
first give the students some time to carry out their own exploration of non-guiding;
inquiry process focused on the activities of students own What, teachers focus on what
guide the inquiry; how to guide, when the intervention, intervention number; which
guidance is necessary to guide be regarded as adequate a; when the need to provide
background information or related information, when to teach the preparation of the
corresponding knowledge, when the recommended students to read textbooks, or to the
library, the Internet, adult for help? To know that in the actual teaching, teachers
often intervene too soon (students have not fully independent research how long),
thereby hampering the students could find opportunities for self
("we'll find the answer almost!") sometimes intervene too
late for too long and to allow the students to a state of helplessness and even in
danger. Teachers, guidance is often not necessary and should not be depriving the
students try to - errors and opportunities to learn from the lessons; sometimes
inadequate guidance they so students feel unprepared.

Principle 9 of teachers explore the first to fully listen to the students.
Teachers should pay attention to the students themselves to understand the various
phenomena (student's personal knowledge), first of all listen to their ideas
now, insight into their origin of these ideas, and to encourage interaction among
students and questions, understand each other's ideas, this is According to
guide the students to adjust their mutual enrichment and understanding. There is a very
important concept in education called "listening to education",
stressed not only let the "students listen to teachers", more
emphasis should first "teacher listening to students." It should be
said that this new concept of education is very important, very profound and should be
widely appreciated.
Mr. Li Zhengtao in "listening to the education - of teachers, students listen
to" article ("Education Theory and Practice," No. 7 of 2000)
wrote the first and the last paragraph:
"Education is the process of mutual listening to educators and the educated
and the response process. ... ... To listen to the educated of the narrative is the
moral responsibility of teachers."
"This kind of listening is to really listening, it effectively changed the way
teachers, listening to hear them from outside the inner hearing, heard from the
abstract concrete listen, hear the experience from the concept of listening, as a
really listen to those teachers, must be this: a sense of modesty and his patience, to
one full of tenderness of love, open his ears, and look forward with confidence to meet
the sound of those innocent lives. This listening as rooted in the life of the earth,
deep, wind sway, often silent quiet, but hidden to create vitality, it's all
the aim is: To blooming flowers in the air, setting fruit? quot;
These ideas are very profound and moving.
If exploration activities in the language, teachers should first carefully listening to
the students an initial understanding of the work, understand the feelings of the
students initially, analysis and understanding. Students share their findings in the
inquiry process, teachers often can easily identify which students have a higher
perception and understanding. Students listen to speeches in the process, a good
teacher can find students keen to understand the bias, confusion of students, students
already have experience and background is still a lack of things can judge the students
understand the depth and the decision needs added by teachers which describes the
background work. By listening to students, a good teacher can accurately determine
whether students have completed their basic full exchange can think and understand
everything, to intervene decisively when and discuss ways to intervene. By listening to
students, teachers can understand the level of each student to have a general
understanding, to judge by the complement of teachers for work in depth to what extent
is the student's acceptance within the scope.
In fact, it is through listening to students, by focusing on real-time performance of
the students, the students point of view and to speak, by focusing on the excitement
and wonder of students, teachers, when their participation, how to participate in
decision making.
As students experience and the lack of background knowledge, as teachers experience the
professional background and experience, students explore the feelings and experience
exchange process, due to the participation of teachers, the whole discussion takes
place a change of exciting comic.
First of all, the students, explaining their own understanding, the teachers in a
discussion on the identity, timely, and equal participation of the student discussion,
he talked about his personal understanding of this work, experience and knowledge
(which, of course reference textbook writers in the language teachers use the book),
the evaluation of the students want, understanding and support.
Of course, the students listened to praise teachers to understand as much about the
background of this work is likely to be impressed by the teachers in-depth analysis.
However, there will be a small number of students who would not agree, or that doubt,
and teachers should encourage students to challenge and further question, which shows
that students in the further deepening of understanding.
"Reading instruction for students, teachers, the process of dialogue between
the text." Read the first dialogue between the students and work, and then
students work carried out between the dialogue, teacher participation, the students,
teachers to work the dialogue.
The process of teaching is to teachers, students, teaching materials among exchanges,
dialogue, interaction ("interaction") process, the
"visions" of the transition, conflict, intervention and integration.

Principle 10 of the inquiry process and to correctly handle the students to value the
existing personal knowledge and original concepts, and guide students to actively
reflect on.
In fact, children born from that moment on, we never stopped exploring. Therefore, the
inquiry as a natural instinct, not a going to learn things from scratch - they do not
need to learn how to ask questions, how to explore the internal structure, how to
express their findings, they are inherently "nasty "the
questioner," exasperating "the demolition, the" nasty
"spoilers," hateful "graffiti and" annoying
"noises were. ("How a tiny seed grow into a tree so much? Seeds which
have no magic thing?" "Eat dirt you plant?" ... ...)
Of course, the children's spontaneous exploration remained at a relatively low
level. Explore not only the limited capacity of children to explore their own process
and methods used are relatively coarse, a lot of problems. However, for
children's initial understanding of the simple things around him, this inquiry
is basic to competent. Children also do derive great satisfaction. Moreover, pre-school
children after 6 years of self-exploration, indeed around the world have gained a lot
of wealth on the initial experience and have some explanatory power of individual views,
opinions, ideas and knowledge. Around the basic needs of small to large to the universe,
the stars of the run, from natural phenomena to the social life, they almost always
some of my views. Although some of these original ideas are very shallow or even wrong,
but they mostly are not taken for granted by exploring proposed, and often well-founded,
based on direct observation of students and a small amount of the basis of concrete
experience. But they do have to explain much of children perceived around the world on
many of the phenomena, children value their own knowledge of these original, personal
knowledge of these children is also valuable and meaningful.
Children from families and communities into the schools, they are not a blank sheet;
children are not with a blank mind to the classroom. They are the world with their 6
years of experience and personal perspectives to teachers before. A primary school
teacher said: "can not underestimate these little children, they know how to
be more, all are fine lot, actually!" Especially now, children, rich
environment full of stimulation, their many problems (on the nature , and on society,
on the self) have had their own inquiry, formed his own preliminary view, although this
view has errors and omissions crude point: some still not comprehensive enough, some of
the less profound, some are wrong ( If students may think that "The Earth is a
flat," "must be a bird flying animals, which are birds and bats are
birds, chickens are not"). The original idea is the beginning of
children's understanding of the world, students constructed their understanding
of the world's new starting point.
Here are some original ideas on the students (alternative conceptions, prescientific
conceptions, misconceptions) of the study.
Kindergarten to Grade 4 students in learning science concepts, not to know when the
water boiling or evaporation is there as a gas, they are more likely to think that,
after evaporation of water boiling or "disappeared" or go to heaven.
Most children do not know to be in a closed current path in order to flow, they often
think that electricity comes from power, and always enter a target, so they think that
as long as the battery and light bulb with a wire connection between the light bulbs
can be light. They "plant how to find something to eat?" Curious.
Many children grow up to be able to continue to distinguish between biological and non-
living on, he can exercise to distinguish between animals and plants. Many children may
even use the ability of sport to distinguish biological and non-living, and thus to the
list of plants owned by non-biological.
Junior high school students to the concept of power often have many misconceptions:
Many students believe that if an object in motion, then there must be a continuous
force acting on the object, if the force "used up" The campaign will
end. Many students also believe that the reason why objects remain at rest or in need
of power to move, because of friction (not inertia). Many students can not imagine a
book on the table at the same time despite the static but does suffer a few loads. For
energy, many students see it as fuel and some can be stored, used and run out of things
(and in fact will not run out of energy, it is transformed from a form into another
form of it).
Many secondary school students know that life is a body of cells, but they often do not
think that living things are composed by the elements, because students tend to
molecules only link with non-living matter. Many students in the process of biological
evolution natural selection errors in understanding, as they may occur during the
evolution of adaptive mutation, into a purposeful understanding of biological behavior.
Only by further personal inquiry (under the guidance of teachers), so that they have
personally found their experience with the newly discovered phenomenon or the fact that
inconsistency or even conflicts between the Department, they will be convinced to look,
reflect and amend their own experience and knowledge, offer or acceptance of (re)
"more scientific", the new interpretation, new assumptions, new
concepts. This is the process of construction of learner autonomy is
"responsive" and "assimilation" process of
unification of two terms. In this process, students build up the new self-knowledge
(new interpretation, new assumptions, new concepts), is the real part of
children's cognitive structure, a truly meaningful and effective
"living knowledge." This construct replaced by others can not.
Explained simply by teachers and students get lectures the new knowledge (such as
children being told that the earth revolved around the sun, the earth is a sphere,
light and heavy objects while landing, warm clothes, because clothes can not generate
heat, etc.), children may be aware of teachers say, seems to understand its literal
meaning, and when the correct answer in the exam. But each learner is in the experience
of their own systems for the original on the new information is encoded for
constructing their own understanding, so the knowledge of the hearing, children are
often dubious, probably not understand, in their follow-up The thinking is still of
this world, according to their own understanding of the original act, or in different
contexts with different theories (sometimes with a book or heard the theory, sometimes
with their own theory) to explain. Teachers or books to explain the theory and the
experience of children inconsistencies or contradictions between the Department has not
been a reasonable solution.
In short, we must correctly handle the student's personal knowledge and the
original concept is difficult to correct the work force, and the only way is to give
them experience the opportunity to explore and carry out reflection.

Students explore the principles of the unique values of 11 and experiencing and
understanding.
Inquiry activities, students have different feelings and experiences, the problem will
lead to different understanding and perception. These are the students to actively
participate and experience the inquiry received after practice and should be treasured.
Such as language learning, because each person's experience of experience,
knowledge accumulation is different from the understanding of a work will be different.
1000 readers, there is 1000 Hamlet. Teachers are often more profound understanding of
the work, with a higher level. Therefore, exploring in a special position to play a
special role. On the other hand, children's thinking and perception are often
more sensitive, for natural, more realistic, and background information without the
interference of a number of circumstances are often unique perspective. Therefore,?
Quot; respect for the students in the learning process of a unique experience.
""要珍视学生独特的感受、体验和理解。 ""对学生独特的
感受和体验应加以鼓励。 "(《语文课程标准》第 2、17、20 页)

  原则 12 在探究过程中要强调学生之间的合作与交流(学生间的相互倾听)。
  探究过程中需要学生们合作、解释和各种协调一致的尝试,这些合作与交流的实践和经验,可
以帮助儿童学习按照一定规则开展讨论(而不是争吵)的艺术,学会准确地与他人交流:向别人解
释自己的想法,倾听别人的想法,善待批评以审视自己的观点、获得更正确的认识,学会相互接纳、
赞赏、分享、互助,等等。这种客观开放精神的形成并非易事,要靠长久的教育才能得到。而上述
这一切,是我们几十年追求的科学与民主这一国民精神的基石。这种思维与存在方式应当在孩童时
代抓起,否则就只能产生出一批批盲从、人云亦云,或独断、不宽容的观点,从而在理智上缺乏独
立性、自主性、批判性。
  教师要重视"学生之间的相互倾听"。在整个探究过程中,由于经验背景的
差异,探究者对问题的理解常常各异,在探究者的共同体中,这种差异本身便构成了一种宝贵的学
习资源:(1)探究者在相互倾听中,明白了对问题别人也可以有其他的不同解释,有利于他们摆脱
自我中心的思维倾向(皮亚杰重视合作,十分强调这一点);(2)在合作、相互表达与倾听中,探
究者各自的想法、思路被明晰化、外显化,探究者可以更好地对自己的理解和思维过程进行审视和
监控;(3)在讨论中,探究者之间相互质疑,其观点的对立及相互指出对方的逻辑矛盾,可以更好
地引发探究者的认知冲突和自我反思,深化各自的认识;(4)探究者之间交流、争议、意见综合等
有助于激起彼此的灵感,促进彼此建构出新的假设和更深层的理解;(5)探究中的合作、分享与交
流,可以使不同探究者贡献各自的经验和发挥各自的优势,从而使探究者完成各单个探究者难以完
成的复杂任务。研讨、交流,彼此表达与相互倾听,具有上述一系列价值(社会建构主义非常强调
这一点)。在这一点上,我们成人也是深有体会的。
  因此,不仅要从书本中学习,从大自然中学习,还要从他人那里学习。

    原则 13 在探究过程中体验挫折与成功。
    在亲历探究过程中,学生经历挫折与失败、成功与兴奋,这其中的许多感受和体验是他们理解
科学的本质、理解科学精神的意义与价值的基础。即使有些探究,学生走了弯路,遭遇挫折和艰辛,
甚至最终也没有找到问题的答案而不得不求助于教师直接给出解释,但学生仍从这一亲历过程中学
到了不少东西。用他们自己的话说:
    "原来科学研究这么不容易,科学家真了不起。""我以前就听说
过科学的道路并不平坦,只有那些在崎岖的小路上不畏艰险、勇于攀登、坚忍不拔的人,才能征服
最高的山峰。可是对于探索需要不屈不挠的科学精神这一点,今天通过这次挫折与失败,我才真正
有些初步的感受和体验了。""艰辛之后的成功更快乐,更迷人。"
    "实验结果竟然与我们预期的差别这么大,怪不得老师告诉我们不能想当然地看问题。
""通过这次探究,我最大的感受是:多数人认为的不一定对,有时真理掌握在
少数人的手里。"
    探究过程中的挫折、错误、弯路甚至失败,对学生都具有重要的教育价值。当然,在多数探究
中,教师要适时给予适当的帮助、引导,从而使探究在经历了一段努力之后有所结果,让学生体验
到有所收获的喜悦和兴奋。否则,总是探究不出东西,学生也会丧失对探究的兴趣和信心。

    原则 14 不必一次探究透、探究完。
    允许学生针对某一问题或材料,螺旋式地、分阶段地开展不断的探究活动。
    如果通过教师引导下的探究,儿童仍不能接受新的解释或理解,那么就不必急于让儿童强行记
住这一新概念,而应该待他日后适当的时候再进一步开展这一题目的探究。一方面,这可能超出了
儿童的理解力;另一方面,我们常要求儿童:不迷信专家,不唯书,不唯上,敢于向权威挑战,
"我爱我师,但我更爱真理",因此也不能要求儿童强行接受某一概念。
    如语文教学中,即使进一步的探讨后,学生仍有疑惑也没有关系,因为对一部作品的解读常常
需要日后回过头来反复进行,因此不必强求一次探究透,探究完。

  原则 15 不仅强调探究中的动手,更要强调动脑。
  探究强调动手做(hands-on),但更强调动脑筋(minds-on)。毕竟,真正的学习并非发生在
学生的手上,而是发生在他们的脑袋里。这包括强调学生在观察中的思考,对探究结果的猜测(假
设),为后续探究制订计划,考虑变量的选择和控制,对获得的数据进行整理、分析等处理,在与
同伴的对话和交流中相互质疑和评价,反思自己的预设,考虑可能的其他解释,最终得出结论和报
告,并向其他人展示或陈述,等等。这一切,都是不仅要动手,更要动脑才能完成的。尤其是随着
年级的不断提高,对动脑的强调会越来越多。

  原则 16 不同学段,对探究的水平要提出不同的要求。
  如语文课程中,应对不同年级段学生的探究水平提出不同的要求。
  在这方面,科学探究领域的研究已经比较深入,如:
  (1)小学阶段
  小学低年级学生的科学探究活动主要是以系统的观察、对常见物体的摆弄、测量为基础,对物
体及其属性的检验和定性描述(物体的性质、这些性质随时间的变化、当物质相互作用时所发生的
变化),从事分组和分类的活动,思考这些物体之间的共同之处和不同之处,以及对世界动作的方
式进行观察和跟踪记录。如可以让学生在日历上画出每天晚上月亮的形状,从而揭示出若干周内月
亮形状变化的规律,或通过工作日志发现一年里本地区天气变化的规律。
  随着年龄的增长,他们可以设计和完成简单的实验来探究科学问题了。到了 4 年级,许多学生
已经可以接受科学实验的概念了。学生要学会采用简单的设备和工具(如尺子、温度计、钟表、天
平、弹簧秤、放大镜等)收集数据,并学会以口头方式、图示方式或书面方式报告和交流研究过程
和研究结果。
  小学阶段的重点是培养观察能力、描述能力、根据观察结果进行解释说明的能力。应该鼓励年
幼的儿童谈论和画出他们的所见、所闻和所想。年龄大的学生应该学会记日志、使用仪器并记录他
们的观察结果和测量结果。对于小学生来说,应该强调科学探究的经验和对假设的思考,不要过分
强调科学术语的使用、科学结论和信息的记忆。
  小学阶段的经历和活动为中学阶段科学概念和规律循序渐进的深入学习奠定了坚实的基础。
  (2)初中阶段
  对初中学生的要求有所提高,如学生除了应该学会系统的观察外,还应该能够进行精确测定
(定量描述),并会确定和控制变量。学生还应该学会运用计算机查询、检索、收集、存储、组织、
总结、显示并解释数据,并在此基础上预测和构建模型,还应该学会通过批判性和逻辑性思维建立
证据和解释之间的关系。同时,学生还应该学习把数学运用在科学探究的各个方面,并认识到不同
性质的问题需要进行不同的科学探究。
  (3)高中阶段
  对于高中生,则要求他们阐明问题、方法、对照组、变量的选择与控制(如识别不产生影响的
变量、影响较小的变量、对结果有负面影响的变量)、实验的误差,要求他们对指导科学探究的概
念和理论框架进行思考和说明。高中学生应该具有以下数据分析的能力:确定数据的范围、数据的
平均值和众数值、根据数据做图和寻找异常数据。
  高中学生的探究活动最终应该构造出一种解释方案或一个模型(模型可以是物理模型、概念模
型或数学模型),还要承认并分析其他解释方案和模型,而且能够通过对证据的权衡和对逻辑的检
查,决定哪种解释和模型是最佳的(而不是通过考察这些解释与自己已有经验的一致性来评价这些
解释)。由于高中生了解了更多的科学概念和过程,因此就要求他们的解释更加精致。也就是说,
他们的科学解释应该更加频繁地运用丰富的科学基础知识(如科学术语)、逻辑证据、更深入的分
析、更经受得起批评和不确定性并且更加清楚地展示逻辑、证据和现有知识之间的关系。
  对高中生所提出的解释也要进行以公开讨论方式开展的"同行评?quot;,讨论应该以
科学知识和科学准则为依据,并运用逻辑和调查研究中所获得的数据。

  原则 17 把探究式学习与现代技术(如多媒体与互联网)相结合。
  有条件的地方和学校在指导学生开展探究时,可以考虑从几个方面运用多媒体和互联网等现代
技术。一方面,学生可以考虑从互联网上寻找信息和资料为自已手头的探究服务。另一方面,学生
可以运用某些计算机软件对数据进行处理。第三,现在,我国的许多网站中出现了"基于
互联网的探究性学习",学生可以在互联网上注册,选择探究课题,申请指导教师,在开
展探究的过程中学生随时通过互联网记录下自己的进展情况,由网站安排的指导教师(如专职人员,
更多的是志愿者)随时对学生的探究计划和行动进行质询和指导。如优异研究院(www.ue100.com)、
大眼睛科技教育网(www.eyecn.com)等都是这样把探究式学习与互联网技术结合起来的良好尝试。
这样的尝试,有利于促使"每一个学生都投身于探究式学习之中"这一理想的实
现。
    如优异研究院的公告中写道:来自教育教学第一线的优秀教师、专业教育研究部门的教育理论
工作者、资深的软件编程专家呕心沥血数月,根据我国研究性学习开展所取得的经验体会,汲取各
国相关教学模式的优点,研制开发成功了基于网络应用的研究型课程平?quot;优异研究院
"。这是我国基础教育领域第一个真正意义上的整合型课程、第一个真正体现互动学习精
髓的教育网站,实现了传统学习模式向现代学习模式的转变。
    "申请资讯"中包括三项内容:注册成为新会员、申请成为优异研究生、申
请成为优异导师。"帮助中心"中包括以下一些问题:
    为什么要来优异研究院?优异研究院可以为我们做些什么?
    我怎样申请课题?我怎么才能提交上传研究方案、记录、报告和体会等课题文档?
    我有一个新课题如果没有导师怎么办?
    优异导师可以为我们做些什么?优异导师怎样得到研究生课题辅导请求的信息?
    这样,把全国各地的人力资源整合起来为学生的探究服务,显示了互联网的神奇魔力。

  原则 18 探究式学习的评价应以形成性评价为主。
  探究式学习的评价旨在通过评价促进学生探究水平的不断发展和提高。这是从探究式学习评价
的目的上来说。


从评价的内容来看,重点应放在学生在探究过程中表现出来的对探究过程和方法的理解,对探究本
质的把握(如判断或决策应在充分掌握证据和信息的情况下,有逻辑地做出;使用仪器往往比直接
观察更加精确;探究中人们对事物的观察受他们先前知识和经验的影响,等等)。不能把是否探究
出结论或结论是否正确作为唯一或最主要的评价指标。

				
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