МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ Powered By Docstoc
					                           INTRODUCTION
        These instructions are compiled for students specializing in Eco logy
and Protection of the Environment. The purpose of the instructions is to
present systematically texts and to drill them in a wide variety of exercises.
        The instructions introduce the student to a particular type of learning
experience and co mprise 9 units graded in cognition.
        Units 1 – 9 provide the learner of English with original texts fro m
the latest books and journals.

       Each unit consists of:
a)     a text selected for reading and study in class. Students have to read
       and to translate the text under the supervision of the teacher. What
       they are meant to acquire as a result of reading is an insight into
       structures of the text and an ability to render it as close as possible to
       the original;
b)     keywords, mostly taken fro m the text. A group of words – keywords
       – is presented as the core vocabulary;
c)     a number of varied co mprehension drills. These drills reveal to the
       students the way in which they are expected to form their own ideas.
       With this in view the instructions provide mult iple-choice questions
       and substitution tables demanding a freer use of the material, a more
       creative approach.

       All the learners can be directed to Environmental “Id io ms”, Glo s-
sary, and Map of the World.




                                       3
UNIT 1.
                  THE OCCURRENCE OF LIFE
        Chaos pervaded the universe then and now. Many of the motions of
our Solar System are driven by chaos. Life attempts to create order out of
chaos, an uphill struggle that comes at the expense of a great deal of ene rgy,
which must be obtained from the Sun. This struggle is man ifested by the
presence of large amounts of oxygen in the Earth‟s atmosphere. Without
life, chemical react ions would have run steadily downhill and o xygen would
have long since vanished. Thus, life seems to maintain o xygen and carbon
dio xide in perfect balance. Too much of one with respect to the other could
spell the difference between life and death on Earth.
        Organis ms might have developed photosynthesis as early as 3.5 bi l-
lion years ago. The oxygen that was produced in this manner, however, was
quickly used up by chemical react ions that permanently stored it in the
crust. Then, about 2 billion years ago, these oxygen traps became full and
the gas began to slowly build up in the ocean and atmosp here. In addition to
the generation of oxygen, simp le plants removed carbon dioxide fro m the
environment and buried it in the Earth‟s crust in the form of carbonaceous
sediments.
        About this time, mob ile crustal plates on the Earth‟s surface began to
move e xtensively. This caused carbonaceous sediments and the oceanic
crust to be thrust deep into the Earth. The newly formed surface area in-
creased the amount of carbon dioxide stored in thick deposits of carbonate
rocks such as limestone. The first microscopic plants also developed at this
time and began to replace the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with oxy-
gen. The comb ined loss of carbon dio xide caused the climate to cool even
though the Sun was becoming progressively hotter. This initiated the first
great Ice Age about 2 billion years ago.
        Another substantial carbon dioxide repository was the great coal fo-
rests that spread over the land during the Upper Paleo zoic Era 260 million
years ago. Plants invaded the land about 450 million years ago and extended
to all parts of the Earth. Lush forests that grew during the Carboniferous
period absorbed large quantities of carbon dioxide. Rapid burial under
anaerobic, or oxygen-lacking, conditions converted the carbon in the veg e-
tation into thick seams of coal. The burning of coal reverses this process,
releasing large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
        During the Cretaceous period from about 135 to 65 million years
ago, plants and animals were particu larly abundant and spread practically
fro m pole to pole. Vo lcanoes were especially active during this time. They
injected massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which



                                      4
warmed the planet significantly. The Cretaceous period was the warmest
period in the Earth‟s history.
        There is no evidence of any permanent ice caps during the warm
Cretaceous period. The deep ocean waters, wh ich are now near freezing,
were then around 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The average global surface te m-
perature, which today is about 60 degrees, was about 20 degrees warmer
during this time. The temperature difference between the poles and the
equator was only about 40 degrees, whereas today that difference is nearly
doubled.
        The Earth‟s climate actually began to warm at the beginning of the
Jurassic period about 180 million years ago. About this time, the large s u-
percontinent Pangaea began to break up, and the continents drifted into
warmer equatorial waters. The oceans were interconnected in the equatorial
regions by the Tethys and Central American seaways, which provided a
unique current system that completely circled the globe and carried heat
toward the poles. The high latitude oceans were less reflective than the land
and absorbed more heat, wh ich further moderated the climate.
        Coral reefs and other tropical biota, for which bright sunlight and
warm seas are essential, ranged as much as a thousand miles closer to the
poles than they do today. Polar forests extended into latitudes 85 degrees
north and south of the equator. One examp le is found in the fossilized re-
mains of a forest that once thrived on the now frozen continent of Antarcti-
ca. Alligators and crocodiles lived as far north as Labrador, whereas today
they are restricted to the warm Gu lf Coastal region.
        Perhaps the greatest contribution to the warming of the Earth, ho w-
ever, came fro m increased volcanic activity caused by vigorous continental
movements called plate tectonics. Volcanoes produced 4 to 8 times the
present amount of atmospheric carbon dio xide, wh ich substantially in-
creased greenhouse warming. This also provided an abundant source of
carbon for green plants, which contributed considerably to their prodigious
growth and helped feed the hungry dinosaurs.

KEYWORDS:
atmosphere – cap – carbon dioxide – carbonate – Carboniferous – chaos –
Cretaceous – crust – crustal – globe – Jurassic – latitude – limestone –
lush forests – occurrence – ocean – oxygen – Paleozoic – pole – quantity

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION.

1.   Co mplete the sentences:


                                     5
1)     _____________, life seems to maintain o xygen and carbon dioxid e in
       perfect balance.
2)     Chaos pervaded the universe __________ ____________ _________.
3)     Plants invaded the land about 450 million years ago and extended to all
       parts of the ________________.
4)     This init iated the first great Ice Age about ________ _______ _______
       _______.
5)     ________ _________ is manifested ________ _________ _________
       of large amounts of oxygen in the Earth‟s atmosphere.
6)     This caused _________ _________ and ________ ________ ________
       to be thrust deep into the Earth.
7)     _______ _______ ________ between the poles and the equator was
       only about 40 degrees, _______ ________ that difference is nearly
       doubled.

2. Now comp lete your Language Record. Give examples of your own in
good, natural English.

   Word                Example                          Exp lanation
alligator       Alligators lived as far   An alligator is a large animal, chiefly
                north as Labrador.        of the southern United States, similar
                                          to a crocodile.

biota                                     The plants and animals in an area.

coral reef                                A reef in relat ively shallow, tropical
                                          seas composed chiefly of the skele-
                                          tons of coral.

crocodile                                 A crocodile is a large reptile with a
                                          long body.

life                                      Life is the quality which people, an-
                                          imals, and plants have when they are
                                          not dead.

organism                                  An organism is an animal o r plant.

period                                    A subdivision of a geologic era cor-
                                          responding to a rock system: periods
                                          are comb ined to form eras and subdi-


                                          6
                                      vided into epochs.

plant                                 A plant is a living thing that grows in
                                      earth and has a stem, leaves, and
                                      roots.

prodigious                            Something that is amazingly great.

rainforest                            A rainforest is a thick forest of tall
                                      trees which is found in tropical areas
                                      where there is a lot of rain.

seam                                  A seam is a long, narrow layer of
                                      coal beneath the ground.

Tethys sea                            The Tethys sea is the hypothetical
                                      midlat itude area of the oceans sepa-
                                      rating the northern and southern con-
                                      tinents of Gondwanaland and Laura-
                                      sia some hundreds of million years
                                      ago.

volcano                               A volcano is a mountain which hot
                                      melted rock, gas, steam, and ash
                                      sometimes burst out of, coming fro m
                                      inside the Earth.

3.   What do you know about rainforests? Tell the class your ideas.
     What is a rainforest?
     Where are the rainforests?
     What types of animals live there?
     Why are the rainforests important?
     What‟s happening to the rainforests?

4. Read about the rainforests. Here is the article ab out rainforests. First
read the article all the way through. Then write your own questions for ot h-
er students to answer.

               The Rainforests. Why Are They Important?
         Rainforests cover six per cent of the Earth‟s surface. There are
rainforests in many parts of the world but the biggest forests are in South


                                     7
America, Africa and South East Asia. There aren‟t any rainforests in Europe
or North A merica. About 75 % of all the types of animals that we know
come fro m rainforests. Thousands and thousands of animals liv e in rainfo-
rests. There are many very beautiful birds, insects and reptiles. Many of
them live in the trees, over 30 metres fro m the ground. There are also tho u-
sands of different plants – and lots of tall trees! It is always hot in a rainfor-
est and the ground is always wet. It is also dark. The rainfo rests are very
important for us. We need them! The trees and other plants in the forest
help to make the air that we breathe. They also help to control the weather.
They give us wood, rubber, fruits and many of our medicines. Unfortunate-
ly, in many places, the rainforests are in danger. For example, many years
ago there was a large rainforest in Java. There were thousands of different
plants and animals in the forest, but now there is nothing. People chopped
down the trees because they wanted to grow rice. They also planted rubber
trees to make rubber. Many animals lived in the rainforest. Some of them
went to other parts of Java but many of them d isappeared – forever. The
same thing is happening now in many other parts of the world. The rainfo-
rests are in danger!

5.   Are these sentences true or false? If they are false put them right.
         a) The ground is always hot in the rainforest.
         b) There are rainforests in Asia.
         c) Seventy-five per cent of all animals live in rain forests.
         d) Many medicines come fro m rain forests.
         e) There is a very big rain forest in Java.

6. Imagine that you are walking in a rainforest. It‟s hot and dark. You can
hear lots of noises. The ground is very wet. You know that there are a lot of
wild animals near you. What can you see? What can you hear? How do you
feel? Write about your ideas.

7. What‟s the word? Read the clues and put the words in the puzzle. What
word is nu mber 11?
1) The biggest rainforests are in South … .
2) When the … changed millions of years ago, many plants and animals
    died.
3) We get a lot of … fro m rainforests.
4) Many rainforests are in … .
5) Rain … fro m clouds.
6) Clouds are made fro m water … .
7) The oldest living things on Earth.


                                        8
8) It grows in Java where the rainforest was.
9) The Sun … .
10) The ground in a rainforest is always … .

          2

      1       3           6       8

                  4                       10

                              7
     11               5               9




UNIT 2.
              WHAT KILLED THE DINOSAURS
        The dinosaurs were the most successful land animals. They inhabited
the Earth for 140 million years. Humans, on the other hand, have only been
around for the past 4 million years. The dinosaurs originated during the Tri-
assic period, which began 240 million years ago, when all the landmasses
were assembled into the supercontinent Pangaea. During the Jurassic pe-
riod, about 180 million years ago, the continents split apart.
        Except for a few temporary land bridges, the newly formed oceans
provided a barrier to any further dinosaur migrat ion. At this time, almost
identical species lived in North America, Europe, and Africa. The greatest
dinosaur that ever lived, brachiosaurus, is found only in Colorado -Utah,
southwestern Europe, and eastern Africa. It probably travelled to Africa by
way of Europe when the continents were still together.
        The success of the dinosaurs is exemplified by their extensive range.
They occupied a wide variety of habitats and dominated all other forms of
land-dwelling animals. Indeed, if the dinosaurs had not become ext inct,
mammals would never have achieved dominance over the Earth. Also, hu-
mans would not have come into existence because the dinosaurs would have
suppressed further advancement of the mammals.
        About 500 species of dinosaurs have been discovered thus far, a l-
though this is probably only a small fract ion of the total. The generally
warm climate of the Cretaceous period produced lush vegetation, including


                                          9
ferns and cycads, that supplied the insatiable diets of the plant -eating dino-
saurs.
        Many theories have been put forward to explain the demise of the
dinosaurs. At the end of the Cretaceous period the dinosaurs and 70 per cent
of all known species vanished. This indicates that something in the env i-
ronment made them all unfit to survive, yet did not adversely affect the ma-
jority of the mammals. The mammals wh ich were no larger than rodents,
coexisted with the dinosaurs for more than 100 million years. They lived a
nocturnal life style, however, so as not to compete directly with the din o-
saurs.
        At the end of the Cretaceous period, the Earth might have been b om-
barded by a massive meteorite shower. A thin layer of mud at the boundary
between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods provides evidence of such an
occurrence. The mud is found in many parts of the world with the greatest
concentration in central North A merica. With in this layer is a high concen-
tration of iridiu m, an isotope of platinum, and meteoritic amino acids, both
of which are ext remely rare on Earth, but relatively abundant in meteorites.
The iridiu m level in the layer of mud was a thousand times greater than
normal background concentrations, which indicates that meteorite impacts
lofted tremendous amounts of dust into the atmosphere and shaded the
Earth. This might have cooled the climate enough to cause the extinction of
larger nu mbers of species.
        On the other hand, the impacts could have caused widespread ext inc-
tion of microscopic marine plants called calcareous nannoplankton. These
plants produce a sulfur compound that when released into the atmo sphere
helps to make clouds. Clouds, in turn, reflect sunlight and prevent solar rad-
iation fro m reaching the surface. The death of the calcareous nannoplankton
might have triggered an extreme global heat wave that would have killed off
the dinosaurs and most other species. Evidence indicates that ocean temp er-
atures did increase dramatically for tens of thousands of years beyond the
end of the Cretaceous period.
        The break-up of Pangaea might also have contributed to the demise
of the dinosaurs by changing global climate patterns and producing unst a-
ble weather conditions. Massive floods of basalt from perhaps the most vo l-
canically active period since the Earth‟s beginning might have dealt a major
blow to the climatic and ecological stability of the planet.
        Another theory is that a massive bombardment of meteorites could
have stripped away the ozone layer and bathed the Earth with the Sun‟s
deadly ultraviolet rays. This would have killed land plants and animals and
the primary producers in the surface waters of the ocean. Since the ma m-
mals were mostly nocturnal and remained in their underground borrows


                                      10
during the day, they would have survived the onslaught of ultraviolet radia-
tion. This scenario has important implications for us today. For if we co n-
tinue to destroy the ozone layer with our pollutants, we might find ourselves
going the same way as the dinosaurs.

KEYWORDS:
dinosaurs – extinct – fern – kill – mammals – meteorite – nannoplankton –
Pangaea – radiation – species – survive – Tertiary – Tri assic – vanish –
vegetation

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) ________ ________ _______ ________ , the impacts could have
   caused widespread extinction of microscopic marine plants called
   ________ ________ .
2) For if we continue to destroy the ozone layer ________ _______
   ________, we might find ourselves going the same way as _________
   ________ .
3) This might have cooled the climate enough to cause the ______ ______
   _________ _______ of species.
4) The dinosaurs were the most successful _________ _________ .
5) The success of the dinos aurs is exemplified by _______ ______ range.
6) _______ ________ , which were no larger than rodents, coexisted
   _______ ________ ________ for more than 100 million years.
7) _______ _______ is found in many parts _______ ______ ______
   with the greatest concentration in central No rth America.

2. Now comp lete your Language Record. Give examples of your own in
good, natural English.

    Word                 Example                    Exp lanation
advancement      Everybody has the op-       Advancement is moving for-
                 portunity for personal      ward.
                 advancement.

animal                                       An animal is a living creature
                                             such as a dog, lion, or rabbit,
                                             rather than a bird, fish, reptile,
                                             insect, or human being.



                                     11
basalt            A dark, tough, fine-grained to
                  dense, extrusive volcanic rock
                  commonly occurring in sheet-
                  like lava flows.

demise            The demise of something or
                  someone is their end or death.

dominance         If someone has dominance
                  over a person, place, or group,
                  they have power or control
                  over them.

insatiable        A desire or greed that is insa-
                  tiable is very great.

iridiu m          It is a rare isotope of platinum,
                  relatively abundant in mete-
                  orites.

layer             A layer is a flat piece of some-
                  thing or a quantity of some-
                  thing that covers a surface or
                  that is between two other
                  things.

mud               It is a wet, sticky mixture of
                  earth and water.

onslaught         An onslaught is a violent at-
                  tack.

pollutant         A pollutant is a substance that
                  pollutes the environment, es-
                  pecially a poisonous chemical.

rodent            A rodent is a small mammal
                  which has sharp front teeth.
                  Rats, mice, rabbits, and squir-
                  rels are rodents.



             12
3.   What do you know about the dinosaurs? Are these sentences true or
     false?
1)   Dinosaurs were reptiles.
2)   Some dinosaurs were very small.
3)   At the time of the dinosaurs, there was only one con tinent.
4)   Dinosaurs died a long time before people appeared on Earth.
5)   Birds lived at the same time as dinosaurs.
6)   Dinosaurs were on Earth for more than 100 million years.
7)   Dinosaurs lived in all parts of the world.
8)   Some dinosaurs moved very quickly.
9)   Most dinosaurs did not eat meat.
10) Some scientists think dinosaurs disappeared because a meteor
     crashed into the Earth.
11) They discovered the first dinosaur bones in England.


4.   More dinosaur facts. Read these descriptions of four dinosaurs. Can
     you match them to the correct name?

        Co mpsognathus           Protoceratops          Stegosaurus

                                  Apatosaurus

a) This dinosaur was very small. It was about 50 cm long. It walked on
   two legs and it had a long, thin tail. It was a meat -eater. It had a lot of
   teeth. It moved very fast.
b) This dinosaur was very big. It was about 25 met res long. It had a long,
   heavy body and thick, heavy legs. It had a s mall head. It walked on four
   legs and lived near water. It moved very slowly.
c) This dinosaur walked on two legs and on four legs. It was about 2.5
   metres tall and about 6 metres long. It had short legs at the front and
   long legs at the back. It also had triangular „plates‟ along its back.
d) This dinosaur was a plant-eater. It was about two metres long and it
   was heavy. It walked on four legs. Its head was very big, almost as long
   as its body. At the back of its head, it had bones. They looked like a
   fan.

                                      13
5.  „Was‟ or „were‟.
     When do you say „was‟?
     When do you say „were‟?
Look at the sentences and complete the ones below.
         I was interested in dinosaurs.
         Dinosaurs were reptiles.
         We were not alive 150 million years ago.
         Some dinosaurs were very small.
         The Compsognathus was very small. It was about 50 cm. long.
I….
You were
He                 very b ig
She       …..       very tall
It                 50 years old
We …
You were
They …
There … only one continent 150 million years ago.
There … many types of dinosaurs.

6. Regular and irregular verbs.
Verbs that have „-ed‟ on the end are called „regular‟ verbs,
         e.g. Dinosaurs lived millions of years ago. Some of them moved
             very quickly.
There are also „irregular‟ verbs in English that don‟t have „-ed‟ on the end.
Do you have irregular verbs in your language?

7.   A puzzle! Time to spare? Match the two parts of the words.

         kan           saur
         cater         tain
         butter        fly
         pen           pillar
         riv           est
         for           guin
         moun          er
         dino          garoo
         ice           our
         vap           man

Write one of the words in the sentences. Choose the proper words.


                                      14
1)   The female b irdwing … is black and white.
2)   A … changes into a butterfly.
3)   There are a lot of trees in a … .
4)   A … eats fish.
5)   There is a very long … in South America.
6)   Everest is a very big … .
7)   A … can ju mp 30 kilo metres an hour.


UNIT 3.
                    HABITAT DESTRUCTION
                   AND SPECIES EXTINCTION
        Animals such as the hippopotamus, the tiger, and the rhino are very
popular to see at zoos, but these and about 2000 other large animals are in
danger of disappearing forever fro m the wild. Today, scientists still do not
know how many species live on Earth, although they guess that the numb er
is between 5 and 100 million. So me of these unknown species become e x-
tinct before we can even discover them. So me scientists think that every ten
years about 5% of all species disappear forever. It is a terrible loss because
each animal is unique and has a right to exist, but also because many spe-
cies can be useful to man. For examp le, many important new medicines
come fro m parts of wild plants. Also many plants can be genetically mixed
with plants that we grow for food, so that they are stronger against disease
or insects. The large number of species existing in the world is very interest-
ing to study, beautiful to look at, but also very useful for our c ivilization if
we use them wisely. We can thin k of the natural world as a living bank with
many useful things waiting to be discovered. Unfortunately, we are very
quickly destroying this bank. We are creating a world wh ich is naturally
very poor.
        The main cause of this extinction is the destruction of habitat (land
that is needed to live). Fo r the last few thousand y ears, man has changed
huge parts of the world into agricultural areas that grow only a few types of
plants. Although there are about 30,000 kinds of plants on Earth that can be
eaten, only 15 plants and 8 animals are used for 90% of our food. Wild fo-
rests and fields with thousands of different species have become huge areas
of just one kind like wheat or corn. Agriculture is the most environmentally
damaging activity of humans on Earth. Since the 1800's the Earth has lost
6 million km² of forests, an area larger than the continent of Europe. Pre-
sently most of the destruction is happening to tropical rainfo rests. These
areas are very sensitive and also very important because they are extremely

                                      15
rich in many different animal and plant species. Although only 7% of the
Earth's surface is covered by tropical rain forests, they contain more than
65% of the Earth's species. Today almost half of the original tropical rainfo-
rests have been destroyed. Because the roots of trees and plants hold the soil
in place, when forests are cut down the soil becomes much easier to wash
away in rainstorms. Also since trees convert CO2 into 02 , the loss of forests
globally is changing the chemistry of our atmosphere and increases global
warming.
        Much of Ukraine naturally does not have fores ts because it lies in the
steppe region. The steppes are beautiful natural areas with unique plant and
animal life, especially along river valleys. Unfortunately, there are very few
natural steppe areas left and thousands of small rivers have disappeared.
Ukraine is a land that is agriculturally very over-developed. Co mpared to
other European countries it has the smalles t percentage of land that is kept
in a natural condition. Over 70% of the land is used for agricultural purpos-
es. Many farming lands are losing their richness and are eroding away.
Scientists recommend that large areas of land be allowed to rest, so they can
naturally regenerate. When the agricultural system is reformed and made
more productive, the same amount of food can be grown on less land. Then
some land can be made into natural reservation areas. These areas can be-
come habitat for d ifferent wild species and also be places for people to en-
joy. Again we see that improving the environment of Ukraine can be part of
the process of improving the economy of Ukraine.

KEYWORDS:
agriculture – area – civilizat ion – destruction – disappear – disease – farm-
ing – habitat – kind – land – plant – soil – wild

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) Scientists recommend that large areas of land ______ ______ ______
   ______, so they can naturally ______.
2) ______ _______ think that every ten years about 5 % of all species
   ______ _______.
3) The large number of species existing in the world is _____ ______
   ______ _______ , beautiful to look at, but also very useful for _______
   ______ if we use them wisely.
4) ______ ______ ______ of the natural world as ______ ______ ___ ___
   with many useful things _______ _______ _______ _______ .


                                      16
5)   We are creating _______ ________ which is naturally very poor.
6)   _____ _____ ______ of this ext inction is ______ _____ _____ habitat.
7)   Presently most of the destruction is happening ______ ______ rainfo-
     rests.

2. Now co mp lete your Language Record.
Give examp les of your own in good, natural English.
     Word               Example                       Exp lanation
damage           It can cause lethal Damage is physical harm that is
                 damage to the liver       caused to something.
danger                                     Danger is the possibility that
                                           someone may be harmed or
                                           killed.
discover                                   When you discover a fact that
                                           you did not know, you find out
                                           about it.
environment                                The environment is the natural
                                           world of land, sea, air, plants,
                                           and animals that exists around
                                           towns and cities.
food                                       Food is what people and ani-
                                           mals eat.
hippopotamus                               A hippopotamus is a large ani-
                                           mal with short legs and thick,
                                           wrinkled skin.
insect                                     An insect is a small animal that
                                           has six legs. Most insects have
                                           wings. Ants, flies, butterflies,
                                           and beetles are all insects.
rhino                                      A rhino is the same as a rhino-
                                           ceros. It is a large animal with
                                           one or two horns on its nose.
scientist                                  A scientist is an expert who
                                           does work in one of            the
                                           sciences.
tiger                                      A tiger is a large, fierce animal
                                           that belongs to the cat family.
valley                                     A valley is a long, narrow area
                                           of land between hills, especially
                                           one that has a river flo wing
                                           through it.


                                     17
zoo                                           A zoo is a park where live ani-
                                              mals are kept so that people can
                                              look at them.

3. The fantastic world of butterflies and leopards. Read the texts and write
questions with the question words.
        For examp le: How many … …?
        How many kinds of butterfly are there?
        1) When …………….?
        2) Where …………….?
        3) How long …………?

                                Butterflies
        There are about 20.000 different kinds of butterfly. They are easy to
see because they have very bright colours. They fly during the day and sleep
at night. They live where they can find plants to eat. They do a useful job.
They carry the powder – the pollen – which plants make and exchange to
grow more plants. Butterflies have a very short life. They usually live for
only a few weeks.

                                Leopards
       Leopards live in many parts of the world, fro m Siberia to Africa.
They have a very beautiful yellow skin with large black spots. They live for
about 15 years and eat small mammals such as young zebras, monkeys, and
antelopes. They sleep for about 12 hours a day. Leopards are very solitary
animals. They spend most of their time alone in trees, where they wait until
a small animal passes. They jump on the animal and then drag it up into the
tree, where they eat it. Like many animals, leopards are disappearing b e-
cause people hunt them. They kill them for their beautifu l coats. The Sinai
Leopard, for example, fro m Egypt, is now probably ext inct.

4.    Can you comp lete these questions and join them to the correct answer?
       Which is the largest animal in the world? The blue whale. It’s about
       25 m long.

1) What …elephants eat?                   They live in Siberia and Africa
2) Why … b irds fly south in the          They send out a sound and wait for
   winter?                                the echo.
3) How much … an adult elephant           Up to about 100 km per hour.
   eat in a day?
4) Where … leopards live?                 About 136 kg of p lants.


                                     18
5) How … bats know where they            They eat fruit, leaves and grass.
    are going?
6) How fast … a cheetah run?             Because it‟s too far to walk!


5. What‟s the word?
Choose the correct pronoun for each space.
1) Frogs are reptiles. … skin is very thick. … lay eggs. …blood is cold.
   (they / them / their)
2) A cow gives milk to … young. (it / its)
3) We are mammals. … b lood is warm and we give milk to … babies.
   (we / our / us)
4) Insects have six legs. Most of … have wings and can fly. (them / their)
5) Do you like spiders? No! I hate … ! (they / them / their)
6) This is my new dog. Do you like … ? (he / him / his)

6. Work in pairs. A re these sentences right or wrong? Correct them if they
are wrong,
        e.g. Tigers are fro m Europe. Wrong! Tigers aren’t from Europe.
        They’re from Asia.
        1) Penguins are fro m cold countries.
        2) Kangaroos are fro m South America.
        3) Toucans are fro m Antarctica.
        4) Zebras are fro m hot countries.
        5) Black bears are fro m Europe.
        6) Panda bears are fro m Ch ina.
        7) Polar bears are fro m the Arctic.
        8) Koala bears are fro m Australia.

7.   Read about kangaroos. Underline the new informat ion for you.

                               Kang aroos
       Kangaroos can jump 9 meters. They can jump very fast – 30 kilo me-
tres per hour. Baby kangaroos are very small – only 3 centimetres long.
They can‟t jump and they can‟t see. They can see when they are 9 weeks
old. They can jump when they are 8 months old. They can‟t run and t hey
can‟t walk. Kangaroos live in Australia.

        Write your answers to the questions in the puzzle. What word is
number 7?



                                    19
          1
                   3         5
                         4
              2


      7



                  6



1)    Kangaroos can … .
2)   … live in North A merica. They are b lack. They are very big.
3)   Tigers can … very fast.
4)   A … is a small, furry animal with a tail, whiskers, and sharp claws,
     which is often kept as a pet.
5)   A tiger can … .
6)   This animal is an African wild animal wh ich looks like a horse with
     black and wh ite stripes on its body.



UNIT 4.
                                 ACID RAIN
        Industrialization brought with it the combustion of high-sulfur coal
and oil and the smelt ing of sulfide ores, particularly in the heavily industria-
lized and urbanized temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Hu man
activity accounts for roughly 10 t imes more sulfu r being injected into the
atmosphere than natural sulfur emissions from sources such as volcanoes.
The combustion of sulfur produces sulfur dio xide, which enters the atmos-
phere, comb ines with o xygen, and yields sulfur trio xide. This in turn co m-
bines with at mospheric moisture to produce sulfuric acid, which precipitates
as highly corrosive acid rain.
        Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of
eastern North America and northwestern Europe precipitation has changed
fro m a nearly neutral solution at the beginning of the industrial era, two
centuries ago, to a diluted solution of sulfuric and nitric acid. In the most
extreme cases, rain has had the acidity of vinegar. Cu rrent research effo rts
in North A merica and Europe are d irected toward determining both the d i-
rect and indirect effects of increased amounts of acids in the environment.


                                       20
        Acid rain has been known to exist for many decades in the vicinity
of large cities and industrial plants. Tall smo kestacks designed to disburse
emissions high into the atmosphere and away from the cities also help the
pollutants travel long distances, even across international borders. Coal-
fired electrical generating plants in the Ohio valley, for example, produce
acid rain clouds that travel into eastern Canada where the acid rain is d e-
stroying forests and once productive fishing streams and lakes.
        Streams and lakes in other parts of the world, especially those that
cover granitic strata and are not buffered by carbonate rocks, have become
so acidic or polluted that fish populations have been decimated . In the Adi-
rondack Mountains of New York state, 90 per cent of the lakes with high
acid levels are co mpletely devoid of fish. In Sweden, it is estimated that
more than 15,000 lakes no longer contain fish populations due to acid rain.
        Acid rain is especially harmfu l to aquatic organisms because it lo w-
ers the water's pH value. In seawater, the damage co mes fro m nit rogen
oxides. Nitrogen acts as a nutrient that promotes the growth of algae, which
blocks out sunlight and depletes the water of dissolved oxygen. As a result,
aquatic plants and animals suffocate. There has been a widespread increase
in nitrate levels in the oceans along with higher concentrations o f toxic met-
als, includ ing arsenic, cadmiu m, and seleniu m. The main factors contribut-
ing to this increase are fertilizer and pesticide run-off and acid rain, wh ich
dissolves heavy metals in the soil.
        Some soils have become so acidic they can no longer be cultivated.
Plants are damaged by the adverse effects of acid on foliage and root sys-
tems. Acid precip itation is destroying the great forests of North America,
Europe, China, and Brazil. There are widespread reductions in the width of
tree-rings and an increased mortality rate for red spruce trees in the eastern
United States. Resorts and wilderness areas, like those in the western United
States, Norway, and West Germany's famous Black Fo rest, are losing much
of their natural beauty because of acid rain.
        Acid rain is possibly the most well studied and least acted upon of
any pollution problem. The source of the problem has been known for quite
some time. The basic chemistry that turns industrial and motor vehicle
emissions into acid rain is well understood. Governments, however, are
slow to require expensive mandatory emission controls because companies
might lose their co mpetitive edge due to the costly investments .

KEYWORDS:
acid rain – activity – combustion – control – dilute – emission – mortality –
nitrogen – oxide – pollute – precip itation – smokestack – spruce – sulfur –


                                      21
tree – vinegar

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) ______ ______ ______ that turns _____ ______ ______ ______
   ______ into acid rain is well understood.
2) Hu man activity accounts for roughly ______ ______ ______ sulfur
   being injected into the atmosphere than natural sulfur emissions from
   sources such _______ _______ .
3) The main factors contributing to this increase are ______ and ______
   _____-_____ and ______ ______ , which dissolves heavy metals in
   the soil.
4) As a result, _______ _______ and _______ suffocate.
5) _______ _______ has been known to exist for many decades in the
   vicinity of _______ ______ and _______ ______ .
6) This in turn co mbines with at mospheric moisture to produce ______
   ______ , which precipitates as highly _______ ______ _______.
7) ______ ______ , it is estimated that more than 15,000 lakes no longer
   contain ______ ______ due to acid rain.

2. Now co mp lete your Language Record.
Give examp les of your own in good, natural English.

     Word               Example                       Exp lanation
aquatic           Acid rain is harmful     An aquatic animal or p lant lives
                  to aquatic organisms.    or grows in water.
arsenic                                    Arsenic is a volatile chemical
                                           element, No. 33, symbol As.
cadmiu m                                   Cad miu m is a metallic chemical
                                           element, No. 48, symbol Cd.
cloud                                      A cloud of smoke or dust is a
                                           mass of it floating in the air.
decimate                                   To decimate means to destroy in
                                           large quantities.
foliage                                    The leaves of plants and trees
                                           are referred to as foliage.
lake                                       A lake is a large body of water,
                                           surrounded by land.
pest                                       A pest is an insect or small ani-

                                    22
                                             mal that destroys plants.
pesticide                                    It is an agent used to kill pests.
selenium                                     Seleniu m is a nonmetallic to xic
                                             chemical element, No. 34, sym-
                                             bol Se.
stream                                       It is a course of running water.
suffocation                                  Suffocation means killing by
                                             impeding respiration.
sunlight                                     Sunlight is the light that comes
                                             fro m the Sun.
toxic                                        A toxic substance is poisonous.

3.   Write a summary of the text in English. Make use of the speech models
     given below while summarizing the text:
1)   This article deals with … .
2)   It is pointed out that … .
3)   It is stressed that … .
4)   It should be remembered that … .
5)   There is no doubt that … .
6)   … are given.
7)   It is shown that … .
8)   The importance of … is stressed.
9)   The following conclusions are drawn.

4.   Read the following text and render it in a nutshell.

                          Whence the Aci d Rain?
        In the mid – 1950s Norweg ians began to notice that there were fewe r
and fewer fish in the lakes (of which Norway has 200,000). Not until the
1960s was the reason discovered: acid rains. It was demonstrated that the
local rainwater contained acid which killed aquatic life. The main source of
these acids is gas emission from electrical generating plants and factories.
The ecological upset caused by the gases first noticed in Norway, soon took
on global dimensions.

5.   Arrange a talk on the follo wing topics:
a)   the production of acid rain;
b)   an unfortunate consequence of industrialization;
c)   the adverse effects of acid on foliage and root systems;
d)   the total annual economic losses resulting fro m environ mental pollu-
     tion.

                                      23
6.   Ask fact-finding questions on the text.

                               Aci ds in the Air
        In the combustion of any fossil fuel, whether coal, co mbus tible
shale, or oil, the released gases always contain sulfur and nitrogen oxides.
Some years ago, for examp le, thermal electric power stations in the United
States belched out 18.6 million tons of sulfur dio xide.
        Rainwater which forms in the process of condensation of water va-
pours in the atmosphere, is neutral. Absorbing carbon dioxide which is a l-
ways present in the air, it becomes slightly acidic. W ith the absorption of
sulfur and nitrogen oxides, rain becomes noticeably acid. To date, the
world record in acid is held by the Scottish town of Ditlochry, where on
April 10, 1974 a rain fell whose acid content was comparable only to vin e-
gar. The harm traceable to acid rain is not confined to waterways. It extends
to soils and vegetation as well.
        In Sweden in the past 10 years these rains were responsible for a
steady annual drop in forest productivity of about 1 per cent. In soil a h igher
acid content leaches away nutrients and kills useful micro -organisms.

7.   Get ready to write a d ictation (at the teacher‟s discretion).



UNIT 5.
                         OZONE DEPLETION
        Satellites that monitor the ozone concentration in the upper atmo s-
phere have discovered that the ozone layer is being depleted. Every Se p-
tember and October since the late 1970s, a giant hole, about the size of the
continental United States, opens up in the ozone layer over Antarctica.
Long-term records show that ozone levels in the far northern latitudes have
dropped roughly 5 per cent over the last 17 years. The ozone depletion is
believed to have a chemical orig in. It is also believed that the chemicals are
man-made.
        The amount of chlorine mono xide, which destroys ozone molecules,
was found to be 100 t imes the normal level in the Antarctic stratosphere.
Polar stratospheric clouds composed of frozen water and nitric acid crystals
help chlorine destroy ozone by fostering certain chemical react ions. For this
reason, there is no comparable Arctic ozone hole because temperatures
there are not cold enough to allow the cloud crystals to form.
        Ozone is produced in the upper s tratosphere, between 20 and 30

                                       24
miles in altitude, when o xygen mo lecules absorb solar ultraviolet radiat ion.
When the chemical bond ruptures, it produces ozone, an unstable molecu le
of three oxygen atoms along with a single oxygen atom. Ozone then decays
back to an oxygen molecule and an o xygen atom within the ozone layer.
Certain chemicals that are released into the stratosphere directly co mpete
for the free o xygen atoms in the ozone layer and interfere with o zone pro-
duction. The mechanisms by which ozone is destroyed are based on chemi-
cal chain reactions. One pollutant molecule might destroy many thousands
of ozone molecu les before being transported to the lower at mosphere,
where it can no longer do any harm.
        The ozone layer is only a trace constituent of the stratosphere, with a
maximu m concentration of only a few parts per million of the air mole-
cules. If the diffuse ozone layer were concentrated into a thin shell of pure
ozone gas surrounding the Earth at atmospheric pressure, it would only
measure about an eighth of an inch thick.
        The variation of ozone concentrations in the ozone layer is affected
by the seasons, latitude, and strong weather systems that penetrate the
stratosphere. If ozone finds its way to the lower levels of the atmosphere, it
is destroyed before reaching the ground. This is fortunate because ozone
also happens to be highly toxic when near the surface. It can irritate the eyes
and lungs if it is present in the lower air.
        Ozone plays a very important role in shield ing the Earth fro m ha rm-
ful short-wave, ultraviolet radiat ion. Without this shield, life could not exist
on the Earth's surface. Even a slight increase in ultraviolet rays can cause
skin cancer and cataracts, have harmfu l effects on plants and animals, and
exacerbate pollution problems such as smog and acid rain.
        Laboratory experiments have shown that certain chemical su b-
stances, particularly chlo rofluorocarbons (CFCs) and n itrous oxides, destroy
ozone. CFCs are used as refrigerants in refrigerators and air conditioners.
They escape into the atmosphere when these appliances are manufactured
and later discarded. They are used as propellants in spray cans and in the
manufacture of foam plastics. CFCs are also used as industrial solvents.
Evaporation and spillage sends many of these chemicals into the atmos-
phere. In addition, CFCs soak up infra-red energy and are 10,000 times
more effective than carbon dio xide at trapping escaping heat from the Earth.
They thereby contribute significantly to greenhouse warming.
        Nitrous oxides are produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, esp e-
cially under high temperatures and pressures like those found in coal-fired
plants and internal combustion engines. The tall ch imneys of coal-fired
plants send huge amounts of nitrous oxides high into the atmosphere where
a portion mixes with water and rains out as nitric acid. The remainder finds


                                      25
its way into the upper stratosphere and breaks down ozone. The continued
depletion of the ozone layer and the accompanying high ultraviolet exp o-
sure could reduce crop productivity and aquatic life. Primary producers,
upon which ultimately all life on Earth depends for its survival, will be e s-
pecially hard hit.

KEYWORDS:
chlorine – deplete – harm – hole – man-made – monitor – nitric acid –
ozone – propellant – rupture – shell – stratosphere – trace

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) The continued depletion of the ______ ______ and the ______ ______
   ______ ______ could reduce crop productivity and aquatic life.
2) ______ that ______ ______ _______ ______ in the upper atmosphere
   have discovered that the ozone layer is being depleted.
3) The ozone depletion is believed to have ______ ______ ______ .
4) If o zone finds its way to the lower levels of the atmosphere, ______
   ______ ______ before reaching the ground.
5) ______ plays a very important role in ______ _____ _____ from
   ______ _____-_____ , ultravio let radiat ion.
6) The ozone layer is only a trace constituent ______ ______ ______,
   with a maximu m concentration of only a few parts ________ ______ of
   the air mo lecules.
7) Ozone is produced in the upper stratosphere, between ______ and
   ______ miles in alt itude, when o xygen molecules absorb ______ _____
   ______ .

2.    Now comp lete your Language Record. Give examples of your own in
      good, natural English.

      Word            Example                       Exp lanation
can            A spray can is a can       A can is a metal container or re-
               containing liquid under    ceptacle.
               pressure.
cancer                                    Cancer is a malignant tumor.
cataract                                  It is an abnormality of the eye,
                                          characterized by opacity of the
                                          lens.
evaporation                               Evaporation is the transformation


                                     26
                                            of a liquid into a gas.
exacerbate                                  If something exacerbates a bad
                                            situation, it makes it worse.
exposure                                    Action of exposing or state of
                                            being exposed.
lungs                                       Your lungs are the two parts of
                                            your body inside your chest
                                            which fill with air when you
                                            breathe.
skin                                        Skin is the outer covering of a
                                            body.
smog                                        It is an irritating mixtu re of
                                            smoke and fog.
survival                                    Survival is continuing to live in
                                            spite of nearly dying or being in
                                            great difficulty.

3.     Read the text. You can use a dictionary.

        How much do we know about the world we live in? Some of us
don‟t know much, it seems. Scientists of Oxford asked people the following
simp le questions:
 Does the Earth go round the Sun?
 Does oxygen come fro m plants?
 Does sunlight cause skin cancer?
 Is the center of the Earth hot or cold?
 Did the earliest people live before, at the same t ime as or after the din o-
     saurs?
 If milk is radioactive, can you make it safe by boiling it?
        How many of the answers do you know? The Oxfo rd scientists were
surprised to find that many of the men and wo men they questioned had no
idea of the facts. About 40 % of the people didn‟t know that the Earth went
round the Sun, or that oxygen came fro m plants. While 90 % of the people
knew that sunlight could cause skin cancer, and 80 % knew that the center
of the Earth was very hot, 54 % thought wrongly, that the first people lived
at the same time as the dinosaurs. And 35 % of people thought that radioa c-
tive milk could be made safe by boiling it.
        How important is this? Does it matter if people don‟t know whether
or not the Earth goes round the Sun? Perhaps not. But we do have to make
up our minds about many things which need an understanding of science.
Should the government build more nuclear power stations? Is it a good

                                       27
thing to spend money on space research? Is it right to carry out experiments
on animals? If we have no basic knowledge of science, how can we make
intelligent democrat ic decisions on questions like these?

4.        Now read the following sentences. Write S if the sentence says the
          same thing as the text, and D if it says something different.
1)        Even Oxford scientists don‟t always know the answers to simp le que s-
          tions.
2)        Some people don‟t know much about the world.
3)        Only 40 % of people thought that the Earth went round the Sun.
4)        Oxygen co mes fro m p lants.
5)        Most people know that sunlight can cause skin cancer.
6)        More than half of the people questioned thought that the first people
          lived before the dinosaurs.
7)        Radioactive milk can only be made safe by boiling it.
8)        People in a modern democracy need to know something about science.


5.   Why do we have rain?
     Work with your neighbour. Read the diagram. Put the pieces of info r-
mat ion in the correct place.

The cold cloud meets a warm cloud.
The water beco mes water vapour.
The wind blo ws the clouds.

                                                   5.


                                          4.



1. The Sun shines             3. It is very cold in the     6. The warm cloud
on the water.                 sky. The water vapour         becomes water
                              becomes clouds.               again. It rains!



     2.


Check your answers with others in the class.


                                         28
6.     Why do we have winds?
       Work with your neighbour again. Put the pieces of information in the
correct place.

The wind blo ws.
The ground becomes warm.
The air rises.


                            4.


                                                          5. Cold air co mes to
      1. The Sun shines on                                take its place.
      the ground.

                                 3. The air near the
                                 ground becomes warm.


                                                            6.
     2.




7.        Why do we have lightning?
          Can you put in the missing words rises, colder, falls, expands, make,
          jumps ?
1)        Water vapour … in the air.
2)        Inside the cloud, the water vapour becomes … . It beco mes ice.
3)        The ice is heavy so it … .
4)        More water vapour is rising inside the cloud but the ice is falling. When
          they meet, they … static electricity.
5)        The static electricity … to the ground and makes lightning.
6)        The lightning warms the air. The air … very fast and makes a bang!




                                          29
UNIT 6.
                        OVERPOPULATION
        Two million years ago, our ancient ancestors numbered about
100,000 people. When agriculture was invented, roughly 10,000 years ago,
there were upwards of 10 million people on the planet. By the time of the
first dynasty in Egypt, around 5,000 years ago, the population had increased
to 100 million. At the height of the Ro man Empire during the first century
A.D., the world's population more than doubled. It doubled again at the b e-
ginning of the Industrial Revolution and reached its first billion mark
around 1800. No w, less than two centuries later, the nu mber of people in the
world has increased five fo ld and is expected to double that amount by the
middle of the next century.
        Many demographers believe that the world has already reached its
carrying capacity, which is the ability of the land to support people. Rap id
population growth has stretched the resources of the world. The prospect of
future population increases raises serious doubts about whether the planet
will be able to continue to support people's growing needs.
        When agriculture can no longer supply the necessary food, people
will be in grave danger. Mass starvation could occur whenever drought,
infestation, or disease results in greatly reduced crop yields.
        The leading food exporters already have most of their arable lands in
production. During the 1970s, American farmers placed an additional 60
million acres, an area larger than the state of Kansas, under cultivation in
order to help feed a hungry world. Much of this increased land was substa n-
dard and included sloping, marg inal, and fragile soils that erode easily. Be-
cause of increasing pressure for more food production, normally fallow
fields are being cultivated, wh ich quickly wears out the soil. Attempts to
farm the weak soils of the rainforests have proved inadequate. Over-
irrigation is also destroying large quantities of acreage due to salt build-up
in the soil.
        The total quantity of food directly and indirectly consumed by the
human population is staggering. It amounts to roughly a ton per person per
year, or about 5 billion tons annually. Nearly half o f the total tonnage of
crops and three-quarters of the energy and protein content is supplied by
cereal grains. Ninety per cent of all the world's food comes from only about
a dozen crops, most strains of which are genetically undiversified. This
means that disease and infestation targeted at those specific strains could
wipe out a nation's entire harvest. Also, a large fraction of these grains is
eaten by domestic animals, which consume 4 to 7 calories of grain for every
calorie of meat they produce.



                                     30
         The average individual food intake is 1,800 calories per day for d e-
veloping countries and 2,700 calories per day for developed nations. The
diets of the poorer countries, however, are not nearly as nutritious as those
of the richer nations. The diet of the poorest 20 per cent of the world's popu-
lation falls belo w the body's requirement fo r a nor mally active, healthy life.
         The invention of agriculture was perhaps the greatest achievement
and possibly the worst mistake in human h istory. Although it freed people
fro m the constant search for food, it also encouraged them to settle perma-
nently in one area. As a result, man is extremely vulnerab le to fluctuations
in soil conditions and the climate.

KEYWORDS:
arable – calorie – consume – danger – demography – dynasty – fluctuate –
fragile – grave danger – healthy – irrigation – number – nutritious – search
for food – staggering – starvation – vulnerable

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) ________ ________ ________, man is extremely vulnerab le to fluctua-
   tions in soil _______ and ________ _______ .
2) The diets of the _______ _______ , however are not nearly as _______
   as ________ ________ ________ _________ ________ .
3) The total quantity of food ________ and ________ consumed by the
   human population ________ ________ .
4) _______ _______ ________ ago, our ancient ancestors numbered
   about _________ people.
5) Rapid population growth _______ _______ the resources of the world.
6) When _________ can no longer supply the necessary food, _________
   will be in grave danger.
7) The invention of agriculture was perhaps the ________ achievement
   and possibly the _________ mistake in hu man history.

2. Now co mp lete your Language Record.
Give examp les of your own in good, natural English.

   Word                  Example                       Exp lanation
amount            I was horrified by the      The sum of two or mo re quanti-
                  amount of work I had        ties.
                  to do.
ancestor                                      An ancestor is a foregoing per-


                                      31
                 son or organism fro m whom
                 one is descended.
crops            Crops are plants such as wheat
                 and potatoes that are grown in
                 large quantities for food.
diet             A diet is the food that a person
                 or animal eats regularly.
disease          A disease is an illness in living
                 things that is caused by infec-
                 tion or by a fault inside them.
domestic         Do mestic animals are not wild,
animals          and are kept as pets or are kept
                 on farms to produce food.
drought          A drought is a long period of
                 time during which no rain falls.
encourage        If you encourage a particular
                 activity, you support it actively.
fallow           If land is ly ing fallow, it has
                 been dug or ploughed but no
                 crops have been planted in it, so
                 that the soil has a chance to rest
                 and improve.
harvest          A harvest is a year‟s crops that
                 have ripened so that they can be
                 cut or picked.
infested         If a plant or area is infested with
                 insects, rats, or other pests,
                 many of them are on it or in it,
                 usually causing damage.
intake           Your intake of food, drink, or
                 air is the amount that you eat,
                 drink, or breathe in, or the
                 process of taking it into your
needs            body.
                 Needs are the things that you
                 need in order to have a satisfac-
planet           tory way of life.
                 A planet is a large, round object
                 in space that moves around a
                 star. The Earth is a planet.
protein


            32
                                          Protein is a substance found, for
                                          example, in meat, eggs, and
                                          milk. You need protein in order
                                          to grow and be healthy.
wipe out
                                          To wipe out means to destroy
                                          something completely, espe-
                                          cially suddenly or violently.



                    THINGS ARE CHANGING
3.    What is happening to food prices in Fantasia? Look at the graph and
make sentences.

 The price of         bananas           is going up              fast.
                      potatoes          (is rising)            slowly.
                       bread            is going down
                        fish            (is falling)
                       sugar
                      chicken




                        Food Prices in Fantasia




                                   33
4.    Co mplete the table.

      Fantasia: some statistics
                                                100 years   50 years   now
                                                   ago         ago
Population…………………………………..                         20 m        35 m     46 m
Average number of children per family ……           4,5         3,6       2
Average July temperature………………….                  33°C          …       …
Average January temperature………………                   …           …      7°C
Average height (men)………………………                       …        1 m 67     …
Average height (women)…………………..                     …        1 m 62     …
Length of working week……………………                   54 hrs         …       …
Paid holiday………………………………...                         -           …       …
Average time taken for letter to travel
100 km                                               …       2 days     …
Percentage of population without
homes………………………………………                                 …        …        8%
Percentage of population unemployed……..              …        7%       …

5.    What is happening to prices in your country?

6.    Discoveries for the future.
                               Our life today
What do you think are the most important things in our life?
What do you think people in the future will want to know about our life
today?
Share your ideas with the class.
Think about:

A                                           B
     Machines                School

                  Important areas                Important events
                  of our life                    of our time


         Food                Clothes

7. Work in s mall groups.
Some of you can work on A … and some of you can work on B …



                                       34
  A. Important areas of our           B. Important events of our ti me
       life                           Decide what events you want to
  Decide what you want to tell        tell people in the future.
  people in the future.               For example, you can tell them
  Decide what pictures and            about:
  informat ion you need.              important events in your country;
  Decide who can get the pic-         important events in the world;
  tures and informat ion.             important discoveries;
                                      important events in science and so
                                      on.
                                      Decide what information you need.
                                      Decide who can get the pictures
                                      and information.




UNIT 7.
                   WORLD ENVIRONMENTS
        The Earth's surface is approximately one-third desert; one-third for-
ests, savannah, and wetlands; and one-fifth glacial ice and tundra. The rest
is occupied by humans. Deserts are not only the hottest and driest regions,
but they are also among the most barren environments in the world. Only
the hardiest plant and animal species can survive in these arid reg ions.
Technically, a desert is defined as a region that receives less than 10 inches
of precipitation annually. Much of the world's desert wastelands receive
only a minor amount of rain during certain times of the year. Other areas
have gone for years without rain.
        Because of natural and human activities, increasing amounts of land
are becoming deserts. Some 15,000 square miles of new desert are created
each year. About 10 per cent of the world's deserts are composed of sandy
dunes, which are driven across the desert floor by winds.
        Perhaps the most impoverished desert on the face of the Earth is
found in Antarctica. Dry valleys receive less than 4 inches of snowfall each
year, most of which is blown away by strong winds.



                                     35
        Most of the world's great deserts exist in the subtro pics in a broad
band that runs roughly between 15 and 40 degrees latitude north and south
of the equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, a series of deserts stretches
fro m the west coast of northern Africa through the Arabian peninsula and
Iran and into India and China. In the Southern Hemisphere, a band of de-
serts runs across southern Africa, central Australia, and west -central South
America.

                          Major Deserts of the World
     Desert                Location              Type             Area Square
                                                                  Miles x 1000
    Sahara             Northern Africa            Tropical            3500
  Australian          Western / interior          Tropical            1300
   Arabian            Arabian Peninsula           Tropical            1000
  Turkestan            S. Central C.I.S.         Continental           750
North America        S.W.U.S./ N. Mexico         Continental           500
  Patagonian               Argentina             Continental           260
      Thar              India / Pakistan          Tropical             230
   Kalahari               S.W. Africa             Littoral             220
      Gob i           Mongolia / Ch ina          Continental           200
 Takla Makan           Sinkiang, China           Continental           200
    Iranian            Iran / Afganistan          Tropical             150
   Atacama                Peru / Chile            Littoral             140

        After the rain falls out of the rising tropical air, there is little mois-
ture left for the subtropics. The dry air cools and sinks, which produces
zones of semipermanent high pressure. The high pressure produces beaut i-
fully clear skies and calm winds most of the time, but also blocks advancing
weather systems from entering the region. Tall mountains also block
weather systems. Generally, on the leeward side of a mountain there is an
area called a rain shadow zone where only a s mall amount of precipitation
falls. This is because the mountains force clouds to rise, which produces
precipitation on the wind ward side and leaves the leeward side dry.
        Since deserts are generally light-coloured, they have a high albedo
and reflect large amounts of solar energy back into space. Desert sands also
absorb a great deal of heat during the day. Surface temperatures can exceed
150 degrees Fahrenheit. Because the skies are mostly clear during the night,
however, thermal energy that was trapped in the sand during the day
quickly escapes. Deserts can be very cold at night, with temperatures some-
times dropping near freezing. This gives desert regions the greatest daily
temperature ext remes of any place on Earth.


                                       36
        One of the most barren environments is the arctic tundra of North
America and Eurasia. Tundra covers about 14 per cent of the world's land
surface in an irregular band that winds around the top of the world. It exists
north of the tree line and south of the permanent ice sheets. Alpine tundra
exists in much of the world's mountainous terrain above the tree line and
below mountain glaciers. Unlike arctic tundra, which lies at high latitudes
and therefore is deprived of sunlight during the long winters, alpine tundra
receives sunlight daily. While little snow falls in much of the Arctic, alpine
areas receive abundant snowfall because of their high elevation.
        The vegetation in the two regions consists mostly of stunted plants
that are often widely separated by bare soil or rock. Most of the ground in
the arctic tundra, called permafrost, is frozen year round. Even though the
ground is bathed in 24-hour sunlight, the soil temperature seldo m rises
much above the freezing point. This is because most of the sunlight is used
to melt the ice in the soil. As a result, only the top few inches of soil thaws
during the short summer season. This often produces patterned ground,
which makes the tundra look like a tiled floor. The polygonal patterns are
produced by a sequence of freeze-thaw cycles. The soil expands and pushes
larger rocks upward and outward. The result is a mound of dirt surrounded
by boulders.
        The arctic tundra is one of the most fragile environ ments in the
world. Even small disturbances can cause a great deal of damage. As the
polar front swoops across polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere du r-
ing the winter, it removes atmospheric pollution and transports it to the arc-
tic regions. There the pollution contaminates the once pris tine skies and
produces what is called arctic haze. The haze originates mostly in Europe
and northwest Asia. At times it is as bad as that of some urban American
suburbs.
        Wetlands are perhaps the richest of all ecosystems. They produce as
much as eight times mo re plant matter per acre than an average wheat field.
A large variety of plants and animals make wetlands their home. Coastal
wetlands support valuable fisheries. About two-thirds of the shellfish har-
vested in the U.S. use these areas as spawning and nursery grounds. We t-
lands act as a natural filter by removing sediments and water pollution.
They also protect coasts from storms and erosion.
        Yet, the world's wetlands are disappearing at an alarming rate. As
sea levels continue to rise, 80 per cent of the U.S. coastal wetlands could be
lost by the middle of the next century. Woodland wetlands are disappearing
at a rate of about 1,200 acres per day. Almost 90 per cent of recent wetland
losses in the United States have been for agricultural purposes. Short -term
food production is replacing the long-term economic and ecological bene-


                                      37
fits of the wetlands. The consequences include the loss of local fisheries
and breeding grounds for marine species and wildlife. Like rainforests, the
destruction of the wetlands in many cases is irreversib le.
        Tropical rainforests were named because they receive upwards of
200 inches or more of rain each year. They only cover about 6 per cen t of
the land surface, yet contain two-thirds or more of the over 10 million spe-
cies on Earth. The plants and animals of the rainforests are continuously
being crowded out by the encroachment of humans. Their habitat is being
destroyed by herbicides, insecticides, and industrial wastes.
        Some exot ic plants that are in danger of becoming ext inct have i m-
portant medicinal value. Over half the pharmaceuticals used today are d e-
rived fro m natural herbs, most of which exist in the rainforests. Sometime
during the next century, if the present rate of extinction continues, the nu m-
ber of species lost because of human activities could surpass that of the
great die-out at the end of the Cretaceous period when the dinosaurs and
three-quarters of all other species disappeared 65 million years ago.

KEYWORDS:
alpine areas – boulder – desert – encroach – fishery – herbicide – industrial
– insecticide – sandy dunes – savannah – solar energy – sunlight – thaw –
tundra – waste

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) Like rain forests, the destruction of _______ _______ in many cases is
   ________.
2) Some ________ plants that are in danger of ________ ________ have
   important medicinal value.
3) A ________ ________ ________ plants and animals make ________
   their home.
4) ________ ________ ________ is one of the most fragile environ ments
   in the world.
5) Even though the ground is bathed in ________ - ________ sunlight, the
   soil temperature seldom rises much above the ________ ________.
6) Deserts can be ________ ________ at night, with temperatures some-
   times ________ near _________.
7) Because of natural ________ human activities, increasing amounts of
   land are becoming ________ .
   Note: amount of (sing.) + uncountable noun + singular verb
          a mounts of (pl.) + uncountable noun + plural verb


                                      38
2.   Now co mp lete your Language Record.
     Give examp les of your own in good, natural English.

     Word                 Example          Exp lanation
albedo effect      Deserts have a high     The amount of sunlight reflect-
                   albedo and reflect      ed fro m an object.
                   large amounts of so-
                   lar energy.
arid regions                               Arid regions are lacking mo is-
                                           ture.
barren    envi-                            Such environments are unpro-
ronments                                   ductive.
ecosystem                                  An ecosystem is a biological
                                           community of interacting organ-
                                           isms and their physical envi-
                                           ronment.
haze                                       A thin vapour of fog, smoke,
                                           dust, etc. in the air that reduces
                                           visibility.
herb                                       Any plant used as a medicine,
                                           flavouring, etc.
marine                                     Marine is used to describe
                                           things relating to the sea.
sheet                                      Any layer or deposit of rock,
                                           gravel, soil, ice, etc.
spawn                                      Spawn is a soft, jelly -like sub-
                                           stance containing the eggs of
                                           fish, frogs, or other amphib ians.
species                                    A species is a class of animals
                                           or plants whose members have
                                           the same main characteristics
                                           and are able to breed with each
                                           other.
wasteland                                  A wasteland is an area of land
                                           which is of no use, for example
                                           because it is infertile or because
                                           it has been misused by people.
woodland                                   Woodland is land which is
                                           mostly covered with trees.




                                     39
3. Find your country on the map on pages 64-65. What type of climate do
you have? What type of climate do these countries have?
 Greenland, Canada, China, Great Britain, Spain, Egypt, India, Brazil

Read the descriptions of the climates again on pages 64-65. What type of
climate does each of these sentences describe?
a) It suddenly changes from wet to dry weather.
b) It rains all the year and it is usually very warm.
c) It is very cold all the time.

4.   Decide …
1)   Hot air rises, but cold air __________ .
2)   In tropical areas, it is never __________ .
3)   In a rainforest it rains every day. The ground is always ________ .
4)   In temperate areas, the temperature does not go _________ - 3°C.
5)   In desert areas, it is very cold at _________ .
6)   In polar areas, the temperature _________ rises above 10°C.

5. Imagine …
Look at the map on pages 64-65. Choose a place. Imagine that you live
there. What do you do every day? What is in your house? What do you eat?
How do you use your free time? Describe your life. Give yourself a new
name!

6. Disaster fro m the climate. The climate can make a lot of problems.
Read the texts given below. What type of climate produced each disaster?
Which of the two disasters was the worst?

                          Disaster in Flori da, US A.
        Hurricanes are very strong winds that come fro m the sea. Warm wet
air rises in a spiral and goes faster and faster – over 160 km an hour. In
1992, „Hurricane Andrew‟ hit Florida. The people there had to leave their
homes and move to other towns and wait. When the hurricane arrived, it
killed 15 people and destroyed thousands and thousands of buildings. More
than 50,000 people had nowhere to live.

                           Disaster in Africa.
      Somet imes in desert climates, it doesn‟t rain for a very long time.
This happened between 1968 and 1974 in the Sahel, in West Africa. The
winds changed direction and the area did not receive any rain for 6 years.



                                     40
Hundreds of thousands of people and nearly half of the animals in the area
died because there wasn‟t enough water.

Do you have disasters like these in your country? What do you think we can
do to stop disasters happening? Tell the class your ideas.

7.      A fantastic discovery in Wollemi! Yesterday, people discovered the
oldest trees on Earth.
    They discovered them …
    They are …
    The trees started growing in Australia when …

Imagine that you work for a newspaper in Australia. Write a news story
about the Wollemi Pines.
         How d id they discover them?
         Where did they discover them?
         What do they look like?
         How tall are they?
         What colour are they?



UNIT 8.
                    THE MELTING ICE CAPS
        Ice covers approximately 10 per cent of the planet's surface. About
three-quarters of the world's fresh water is locked up in glacial ice. Alp ine
glaciers, which are found on every continent, hold as much fresh water as
all the world's rivers and lakes. During the height of the last Ice Age, about
18,000 years ago, so much of the Earth's water was locked up in continental
ice sheets that sea levels were about 350 feet lower than they are today. Be-
cause of the lower seas, shorelines extended outward for several tens of
miles. Patches of dry land appeared above the sea, which aided the migra-
tion of species from one continent to another.
        If the ice caps were to melt entirely, the ocean would rise some 300
feet above its present level. The additional seawater would move shorelines
inland 70 miles or more in most places, which would radically change the
shapes of the continents. Even the small amount of melting that is presently
taking place could have lasting repercussions. We are getting a preview of
things to come as beaches and barrier islands slowly disappear and the ris-
ing sea begins to drown coastal areas. Without their protective barriers, sea-
shores will be battered continually by raging storms. The rising seas could


                                     41
cause prime agricu ltural land and valuable wetlands to decrease during a
time when they are needed most.
        After some 90,000 years of gradual accumulation, snow and ice was
up to 2 miles thick in parts of North America and Eurasia during the last Ice
Age. Yet, the glaciers melted away in only a matter of a few thousand years,
retreating upwards of 2,000 feet a year. At least one-third of the ice melted
between 16,000 and 13,000 years ago, when average global temperatures
increased about 10 degrees Fahrenheit to nearly present -day values. As the
North American ice sheet began to retreat, its meltwater flowed down the
Mississippi River and into the Gu lf of Mexico. After the ice sheet retreated
beyond the Great lakes, however, the melt water ran down the St. Lawrence
River, and into the North Atlantic Ocean.
        The rapid melting of the glaciers sent a torrent of melt water and ic e-
bergs into the North Atlantic. The cold water formed a freshwater lid on top
of the ocean and significantly changed the salinity of the seawater. The cold
waters also blocked poleward flo wing warm currents from the tropics and
caused temperatures on the land to return to near Ice Age levels.
        Afterwards, the warm currents were re-established and the warming
trend remained. This climate change took less than two decades and
prompted a second episode of melting. The ice retreated quickly to the north
until the present volume of ice was reached about 6,000 years ago. Then
began the Climatic Opt imu m, a period of unusually warm and wet cond i-
tions that lasted for 2,000 years.
        Between 6,000 and 4,000 years ago, during the Climat ic Optimu m,
many reg ions of the world warmed by an averag e of 5 degrees Fahrenheit.
The melt ing ice caps released a torrent of floodwater into the ocean and
raised sea levels to nearly their present value, wh ich is 300 feet above where
they were when the ice sheets began to melt.
        About 60 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean widened until it
separated the continents and closed off the Arctic basin from warm, tropical
currents. As a result, pack ice accu mulated in the Arctic waters. Until then,
the Earth seldom had permanent ice caps.
        Antarctica became a continent of ice about 40 million years ago,
when it detached from Australia and South America and moved into the
South Polar reg ion. With the establishment of a circu m-Antarctic ocean
current, Antarctica became isolated from warm-water currents that origi-
nated in the tropics. Ice sheets then started to spread over the eastern end of
the continent. About 13 million years ago, the present ice sheet formed as
the climate grew colder. During its stay over the South Pole, Antarctica has
frozen and thawed several times as evidenced by rising and falling sea



                                      42
levels and the fossilized plants that have been discovered in the interior of
the continent.
         Three per cent of the Earth's water is locked up in the polar ice caps.
The ice caps cover, on average, 7 per cent of th e Earth's surface area. The
Arctic is a sea of pack ice , which covers an area of about 4 million square
miles and has an average thickness of several tens of feet. If the entire Arc-
tic pack ice were to melt, it would raise global sea levels perhaps only a few
feet. If all the ice at the opposite pole in Antarctica were to melt, however,
sea levels would rise by as much as 300 feet.
         Nearly 90 per cent of all the ice in the world lies on top of Antarc-
tica. With an area o f 5.5 million square miles, this desolate land of ice is one
and a half times larger than the United States. The ice rises more than 2
miles in places and has a total volume of about 7 million cubic miles. The
continent is divided by the Transantarctic Mountains into a large eastern ice
mass and a smaller western lobe, which is about the size of Greenland. The
world 's largest island, Greenland, is also covered by a thick sheet of ice.
         During the winter months from June to September, nearly 8 million
square miles of the ocean that surrounds Antarctica is covered by sea ice
with an average thickness of less than 3 feet. Because of this immense e x-
panse of ice, Antarctica plays a greater role in atmospheric and oceanic
circulat ion than the Arctic. The sea ice is punctured in various spots by
coastal and open-ocean polynyas, which are large open-water areas kept
fro m freezing by the upwelling of warmer water fro m below. These open
bodies of water release a tremendous amount of heat, which can rise high
into the stratosphere. The upwelling water also h as a high carbon dioxide
content and could release large enough quantities of this gas into the a t-
mosphere to add significantly to global greenhouse warming.
         Antarctica dumps over a trillion tons of ice into the surrounding seas
each year. The ice flo wing into the ocean breaks off into icebergs, which
appear to be getting larger. The number of extremely large icebergs has also
increased dramat ically. The largest one found so far measured 100 miles
long, 25 miles wide, and 750 feet thick. In August 1989, this iceberg col-
lided with Antarctica and broke in two.
         The ice in eastern Antarctica is firmly anchored on land. The ice in
the western lobe, however, rests below the sea on shelves of bedrock. It is
then surrounded by floating ice that is pinned in by small islands that are
buried under the ice. Western Antarctica is traversed by rivers of solid ice
that are several miles broad. These ice streams flow down the mountain
valleys to the sea and on to the great ice shelves of the Ross and Weddell
seas. The banks and midsections of the ice streams are marked by deep cre-
vasses. The bottom of the ice streams might contain muddy pools of melted


                                      43
water, which help lubricate the glaciers and allow them to glide along on the
valley floor.
        A warmer climate, generated by an increase in atmospheric carbon
dio xide, could cause the unstable western Antarctic ice sheet to break loose
and crash into the sea. This would raise global sea levels about 20 feet and
inundate coastal areas. Even a slow melt ing of both polar ice caps could
raise the level of the oceans upwards of 12 feet by the end of the next ce n-
tury. As a result, much of the world's coastal plains and coastal cities would
drown. A rise in the level of the sea could also lift the western Antarctic ice
shelves off the seafloor and set them adrift into warm equatorial waters.
There they would rapid ly melt and raise the sea still higher.
        A flood of ice could then surge into the southern ocean, raise sea
levels still h igher, and set more ice free. The increased area of ice could
form a gigantic ice shelf, which could cover as much as 10 million square
miles. The increased area of ice would increase the Earth's albedo, which in
turn could substantially cool the climate and cause severe instabilit ies in
atmospheric and oceanic circu lation systems.

KEYWORDS:
barrier – coastal – desolate – flood – glacial – glacier – Ice Age – ice cap –
keep fro m – lobe – melt – polynya – retreat – shoreline - upwelling

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION.
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) _______ _______ _______ barriers, seashores will be battered contin ual-
ly by _______ _______ .
2) Alp ine glaciers, which are found on every continent, hold as ________
________ _______ as _______ _______ world‟s _______ and ________ .
3) As the North American ice sheet began _______ _______, its meltwater
________ ________ the Mississippi River and into the Gulf of Mexico.
4) If ________ ________ ________ at the opposite pole in ________ were
to melt, however, sea levels would rise by as much as 300 feet.
5) The world‟s largest island, Greenland, is also covered by ______ ______
_______ of ice.
6) ________ _______ ________ extremely large icebergs has also in-
creased dramatically.
7) The bottom of the ice streams might contain _________ _________ of
________ ________, which help lubricate the glaciers and allo w them
________ ________ along on the valley floor.



                                      44
2. Now co mp lete your Language Record.
Give examp les of your own in good, natural English.
Word             Example                    Exp lanation
adrift           If a boat is adrift, it is Adrift means float ing at random.
                 floating on the water
collide                                     If a moving object or person col-
                                            lides with something, they hit it.
crevasse                                    It is a crack, as in a glacier or
                                            levee.
equatorial                                  Equatorial is used to describe
                                            places and conditions near or at
                                            the equator.
fossilize                                   When the remains of an animal or
                                            plant are fossilized, they become
                                            hard, or leave a print, and form a
                                            fossil.
glide                                       To glide means to move easily
                                            and smoothly.
ice                                         Ice is water that has frozen and
                                            become solid.
iceberg                                     An iceberg is a large, tall mass of
                                            ice floating in the sea.
ice shelf (pl.                              A thick mass of ice that is perma-
shelves)                                    nently attached to the land but
                                            projects into and floats on the ice.
raging storms                               Raging storms are very intense
                                            and severe.
repercussions                               The repercussions of an event or
                                            action are the effects that it has at
                                            a later t ime.
saline                                      A saline substance or liquid con-
                                            tains salt.


3.      An important discovery.
        Some years ago, some people discovered something very important
in the mountains. You can read a newspaper story about it. These words are
in the story. What do you think it tells you?
   tourists a body snow police archaeologists 4,000 years old




                                       45
4.     History under the ice. Read the newspaper story. Check if your a n-
swers to Exercise 3 were correct.

                 Walkers Find Mystery B ody in the Al ps.
        Last Thursday, two people discovered a body in the snow on the
border of Italy and Austria. Helmut and Erica Simon found an axe, a bow
and twelve arrows near the body. The body had boots on, filled with grass.
Mr and Mrs Simon called the police immediately. Archaeologists also went
to see the body. They think the body is probably over 4,000 years old. Dust
fro m a sandstorm melted the snow over the body. Archaeologists from
Ro me and Vienna say that the body can tell us a lot about life thousands of
years ago. The body is one of the most important discoveries for a long
time. In 1950, archaeologists found some bodies in Den mark. They were
also over 4,000 years old.

5.   You can work by yourself, with a partner or in a small group.

                                Vocabulary
Check your vocabulary. Read the text again. Make a list of the words you
don‟t understand. Look carefully at the text again. Can you guess the mea n-
ing of the wo rds? Check the words in the dict ionary. Co mpare y our ideas
with others in your class.

                              Co mprehension
Look back at the text. Write your answers to these questions.
1) What did Helmut and Erica Simon find?
2) Where did they find it?
3) What did they do?
4) What do archaeologists think?
5) How d id they discover it?
6) What did archaeologists find in 1950?

                                  Speaking
Interview M r and Mrs Simon.
Imagine you are a police officer.
You are interviewing Mr and Mrs Simon.
Here are the police notes:
        They found the body at 2.30 p.m. on Monday. They discovered the
        body on the footpath. First they saw the head and shoulders. They
        found a small bag. They picked up an axe. They told the police in the
        village.


                                     46
                Ask! What? When? Where? How? Why?
What questions do you ask?
Interview your partner.
                               Writing
What things did people have 4,000 years ago? What things didn‟t people
have 4,000 years ago? Make a list. Compare your list with others in your
class.

6. When archaeologists find something, they look carefully at it. They see
what clues it gives them, what they can guess about it, and wha t questions
they can ask.
       Can you match the clue, the guess and the question?
We know he had leather boots … so he probably cooked his food. But how
did he get it fro m the ground?
We know he had arrows … so he probably had cows. But what food did he
cook?
We know he had fire … so he probably had iron. But what animals did he
hunt?
We know he had a metal axe … so he probably hunted wild animals. But
what did he do with the milk?

7. Questions and answers.
Match these questions to the correct answers.

1)   What clothes did the Iceman         a) He usually ate meat and vegeta-
     wear?                                  ble soup.
2)   What did the Iceman drink?          b) We don‟t know what language
3)   What did he usually eat?               he spoke.
4)   What language did the Iceman        c) He made them fro m wood and
     speak?                                 he put metal on the end.
5)   How did the Iceman make his         d) He drank water and milk.
     arrows?                             e) He wore a wool coat and leather
                                            boots. He put grass in his boots.



UNIT 9.
                       GLOBAL WARMING
       Extreme and often record-breaking weather events have recently oc-
curred world-wide. There have been heat waves in A merican and central
European cities, floods in Africa that interrupted nearly 2 decades of

                                    47
drought, and almost continuous rain and cold in the middle of summer at
other places. The decade of the 1980s has had six of the hottest years of the
century. This might be a symptom of a global climate change that is caused
by the chemical pollution of the at mosphere. The climate variability, ho w-
ever, is such that the strange weather can still be a reflection of natural vari-
ation. As yet, no sign of climate change has occurred that can be unques-
tionably blamed on the greenhouse effect.
        There might be unknown moderating factors that can cancel out or at
least lessen the greenhouse effect. Scientists have yet to determine where all
the carbon dioxide being produced today is going. Only half the carbon dio-
xide produced by the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation has been
found in the atmosphere or the ocean. Gaseous sulfur produced by marine
single-celled plants called plankton might help counter human -induced
global warming by partially regulating the Earth's temperature. The sulfur
gas emissions could increase the concentration of cloud -forming particles,
which could make clouds whiter and therefore more reflective. This in turn
would lower global tempera tures. Volcanic eruptions, decreasing solar ac-
tivity, and decreasing stratospheric concentrations of ozone could induce
some additional cooling.
        It must also be kept in mind that the climate is always changing,
even without man‟s contributions. During the last warm interglacial period
about 125,000 years ago, the climate was much warmer than it is today. Sea
levels were 20 feet higher due to the melting of the ice caps. The climate
10,000 years ago, at the beginning of the present interglacial, was signifi-
cantly different fro m that of the previous 10,000 years, at the height of the
last Ice Age. The climate of the last 200 years was much different than that
of the previous 200 years during the Little Ice Age. The climate of the last
50 years was much warmer than that of the previous 50 years, when alpine
glaciers reached their southernmost extent. Usually, climate changes were
slow enough in the past for the biological world to adapt. When climate
changes were too abrupt, however, species became extinct.
        The theory of climate change has still not developed enough to pro-
vide all the answers to the importance of the greenhouse effect. Few scie n-
tists publicly support the theory, but they also don't loudly deny it. Most
have a wait and see attitude. More research is needed on atmospheric phys-
ics and air-sea interactions. Much needed information about the Earth will
be collected by advanced satellite technology. The most powerful co mput-
ers ever devised will be needed to model the data. When the data is an a-
lyzed, it could take perhaps a decade or more to sort it out.
        If an upward trend in temperature continues well into the next

                                      48
decade, then scientists will be more certain that it is tied to the greenhouse
effect. It is uncertain, however, whether the human race has that much time.
If we wait too long to enact corrective mea sures, more drastic steps may be
needed to counter global warming in the future.
         Large-scale human intervention might be required to preserve plant
and animal species that are threatened by global climate change, especially
if the change happens too quickly. The two response strategies for comba t-
ing climate change are adaptation, wh ich might involve anything fro m mo v-
ing to a cooler climate to building coastal defenses against a rising sea, and
limitat ion, which directly involves limit ing or reducing the emissions of
greenhouse gasses. Perhaps a prudent response to climate change wou ld
utilize both of these measures .
         Conservation can go a long way toward curtailing the effects of
global warming. Conservation can only attack a portion of the carbon dio-
xide problem, however, not solve it. The world also needs a constitution for
the atmosphere similar to the law of the sea because one nation's pollu tion
inevitably affects all nations.
         The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased
fro m 265 parts per million (ppm) in preindustrial times to 315 pp m in 1958,
335 ppm in 1978, 345 ppm in 1986, and 365 ppm in 1989. So metime be-
tween 2020 and 2070, if present trends continue, the concentration of car-
bon dioxide in the atmosphere could be double the current value, which
could increase the global mean surface temperature on average 5 degrees
Fahrenheit, with some areas experiencing as much as a 10 degree increase.
         The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere fluctuates with the
seasons. It peaks in late winter and falls to a min imu m level at the end of
summer. This is because plants draw carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere
during the growing season and store it in their tissues in the form of carbo-
hydrates. The world's great forests have a pronounced influence on the co n-
tent of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Much of the seasonal variation in the
atmospheric concentration correlates with the rapid rise of photosynth esis
during the summer. Forests conduct more photosynthesis worldwide than
any other form of vegetation. Forests store enough carbon to substa ntially
affect the carbon dio xide content of the atmosphere.
         Although the mechanisms of the greenhouse effect are not fully u n-
derstood, the results of a steady increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide
would probably be catastrophic if other moderating factors did not come
into play. An increase in the average world temperature could enlarge the
desert and semi-desert regions and significantly affect agriculture. On the
other hand, an increase in atmospheric carbon dio xide, which acts as a sort

                                     49
of fertilizer, could also encourage the growth of plants and cause a greening
of the Earth. Which direct ion the climate will follow still remains a riddle.
        Scientists have known about the mechanics of the greenhouse effect
since before the turn of this century. The Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius
predicted the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the climate in 1896.
He concluded that past glacial epochs might have occurred largely because
of a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Arrhenius also estimated that
a doubling of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would
cause a global warming of about 9 degrees Fahrenheit.
        Within 50 to 100 years, the world could be hotter than it has been in
the past million years. The warming will be greatest at the higher latitudes
of the Northern Hemisphere. The greatest temperature increases will occur
in the winter months. Evaporation rates will increase, which will change
circulat ion patterns and dramatically affect the weather. Vast areas of once
productive cropland could lose topsoil and become man -made deserts. At
the present rate of destruction, many rainforests will be rep laced by deserts.
        What is unique about the current warming trend, which amounts to
an increase of over 1 degree Fahrenheit this century, is its unprecedented
speed. The present warming is 10 to 40 times faster than the average rate of
warming that followed the last Ice Age. By the end of the Pleistocene
Epoch, between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago, the Earth warmed perhaps 5
to 10 degrees Fahrenheit. Although this temperature increase is simi lar to
the predicted increase for the greenhouse effect, the major difference is that
it was spread over a period of several thousand years and not compressed
into less than a century.

       The Warmest, Wettest, and Windiest Cities in the U.S.
 Extreme             Location                  Average Annual Value
Warmest       Key West, Florida                 Mean temperature 78 deg. F.
Coldest       International Falls, M innesota   Mean temperature 36 deg. F.
Sunniest      Yu ma, Arizona                    348 sunny days
Driest        Yu ma, Arizona                    2.7 inches of rainfall
Wettest       Quillayute, Washington            105 inches of rainfall
Rainiest      Quillayute, Washington            212 rainy days
Cloudiest     Quillayute, Washington            242 cloudy days
Snowiest      Blue Canyon, Californ ia          243 inches of snowfall
Windiest      Blue Hill, Massachusetts          Mean wind speed 15 m.p.h.
       If present warming trends continue, by the end of the next century
global tempera tures could be as warm as they were during the Cretaceous


                                      50
period 100 million years ago. This was the hottest period in geological his-
tory. The continents at that time were bunched near the equator, however,
so the climates of the two periods would not be the same.
        Some areas, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, will dry out
because of the higher temperatures. This will increase the potential for ma s-
sive forest fires. During the relatively warm and dry fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries, major forest fires in No rth America appear to have occurred about
once every nine years. Then, over the next three centuries, during the coo l-
ing period of the Little Ice Age, massive forest fires were less frequent, less
intense, and occurred only about every 14 years. This has dire imp lications
for us today. If greenhouse warming continues, majo r forest fires such as
those that devastated half of Yello wstone National Park during the summer
and fall of 1988 might become more frequent, with the resultant loss of fo-
rests and wild life habitats.
        At the other extreme, the southern tropics will face severe flooding,
which will erode cropland, displace people, and generally cause an ecolog i-
cal disaster of unheard-of proportions. Rivers will be forced to carry more
water than their courses can handle and will take massive quantities of
much needed topsoil with them to the sea.
        Coastal regions, where half the human population lives, will feel the
adverse effects of rising sea levels when the ice caps melt under increasing
ocean temperatures. If the present melting continues, the sea could rise as
much as 6 feet by the middle of the next century. As a result, large tracks of
coastal land would disappear along with shallow bar rier islands and coral
reefs. Lo w-lying fertile deltas that support millions of people would vanish.
Delicate wetlands, where many species of marine life hatch their young,
would be reclaimed by the sea. Vu lnerable coastal cities would have to
move farther inland or build protective walls.
        The effects of global warming could last for centuries. Forests would
creep northward. Other wildlife habitats, including arctic tundra, would dis-
appear entirely. Many species will be unable to keep pace with the rapid
climate changes. Those that are able to migrate could find their routes
blocked by natural and man-made barriers. The warm ing would rearrange
entire biological co mmun ities and cause many species to become ext inct.
Other species, commonly called pests, could overrun the land. These
changes would diminish the diversity of the world's species and have an
adverse affect on humans as the biosphere loses its ability to sustain life.
Because of man's disruptive activities, the precious planet called Earth
could become a totally alien world.


                                      51
KEYWORDS:
adapt – cancel out – commun ity – deforest – global warming – greenhouse
effect – plankton – Pleistocene – unprecedented

DRILLS:
COMPREHENSION OF THE INFORMATION
1. Co mplete the sentences:
1) Much needed information about the Earth will be collected by
   ________ ________ ________ .
2) ________ ________ ________ were too abrupt, however, species be-
   came extinct.
3) The climate variab ility, however, is such that _______ _______ ______
   can still be _______ _______ of ________ ________ .
4) Within ________ to ________ years, the world could be hotter than it
   has been in the ________ ________ ________ .
5) ________ _________ ________ is 10 to 40 times faster than ________
   ________ _________ of warming that followed the last Ice Age.
6) As a result, large tracks of ________ ________ would disappear along
   with shallo w barrier islands and _________ _________ .
7) ________ ________ would rearrange entire biological co mmunities
   and cause ________ _________ to become extinct.

2.     Now co mp lete your Language Record.
       Give examp les of your own in good, natural English.

        Word                Example                       Exp lanation
alien                It is very difficult to   Something that is alien belongs
                     adjust to an alien        to a different country, group, or
                     society.                  race.
bunch                                          To be bunched means to be
                                               grouped.
creep                                          If something creeps somewhere,
                                               it moves very slowly, so that
                                               you hardly notice that it is mov-
                                               ing.
dire                                           Dire is used to emphasize how
                                               serious or terrible a situation is.
disrupt                                        To disrupt an activity or system
                                               means to prevent it from con-
                                               tinuing normally.
evaporate                                      When a liquid evaporates, it


                                       52
                                            changes into a gas, usually be-
                                            cause it has been heated.
protective                                  A protective object or action is
                                            intended to protect something or
                                            someone fro m harm.
shallow                                     The shallows are the shallow
                                            part of an area of water.
substantial                                 Substantial means very large in
                                            amount or degree.
topsoil                                     Topsoil is surface soil, essential
                                            to agriculture.

3. What is happening to the climate?
Our climate is changing all the time. Many scientists think that the world is
getting warmer. Is it important? Tell the class your ideas.

4. An international climate conference. Representatives from over 100
countries are meeting to talk about the environment. Read the text below
and complete the sentences.

        Hello from the International Climate Conference. There are repre-
        sentatives from over 100 countries here. Yesterday, we heard about
        plans to help the environment.
        One big problem is the car. The Spanish group, for example, says it
is going to … .
        The group from the United States says it is going to … .
        The Italians want to protect their historic cities. They say that many
cities are going to … .
        The Germans want to make people use the public transport system
more. They plan to … .
         The Japanese group says that Japan is going to … .
        The group from the United Kingdom is going to … .

        Work with a partner. One o f you can choose List A and the other one
List B. Read the text again. Copy and complete the table about each cou n-
try‟s plans.

      List A                         Plan
      Spain
       Italy
      Japan

                                     53
                                 List B                         Plan
                            The United States
                                Germany
                           The United Kingdom

Tell the partner what the countries on your list are going to do.

5.    Think about the month of the year. Make notes about each month.
          Is it hot or cold?
          What can you do?
          What can you wear?
          Have you got a holiday then?

           Tell the class your ideas. Collect all the ideas on the board.

6. Important! Do this with your teacher! Make a baro meter! An exper i-
ment to try in class.
         A barometer shows when rain is co ming.
         „High‟ air pressure = fine weather
         „Low‟ air pressure = rain (probably)

     Put a candle in water. Put some coins around it. Light the cand le. Put a
      glass jar over it. Watch the water rise.
     Check the water level every day. If it goes UP, fine weather is coming.
        If it goes DOWN , bad weather is coming.

7.   What do you think of when you hear or see these words?
     day – winter – spring – summer – rain – clouds – wind –
                           autumn – night
     Note down your ideas about some of the words. Write down what
YOU thin k of.

     It ‟s hot, and I get tired.                       Long, dry days.

                                        Sun


                     The light is bright in the morn ing.

         Use your ideas to write a poem, „Living in my climate‟.



                                         54
                 ENVIRONMENTAL “IDIOMS”
aci d rai n: precipitation containing high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids
resulting from car exhaust and factories. The smoke from the steel mills in
Indiana mixes with the moisture in the air and falls as acid rain in the Ad i-
rondack Mountains, killing trees and polluting rivers.

bi odegradable: ab le to be decomposed by bacterial act ion. The fast-food
chain stopped using foam plastic containers because they are not biode-
gradable.

composting: making a mixture of decaying organic matter to imp rove soil
structure and provide nutrients for crop production. A composting attach-
ment for a lawn mower will cut the grass small enough so that it will ferti l-
ize the soil when it decays.

deforestation: the destruction of forests resulting from excessive clearing.
Deforesta tion leads to climatic and environmental changes that sometimes
cause rich agricultural regions to become desert wastelands.

ecology: a division of bio logy concerned with the relationship between liv-
ing things and their environment. Because there are so many people today
using the natural resources of the world, ecology has become an important
concern.

endangered species: animals that are threatened with ext inction. The
orang-utan, the rhinoceros, and the falcon are endangered species.

energy efficient: using little energy. Aerodynamic design and lighter mate-
rials make automobiles more energy efficient.

environmentalist: a person who works toward protecting the environment
fro m destruction or pollution. Environmentalists may be in opposition to
commercial interests of big corporations.

extinct: no longer existing or found on Earth. Dinosaurs and the giant
mammoths are now extinct.

                                     55
fuel-efficient: using little fuel. Small cars are generally more fuel-efficient
than larger ones.

global warming : the increase in world temperatures due to the greenhouse
effect. Global warming is causing some melting of the polar ice caps, re-
sulting in increased coastal flooding.

greening: the act of making something green or fresh; a restoration. The
program to plant trees along the downtown boulevards is one aspect of the
mayor's plan for the greening of the city.

greenhouse effect: the phenomenon by which the Earth's atmosphere traps
some of the Sun's heat as it radiates from the Earth's surface. The green-
house effect is noticeable in the warmer temperatures that we have ex -
perienced over the last two decades.

hazardous waste: nuclear waste or an industrial by-product that is po-
tentially damag ing to the environment and harmfu l to the health and well-
being of living organisms. An old car battery is hazardous waste and must
be disposed of properly.

landfill: method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between
layers of dirt to fill in lo w-lying areas. People were becoming seriously ill
because their neighborhood had been built upon landfill that contained poi-
sonous waste products.

non-toxic: not poisonous. Tinned food is thought to be non-toxic when it is
used in small amounts.

organic fertilizers: a natural product such as manure to make the soil mo re
productive for agriculture. Un like chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers
are not harmful to living creatures.

ozone layer: a region in the upper atmosphere containing a high amount of
ozone gas that absorbs the Sun's ultraviolet radiat ion. Some chemicals used
in refrigerators and in the production of foam plastics reduce the ozone
layer, allowing harmful ultraviolet radiation to enter, thereby contributing
to skin cancer.

rainforest: a mo ist, densely wooded area with an annual rainfall of 200 cm.
The largest rainforests in the world are found in South America.

                                      56
recycling: the process of collecting used products and remanufacturing
them into new products instead of throwing them away as garbage. Recy-
cling newspapers helps to preserve forests, since fewer trees have to be cut
down to make pulp.

solar energy: electrica l power generated by the heat of the Sun. The desert
home was powered entirely by solar energy.



                              GLOSSARY
acid rain – Rain, containing harmful acids.
acreage – The area of land in acres.
activity – Activity is a situation in which a lot of things are happening or
being done.
adapt – If you adapt to a new situation or adapt yourself to it, you change
your ideas or behaviour in order to deal with it successfully.
agriculture – Agriculture is farming and the methods that are used to raise
and look after crops and animals.
alpine areas – Mountainous areas.
arable – Fit for p loughing and tillage.
archaeology – The study of past cultures through their surviving relics.
area – An area is a particular part of a city, a country, or the world.
atmosphere – A planet‟s atmosphere is the layer of air or other gas around
it.

barrier – A barrier is any fence or structure erected to bar passage.
boulder – A boulder is a large rounded rock.

calorie – A calorie is a unit of measurement for the energy value of food.
cancel out – If two things cancel each other out, they have opposite effects,
so that when they are combined no real effect is produced.
cap – Any caplike cover.
carbon dioxide – Carbon dioxide is a gas. Animals and people breathe out
carbon dioxide.
carbonate – To carbonate means to charge (water) with carbon dio xide.
Carboniferous – Of the geological period when coal deposits were formed,
350 to 270 million years ago.
Cenozoic = Cainozoic – Relating to the most recent geological era, which
began 70.000.000 years ago.


                                      57
chaos – Chaos is a state of complete disorder and confusion.
chlorine – Ch lorine is a strong-smelling gas that is used to disinfect water
and to make cleaning products.
C.I.S. – Co mmonwealth of Independent States.
civilization – A civilizat ion is a human society which has its own highly
developed social organization, culture, and way of life which makes it d is-
tinct fro m other societies.
coastal – Coastal means in the sea or on the land near a coast.
combustion – Combustion is the act of burning something or the process of
burning.
community – A group of animal and plant species living together and hav-
ing close interactions.
consume – To consume an amount of fuel, energy, or t ime means to use it
up.
control – To control a mach ine, process, or system means to make it work
in the way that is required.
Cretaceous – Of the third and latest geological period of the Mesozoic Era.
crust – The outer layers of the Earth‟s rocks.
crustal – Of a crust, especially the Earth‟s crust.

deforest – Clear of forests.
demography – The science of vital statistics relating to deaths, births, etc.
deplete – Exhaust by drawing away, as resources, strength, vital powers.
desert – A desert is a large area of land where there is very little water or
rain and very few plants.
desolate – Wasted, barren.
destruction – Destruction is the act of destroying something.
diet – A diet is the food that a person or animal eats regularly.
dilute – To change or weaken by mixing with something else.
dinosaurs – Dinosaurs were large reptiles which lived in prehistoric times
and which are now ext inct.
dire – Dire is used to emphasize how serious or terrib le a situation is.
disappear – If someone or something disappears, they go where you can no
longer see them.
disease – A disease is an illness in living things that is caused by infection
or by a fault inside them.
disrupt – To disrupt an activity or system means to prevent it from co ntinu-
ing normally.
drought – A drought is a long period of time during wh ich no rain falls.
dynasty – A dynasty is a series of rulers of a country who all belong to the
same family.


                                     58
emission – When there is an emission of gas or radiation, it is released into
the atmosphere.
encroach – If someone or something encroaches on an area of land, they
gradually occupy more and more of it.
extinct – A species of animals that is extinct no longer has any living me m-
bers.

farming – Farming is the activity of growing crops or raising animals on a
farm.
fern – A fern is a plant that has long stems with feathery leaves and no
flowers.
fishery – A fishery is an area of the sea where fish are caught in large quan-
tities.
flood – If there is a flood, a large amount of water covers an area which is
usually dry, for example when a river overflows.
fluctuate – If something fluctuates, its amount, level, or nature keeps chan g-
ing.
fragile – Easily spoiled, harmed, or broken.

glacial – Glacial means relating to glaciers or ice.
glacier – A glacier is a huge mass of ice which moves very slowly, often
down a mountain valley.
global warming – The theory that the climate of the Earth is gradually b e-
coming warmer as a result of the greenhouse effect.
globe – You can refer to the Earth as the globe.
Gondwana – A southern supercontinent of Paleozoic t ime, which consisted
of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica. It broke up into
the present continents during the Mesozoic Era.
grave danger – Danger that is grave is very serious and worrying.
greenhouse effect – The global heating effect that is caused when the at-
mosphere is more transparent to incoming short-wave solar radiation than it
is to outgoing long-wave radiation.

habitat – The habitat of an animal or p lant is the natural environ ment in
which it normally lives.
harm – To harm something means to damage it or make it less effective or
successful.
healthy – Something that is healthy is good for you and likely to make you
healthy.
herbicide – Herbicide is a selective weed killer.



                                      59
hippopotamus – A hippopotamus is a large animal with short legs and
thick, wrinkled skin. Hippopotamuses live near rivers in Africa.
hole – A hole is a hollow space.

Ice Age – The glacial epoch, fro m about 2 million to 10.000 B.C.
ice cap – A large mass of ice.
industrial – You use „industrial‟ to describe things which relate to industry
or are used in it.
insect – Any member of a class of tiny winged invertebrates.
insecticide – A substance to kill insects.
irrigation – The artificial increase of water supply.

Jurassic – Of the second period of the Mesozoic Era, immediately follo w-
ing the Triassic and preceding the Cretaceous, characterized by the domin-
ance of dinosaurs and the appearance of reptiles and birds.

keep from – To keep someone or something fro m doing a particular thing
means to prevent them fro m doing it.
kill – When someone or something kills a person, animal or plant, they
cause the person, animal, or p lant to die.
kind – If you talk about a particular kind of thing, you are talking about one
of the classes or sorts of that thing.

land – Land is an area of ground with few or no buildings on it.
latitude – The latitude of a place is its distance to the north or south of the
Equator.
Laurasia – The northern supercontinent of the Paleozoic Era that consisted
of No rth America, Europe, and Asia.
limestone – Limestone is a white-coloured rock which is used for building
and making cement.
lobe – A lobe is a globular or rounded part.
lush forests – You describe forests as lush when the grass or plants there are
very healthy and are growing well and thickly.

mammals – Mammals are particu lar types of animals.
man-made – So mething that is „man-made‟ is made by people, rather than
formed naturally.
melt – When something melts or when you melt it, it changes from a solid
to a liquid because it has been heated.
Mesozoic – Of a geological era after the Paleozoic and before the Cenozoic:
it covered a period between 230 and 65 million years ago.


                                      60
meteorite – A meteorite is a large piece of rock or metal fro m space that has
landed on the Earth.
monitor – A monitor is a mach ine that is used to check or record things.
mortality – Mortality is the fact that all people must die.

nannoplankton – Planktonic o rganisms smaller than 40 microns in diame-
ter.
nitric acid – A corrosive compound of nitrogen, used in making dyes, ex-
plosives, plastics, etc.
nitrogen – A colourless, odourless, gaseous element, No. 7, symbol N,
forming four-fifths of the volume of the Earth‟s at mosphere.
number – The su m of an aggregation of persons or things.
nutritious – Food that is „nutritious‟ contains substances which help your
body to be healthy.

occurrence – An occurrence is something that happens.
ocean – The ocean is the body of salt water covering three-fourths of the
Earth‟s surface.
oxide – A compound of oxygen with another element.
oxygen – A gaseous element, No. 8, symbol O, colourless, odourless, and
essential to all life.
ozone – An ionized form of o xygen.

Paleozoic – Of a geological era, the age of invertebrates.
Pangaea – An ancient supercontinent that included all the land mass of the
Earth.
plankton – The microscopic animals and plants that drift freely in natural
bodies of water and on which most marine life feeds.
Pleistocene – Of the epoch in the Earth‟s history that started about a million
years ago and lasted for about 800.000 years, when glaciers covered most of
the Northern Hemisphere.
pole – The Earth‟s poles are the two opposite ends of its axis.
pollute – To pollute the water, air, or at mosphere means to make it dirty and
dangerous to live in or to use.
polynya – A space of open water in the midst of ice, esp. in the arctic seas.
precipitation – The process or effect of precipitating.
propellant – A propelling agent, as a fuel or an explosive.
protein – Protein is a substance found, for examp le, in meat, eggs, and milk.
You need protein in order to grow and be healthy.

quantity – A quantity is an amount that you can measure or count.


                                     61
radiation – Radiation is very small particles of a radioactive substance that
can cause illness and death.
rainforest – A rainforest is a thick forest of tall trees which is found in tro p-
ical areas where there is a lot of rain.
retreat – The act of withdrawing.
rupture – The act or result of breaking.

sandy dunes – Hills of sand heaped up by the wind.
savannah – A grassy plain with scattered trees.
search for food – If you search for food, you look carefully for it.
shell – A hard outer case or covering.
shoreline – The line where water and shore meet.
smokestack – An upright pipe carrying off smo ke.
soil – Soil is the top layer of earth, wh ich plants can grow in.
solar energy – The energy which can be produced from the Sun‟s rays or
the effects of the Sun‟s rays or gravity.
species – A species is a class of animals or plants whose members have the
same main characteristics and are able to breed with each other.
spruce – Type of fir tree with dense foliage.
staggering – Astonishingly great.
starvation – Act or process of starving.
stratosphere – The region of the Earth‟s atmosphere six to sixty miles
above sea level.
sulfur = sulphur – A non metallic chemical element, No. 16, symbol S, used
in medicine, gunpowder, etc.
sunlight – Light fro m the Sun.
survive –Continue to live.

Tertiary – Of the period in the Earth‟s history between about 65 million and
2 million years ago, when modern types of plant and animal first appeared.
thaw – A thaw is a period of warmer weather, usually at the end of winter,
when the snow and ice melts.
trace – A very small quantity of something.
tree – A large perennial plant with a single permanent woody trunk.
Triassic – Related to the earliest period or system of the Mesozoic Era
marked by the dominance of reptiles and the appearance of gymnosperm
plants.
tundra – A level, treeless plain of Arctic regions.

unprecedented – Having no precedent.


                                       62
upwelling – The rising of nutrient-laden waters fro m the ocean depths to
the surface.

vanish – If something vanishes, it disappears suddenly.
vegetation – Vegetation is plant life in general.
vinegar – Vinegar is a sharp-tasting liquid, usually made fro m sour wine or
malt, which is used in making things such as salad dressing.
vulnerable – Someone who is vulnerable is weak and easily hurt physically
or emotionally .

warming – Emitt ing heat.
waste – Waste is also material which has been used and is no longer
wanted, for examp le because the valuable or useful part of it has been taken
out.
wild – Animals liv ing in the wild are living in their natural surroundings and
are not being looked after by people.




                                      63
64
65
                          REFERENCES
1.  Andrew Littlejohn & Diana Hicks. Cambridge En glish Worldwide.
    Cambridge Un iversity Press, 1999.
2. Adams, Mc Kay; Connections; Eco Education; 1994.
3. Broecker, Wallace S. “Carbon dio xide circu lation through ocean and
    atmosphere”. Nature Vo l. 308, 1984.
4. Beard, Jonathan. “Glaciers on the run”. Science 85 Vo l. 6, 1985.
5. Europe‟s Environ ment – The Dobris Assessment; Stanners / Bourdeau
    European Environ mental Agency, 1995.
6. Erickson, Jon. “Greenhouse Earth: To morrow‟s Disaster Today”.
    U.S.A., 1990.
7. Long man. Dict ionary of Contemporary English. – Langescheidt:
    Long man, 1987.
8. Monastersky, Richard. “Fate of Arctic Ozone remains up in the air”.
    Science News Vo l. 135, 1989.
9. Schneider, Stephen H. “ The Greenhouse Effect. Science and Policy”.
    Science Vo l. 243, 1989.
10. Towe, Kenneth M. “Earth‟s Early Atmosphere”. Science Vo l. 235,
    1987.




                                  66
                     CONTENTS

                                                   Page
INTRODUCTION .……………………………………….. 3
UNIT 1. The Occurre nce of Life ……………………….. 4
A set of drills ……………………………………………… 5
UNIT 2. What Killed the Dinosaurs……………………... 9
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 11
UNIT 3. Habitat Destruction and Species Extinction…… 15
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 16
UNIT 4. Acid Rain………………………………………… 20
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 22
UNIT 5. Ozone Depletion ………………………………… 24
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 26
UNIT 6. Overpopulation………………………………….. 30
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 31
UNIT 7. World Environments……………………………. 35
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 38
UNIT 8. The Melting Ice Caps …………………………… 41
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 44
UNIT 9. Global Warming ………………………………… 47
A set of drills ………………………………………………. 52
ENVIRONMENTAL “IDIOMS” …………………………. 55
GLOSSARY ………………………………………………. 57
MAP OF THE WORLD (CLIMATE) …………………….. 64
REFERENCES ……………………………………………. 66




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