Silk Road Exploration _Abstract_

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					Silk Road Exploration (Abstract)
Tao Qi Qilushushe of the first edition in August 1992
Abstract book: from the known, the Silk Road from Chang'an (now
Xi'an) to Rome. Well, neither ancient mulberry Xi'an area, and
no sericulture, silk, silk industry did not. A lot of silk come from? Book through
detailed feasibility studies, concluded that the ancient Qingzhou (now Shandong) is
the source of the Silk Road. The following is extract the subtitles were added by a
A communication of the ancient Silk Road world's major centers of
   Far away in the Spring and Autumn Period on behalf of China's
mulberry silk industry will have an initial development of China's unique
soft and beautiful silk spread to the West also was removed. Han era, after Zhang
Qian Western, Eastern and Western thoroughfare wide open, a large number of silk
through the Hexi Corridor, north and south of Tianshan, Central Asia, West Asia and
exported to the Eastern Mediterranean, and Rome, the formation of a Eurasian
transport link road. Modern German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen this article
in order to transport the Chinese silk-based transit Nature Reserve for the
"Silk Road", and was academic, cultural, still in use.
   Silk Road communication between the ancient world's major centers of
civilization. Greece, Rome, Persia, Egypt, and Arab and Indian civilization, the two
Creek civilization through its communication with the Chinese civilization. The
interaction of these centers of civilization and the impact, and promote their own
development and progress of human civilization in the history of great significance.
(See Preface)
Second, the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the ancient Green Island is the origin
of sericulture industry
   Residents use our ancient history of sericulture has been at least 5,000 years, from
5000 years ago to the Shang and Zhou at the turn of the history of China's
mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori, by the conversion period, it was our initial
development period of sericulture industry. This period, the sericulture industry in the
Yellow River, Yangtze River has the rise of many other regions revealed early Shu
sericulture industry. In recent decades, domestic sericulture research community, the
academic history of the origin of the silkworm done a lot of analysis and research. ... ...
The more dominant the two factions. First, the Origin of the Yangtze River Delta, one
of Origin of the Yellow River Basin. (P12)
   (Through analysis of historical data, archaeological finds, historical climate and soil
concluded) Yellow River is the birthplace of sericulture in the first, it is beyond doubt.
    Yellow River is the birthplace of Chinese sericulture industry first, the Yellow
River shore of our ancient ancestors is the sericulture industry pioneer. Of course, the
Yellow River has a long history, the Yellow River it is a great geographical concept, in
this great range, sericulture more than one source, of course, but the little stars. In this
little stars in the Yellow Sea in Shandong first ushered in the beginning of the Chinese
silkworm industry Shu, China Sericulture earliest developed areas.
    Shandong Province is the ancient origin of sericulture industry, the important
conclusion that Scots into the French scholar Boulnois, Japanese scholar Ji Chengwu
the United States, Nunome Shun Long, and a significant part of China scholars hold
this view. (P20)
    Yellow River in ancient times the natural conditions described before, the Yellow
River in Shandong than in other areas more favorable natural conditions, climatic
conditions from the view, ancient Shandong region is characterized by warm and
humid climate, in comparison with other regions, Wetting is a distinctive feature of it.
The eastern Shandong Province, for the wetting of coastal climate, western Shandong,
it is humid, lowland river valleys, the clouds with rivers and lakes, not different from
today JAC ... ... Some scholars projected forest area of Shandong, according to the
present administrative division roughly 70 000 square kilometers, the forest coverage
rate of 46%, the rest is grassland and marsh.
This warm, humid climate remain so until the Spring and Autumn Period to Lu, for
example, in the "Spring and Autumn" recorded in 200 years, the
Lu partial waterlogging is often long period of rain, drought almost did not happen.
    In addition to climatic conditions, soil conditions in Shandong area is also very
favorable, "Shang Shuyu tribute" to the soil Kyushu into nine
groups, Yongzhou as the last, Yanzhou is on, the Green Island for the up and down
(Abstract by Note: Yanzhou, Qingzhou all Shandong Province in this area) ... ... so the
ancient culture of the regional economy should be the most developed areas in
Yanzhou and Yongzhou, Green Island and other places.
Shandong superior natural environment and ancient hard working public combined to
form a splendid ancient farming culture in ancient times ... ... the first bred in
Shandong's agricultural economy has developed, first emerged in the social
and economic development, so it should of course to become the first developed areas
of sericulture industry.
    Back in ancient legends of the times, three people closely connected with the
silkworm (or tribal) Fu Xi, Shen Nong and Huang Di, along with today's
Shandong Province has an integral relation with.
    Silkworm and mulberry industry initially developed into the class in society,
"Yu Gong" and "Records of the summer this in
mind," have records, the Xia dynasty, "while nine river guide,
Rescia both Chak, Yong disheartened together, while Yanzhou mulberry silkworm
soil" This means that large to be set later, Yanzhou areas where suitable
Zaisang mulberry have been planted, the raising of the silkworm. Others have no such
3 weeks and the Han and Tang Dynasties, ancient Qingzhou Sericulture and Silk
Industry size, yield, quality, and paid the number of all ranks of the Central crown
   To the Chou dynasty era, the unprecedented development of silkworm and
mulberry industry, ranking first in the distance. In 1966, the Soviet Union in
Qingzhou port Tuen tombs unearthed jade commercial silkworm, realistic form, fine
workmanship, ... ... Spring and Autumn Period, Sericulture, Shandong region has been
well developed. Shandong region in this period developed the best portrayal of the
sericulture industry, devaluation "Book of Songs" in the ... ...
"Book of quiet wind in July" very complete, graphically singing
the Lu to the silkworm production. (P21 ~ 26)
   As a starting point for the Silk Road where the relationship with the largest
distribution center, the sericulture industry developed, through which the Silk Road
Hexi Corridor, Xinjiang is reverse, then the accumulation of Chang'an, Silk
circulation will come from outside Therefore, Chang can be said to truly
"set", "casual" manner. So, Chang Silk
come from? Also the source of the Silk Road where? (P156)
   Han and Tang times, find out which areas the most popular silk industry, the most
advanced textile technology? ... ...
   Above chart clearly shows us the center of the Han Dynasty silk industry in the
north and south of Taishan, which is today's Shandong area.
   Mulberry silk industry in the north and south of Taishan developed, we in front of
Sima Qian and Ban Gu's record has been seen. Sima Qian in
"Historical Records" repeatedly praised the region's
mulberry silk industry, but only praised the area. He said: "Come with
mountain and sea, paste soil thousands of miles, should Sangma; Zoulu Bin Zhu Si,
quite Sangma of the industry." He added: "Qilu acres Sangma,
which everyone with 1000 and Hou." This has repeatedly praised not know
that general statement. When this scenario over and over Sangma is a long time, we in
the first chapter in Part III, has introduced the Warring States period of Qilu
sericulture industry, can serve as proof. Because of this, when the membership will
Mencius Home Zou places in the lobby of Liang, the blurted out, "mu of
house, tree to Sang." Of course, the development of sericulture Qilu Sang
Han Dynasty, not only says Sima Qian and Ban also says, and then all the other
people says. "Salt and Iron" Volume has in mind the people in
the Western Han Dynasty and the Politics of the Ministers in a public debate,
literature and people in opposition are input method, were lost on the particular
reference to law practice, "Let the thick waterproof silk Ah, Shu Han of the
cloth" , is the focus of the object are lost. Qi, of course, refers to the
ancient Qi, A, in this western area of Shandong. According to
"Han" records, were lost France in the early hours, a year
income Silk 5 million, of which the thick waterproof silk Qi A proportion of absolute
advantage when the home. This in itself reflects the Han silkworm and mulberry silk
industry developed. On the silk industry developed from the Han Dynasty, the most
noteworthy is located in Qi's three officers.
    The so-called three officials, the central government was run by the textile sector.
Han, the use of the crown in spring, conical cap, led by services such as; white silk
elements for the winter clothes; light raw silk for the Xiafu, therefore, also refers to
the so-called three spring and three quarters of the production of winter clothing.
According to "Geography" of the record, the Han Dynasty set
up two service officers, one a Xiang Yi, is Liu-gun; a chapter to the county Linzi.
Xiang Yi Sui County in Henan term of the present, close to Shandong, where the
service officers than found in "Geography", the other very few
records, the scale is smaller than in Dean Qi when the service official. Qi Han service
officer in the classics and more documented, its main responsibility is the production
of winter for the emperor, spring, summer and three quarters of clothing, therefore,
called the three officers. Reappraisal in the "Han Gong Yu
Chuan" in Note Road:
  ?Three officers to do the emperor of the main services, the Qi
  ?Since it is the emperor of the service, here should be the national level the highest
in the silk industry. Of course, the three officials to do the emperor of the main
services, but also for the royal family or the government needed to produce a large
number of other high-grade silk. Silk Road once found three officers of Qi produced
silk. (P163)
    Based on the above reasoning, Qi 3 official in the first phase of production scale,
but produced a year around 100 senior silk silk, there are no more than dozens of
weavers. However, after Emperor Wu, Qi three officers conduct their various
thousands of people, three people together when there are about a million-year-old
spent a few giant, which is hundreds of millions. Compared with the first phase of the
second stage, weavers increased hundreds of times a year the cost has increased
hundreds of times, rapid expansion, it is just a sigh.
... ... Qi 3, when officials suddenly puffed, the occasion was the official opening of the
Silk Road. Therefore, in the Western Han Dynasty era, on the one hand is the official
Qi three rapid expansion, on the other hand is a lot of silk through the Han Dynasty,
an endless stream of input the West ... ... (P165)
    Official Qilu areas such silk industry developed, the private silk industry favorably.
"Lun             Heng       Cheng        wood       articles,"      said:
"Let's Ministry of the world of embroidery, no permanent
women can not." That is the woman everyone here embroidery. (P166)
    Then, the Han Dynasty after that?
    ... ... In this way, we can conclude that: look at the quality of the Tang Dynasty silk,
led Shandong, Henan, Hebei, second, Sichuan, South has followed. The late Tang
Dynasty, although the silk industry in southern Sichuan has made great progress, but
still the biggest quality of Shandong silk head of the national crown. Taiwan famous
historian Mr. Yan Gengwang in the "textile industry of the geographical
distribution of the Tang Dynasty," the article pointed out: "the
Tang Dynasty, Sichuan silk produced by the production to be better than the south, but
the general trend of Sichuan quality silk produced by Shandong worse than .
" This is a very pertinent. In fact, Tang is also the view of people,
"Taiping" Volume 300 cited "wide differences in
mind," said: Kaiyuan early, "the world the only North Sea
(Green Island) silk best."
   ... ... After Wei, development and change since, although no longer a thriving
Shandong silk already, but can Yanyaqunfang, in terms of production scale, popularity,
or look at various aspects of silk quality, it is in the nation The first, is a national
center of silkworm silk industry. (P185)
   Han and Tang Dynasties, the mulberry silk industry in Shandong has been living in
the center of the country, whether the scale of production, popularity and quality of
Silk are living first in the country, its base lies in Shandong province with advanced
technology developed mulberry silk. (P192)
(This section includes an advanced species of mulberry, optimization, propagation of
mulberry, sericulture technology, printing and dyeing plants, planting, ranking the
highest in the textile technology)
Conclusion: The ancient Silk Road Green Island is the main source
   The image of the above facts, detailed illustration of a large number of
SHANDONG silk starting from Shandong by Chang transit, into the Silk Road,
constitute the main source of the Silk Road. (P266)
   (Then discusses how the research is delivered to the Shandong silk Chang)
Special offers:
BEIJING: China's ancient Qingzhou should be the ancient "Silk
of the source"

Weifang Daily: Green Island is the source of the Silk Road

Green Island and the Silk Road many, many relationships
Foreign relations History Association, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
researcher, doctoral tutor, Mr. Geng Sheng

Traditional "Silk Road" of the status of neglected Qingzhou
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of History, Deputy Director, Research
Fellow and doctoral tutor Mr. Wang Zhenzhong

Warring States Period of ancient Qingzhou silk on the "crown cover
Dean of the Chinese People's University history professor PhD supervisor
Mr. Sun Jiazhou

Green Island in the Maritime Silk Road Chinese and foreign status and role of
History and Foreign Relations Vice President and Secretary General, Chinese
Academy of Social Sciences doctoral tutor Miss Wan Ming

Ancient Silk Road of Qingzhou important to locate one of the sources, there is no
History of Chinese foreign relations, vice president of Shandong Provincial
Government Staff Officer, Shandong University history professor, doctoral tutor, Mr.
Chao Zhongchen

Green Island from the perspective of foreign relations history with overseas
exchanges should also push forward
Lu Tung University, Party Secretary, Director, Centre for Cultural Studies Jiaodong,
Fellow Mr. Liu Fengming

Green Island is the Central Plains and the Western Ancient Silk Road from the eastern
Ancient Research Institute of Shandong University, doctoral tutor Mr. Zheng Jiewen

Green Island is one of the sources of silk sea, sea and land characteristics is more
Local History Research Institute, Shandong Normal University, Professor, Mr. Zhu

From the broader understanding of the contribution of the ancient Qingzhou and the
role of the Silk Road
Institute of Shandong Academy of Social History, Fellow, Mr. Liu Dake

Green Island is the source of the ancient Silk Road, Silk Road is the starting point
Shandong University Qilu Culture Research Center Deputy Director, Professor, Mr.
Cheng Qili

More experts point:

Thesis: the source of the ancient Silk Road Qingzhou
"Ancient Qingzhou (Shandong) and the Silk Road" Symposium
"Silk Road, a hundred schools contend" blog essay prize

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