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  The State of the Art
Training needs analysis
OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

      in European Smes

                       Country tables

                                               OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Central European countries
    Country           Labour market                  Human capital and                                       Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                                                          Vocational based                                           Competence
Austria         86,2% of Austrian                Needs of highly qualified         In Austria a number of tools or software-programmes exist which enables small and medium
                enterprises employ less than     employees. Training               enterprises to determine their needs of further education.
Source: CATT    9 employees, 11,4% are           processes shift more and          WINQuest: tool based on producing computer-aided questionnaires that identify only
Innovation      small enterprises (10-49         more into working process.        vocational knowledge, but any soft skills. the user gets immediately feedback after answering
Management      employees) and only 2            Changes of technical and          the questions so that he knows if the answers are right or wrong in order to determine the
GmbH            percent are medium               social conditions create          level, respectively the lack of qualifications.
                enterprises (50-249              continuously adoption in          Every entrepreneur has to define detailed questions for the questionnaire. Therefore an exact
                employees)..                     learning, which particularly      knowledge of his employees‟ qualification needs is necessary. Skills which should be
                                                 is settled directly on learning   analysed depend on individual tasks of the employees. The questionnaires can be changed and
                                                 processes in enterprises          adapted every time in a fast way.

                                                                                   PIET (PersonalEntwicklung & InformationsTechnologie) with the aim to develop innovative
                                                                                   tools (different projects) to improve further education and processes of learning in small and
                                                                                   medium sized enterprises. Advantages: creation of a questionnaire for enterprises (owner or
                                                                                   leader) to identify and analyse the requirements in order to develop a concept for further
                                                                                   education, creation of a questionnaire for employees concerning job definition in order to
                                                                                   build up a concept for goal-oriented further education, platform on the internet for exchanging
                                                                                   experiences and constantly improvements due to users‟ (SME) feedback, questionnaires and
                                                                                   checklists are available via Internet, but also per post.
                                                                                   Disadvantages: difficulties to find SME for participating and testing (because of the size of
                                                                                   the company, respectively the low number of employees), high expenditure of time
                                                                                   complexity of tools for SME.

                                                                                   Blackboard Inc. Blackboard Inc. is like an internet-based marketplace. Enterprises can offer
                                                                                   their own tools, technologies and services on this space in the Internet. Users can choose
                                                                                   between different "Building Blocks" which are put together to a whole training.

                                                                          its aim is to develop trainings which fit as good as possible to the employees‟ needs of
                                                                                   the enterprise in order to reduce time for training outside, e.g. training in educational

                                                                                   FIT (Firmen Intern Training)
                                                                                   is an individual concept for enterprises and is used by SME‟s as well as by big enterprises.
                                                                                   First step: analysis of the needs of education in the company by a trainer together with the
                                                                                   owner or leader of the company
                                                                                   Next step: creation of trainings with specialized trainers of the WIFI

Source: Countries Reports on the state of the art of training needs analysis, OASI 2004
                                                   OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

     Country           Labour market                     Human capital and training                                            Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                                                                Vocational based                               Competence based
Germany               In Germany small      In 2001 about 36% of all German enterprises realised            Several tools for analyzing and evaluating staff are    The area of competence based analysis
                      (< 50) and micro      trainings for their employees. While almost all                 provided in Germany.                                    tools is much further developed than
Source: Akademie      (< 10) enterprises    enterprises with more than 500 employees did so, the                                                                    the area of vocational training needs.
Ueberlingen Neue      provide more than     rate declines proportional to the size of the staff: from       INSIGHTS MDI is probably the most prominent
Medien GmbH -         90 % of all jobs,     50 to 499 people staff 80% of the enterprises, from 10          tool, developed by the INSIGHTS International           INSIGHTS MDI is probably the most
privately owned       varying between       to 49 p. 50%, and those with less than 10 persons               Deutschland GmbH. This tool works on ITC based          prominent tool, developed by the
institute offering    industrial centres    employed only reached 30%. As this is the majority              questionnaires that differ as to content depending on   INSIGHTS International Deutschland
vocational            like the Ruhrgebiet   of the German enterprises (95%) the indicator                   the focus group. Results are summed up in a text-file   GmbH. This tool works on ITC based
education and         where this relation   “number of enterprises realising training”, resulting in        report. However, it does not provide competent          questionnaires that differ as to content
training in all of    is moves to big       36%, doesn‟t reflect the number of employees                    analysis of training needs.                             depending on the focus group. Results
the New Media;        enterprises and       participating. In Germany 36% of the employees                                                                          are summed up in a text-file report.
Institut für          rural regions         working in enterprises offering training participated,          BST-PEP is a tool that has been developed by a          However, it does not provide
Management            where more than       with a range from 20% (in textile industry and                  German consulting company and the University of         competent analysis of training needs.
Diagnostik Prof.      97% of all            hotels/restaurants) to 79% (ICT).                               Tübingen. This tool is, much the same as INSIGHTS       This tool focuses on soft skills and key
Werner Sarges &       workplaces can be     There‟s no research visible on the internal demand              MDI, a questionnaire tool that focuses on managers      skills and does not deal with vocational
Partner (IMD)         found in small and    analysis in small enterprises – all surveys deal with           and follows the aim of determining coaching needs as needs regarding hard skills.
counselling           micro firms.          descriptive data only.                                          a basis of face to face coachings and consulting.
companies of          The                                                                                                                                           BST-PEP is a tool that has been
several branches in   unemployment rate     The biggest catalogue of further vocational education           On the whole It can be said, that the tools used in     developed by a German consulting
their staff           is 10.5 in the        (KURS) in 2003 contained 450.004 courses (306.240               Germany can be helpful in terms of training needs       company and the University of
development           average, highest in   in 2002) of which 50.6% were full time. 17.3% were              analysis as far as management is concerned. However, Tübingen. BST-PEP is, much the same
                      East Germany (>       part time, 17.5% in-house, 9.3% week-end courses,               we did not find any common tools for the analysis of    as INSIGHTS MDI, a questionnaire
                      17.5%) and in         1.4% were held en-suite, 1.1% used multi-media and              training needs among workers except one                 tool that focuses on managers and
                      industrial regions    0.6% were ODL.                                                                                                          follows the aim of determining
                      of West-Germany       More than 75% had a duration of up to four weeks,               IO Online Dialog, developed by JUPITA                   coaching needs previous to face to face
                      (> 16%).              and only % took longer than a year.                             Wissenstransfer Adil + Uhde GmbH is an analysis         coachings and consulting.
                      Jobs for low          More than 36% were related to ICT.                              tool that can be provided both as a web based solution
                      skilled workers are                                                                   and as a standalone software for local clients. This    Management Potenzial Evaluation
                      decreasing, at this   Knowledge management in relation to size of the                 tool works on the questionnaire methodology and         (MPE)
                      time less than 15%    enterprises (figures in %):                                     gives output on a basis of an “as is / to be -
                      are available for                                                                     comparison”. This tool is prepared to be used on all    This tool is provided by Cevey
                      people from this                                                                      staff levels and gives valuable information for

                                                                        implemented in

                      target group, by                                                                      knowledge management, personnel management              Systems GmbH and has been


                                                                        not planned

                      the end of 2020                                                                       marketing and sales management. Output information
                                                                        planned/ in

                                                                                                Not known

                      this figure will be                                                                   is available as single or group-profile and can be      developed in cooperation with the
                      less than 10%.                                                                        provided as Excel file or online statistics.


                                                                                                                                                                    University of Tübingen as well. It is a
                                                > 500       14          41    31         9     6                                                                    tool for recording data on
                                              50 - 499      13          25    31        19     12
                                                1 - 49      11          20    14        21     34                                                                   management-

                                            The relevance of education in additional

      OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

competencies of managing information and                                                     potential. Focus-group are managers in
knowledge:                                                                                   companies that apply for being
(category “very important” in %)                                                             promoted to higher positions.
                                                                                             This tool is generally used along with
                                                                                             assessment tools, as it does not give
                                                                                             any evidence about hard skills.
                                                                                             Input and output are carried out via the

                                              50 - 499

                                                         >= 500
                                     1 – 49
   Motivation to commonly acquire     38      41         39
   and exchange knowledge
   Working with others / social       44      48         50
   Self organised learning            23      32         47
   Competencies to do research and    29      34         43
   select information
   Communication and transfer         18      32         35
   IT-competencies                    20      36         40

                                    OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Eastern European countries
Country             Labour market     Human capital and training                              Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                              Vocational based                           Competence based
Bulgaria                              About 50% of Bulgarian SMEs need highly qualified       Assessment Centre Method involves:         Thomas System: model made up of
                                      employees and many companies need technicians                                                      different phases:
                                                                                              -   Specific questionnaire based on self-
                                      graduated high school. The share of SME that do not                                                -     Short description of the person's
                                                                                                  assessment of the employees or based
Source:                               need highly qualified staff is 44,4%. The basic needs                                                    main traits
                                                                                                  on the assessment of the managers
PRAGMATICA                            of the Bulgarian SMEs are connected with narrow                                                    -     Analysis which to identify
company dealing                       employee specialization – smelting, electronics,                                                         competencies and weaknesses
                                                                                              -   Interview with the employees
with research,                        production of special machinery. Training is needed                                                -     Pointing out the training needs
organisational                        mainly in the fast-growing departments as               -   Stimulation     of   daily    business
                                                                                                                                               that would most benefit the
counselling and                       “Marketing”, “Sales”, and “Accounting”. Most of the         environment and analysing the
                                                                                                  employees‟ attitude
marketing;                            managers in SME in the manufacturing sector prefer                                                 -     Analysis which provide the
Integra                               to hire staff by the help of friends, relatives, and                                                     management of a complete
Association                           colleagues. Only 3% of the managers in SME use                                                           image of both the suitability of
nation-wide                           special consulting services and about one third                                                          the employee to his/her position
Bulgarian non-                        participate in the process of training.                                                                  and the means for improving the
governmental                          Several institution (Bulgarian-Bavarian Center for                                                       employee's performance.
(non-profit)                          Quality Management, The Bulgarian Industrial
organisation,                         Association, The Science and Technology Union in
concerned with                        Vratsa) arrange professional educational courses for
education,                            companies on regional and industrial sector bases.
qualification and

                                               OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Country           Labour market                    Human capital and training                              Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                                           Vocational based                           Competence based
Hungary           Since 2000, average annual       The level of enterprises has a dualistic character in                                              Competency Based Training includes
                  Labour Force Survey (LFS)        these countries: modern multinational companies,                                                   the following steps:
                  data has shown only a            with modern ICT solutions and management, meet                                                     -     Perception of problem or need
                  modest, statistically            with SMEs which are in a lower level and hardly use                                                -     Fact Finding & Training Needs
                  insignificant growth.            ICT technologies and it is acknowledged that their                                                       Analysis - a thorough needs
                  Hungary registers the lowest     productivity and performance are directly related to                                                     analysis 360 degree. Ideally needs
                  employment rate among all        the level of investment in training                                                                      analysis is conducted by an
                  OECD and EU countries, and                                                                                                                outsider with ethnographic or
                  even among countries joining                                                                                                              social research skills to allow
                  the EU. According to                                                                                                                      objectivity and elicit accurate
                  available data, the average                                                                                                               needs.
                  employment rate in 2001 in                                                                                                          -     Competencies       developed     -
                  the OECD countries was                                                                                                                    learning objectives or specific
                  65.3 per cent, and the similar                                                                                                            skills act as a guide or focus for
Source:           figure for the EU was 64.1                                                                                                                the training. 'Competencies' may
TREBAG LTD        per cent, while in Hungary it                                                                                                             have been already developed via
Property and      was only 56.6 per cent.                                                                                                                   company policy, job descriptions,
Project                                                                                                                                                     state qualification standards or
Management Ltd.                                                                                                                                             can be developed for the
(TREBAG Ltd.)                                                                                                                                               company's present situation.
                                                                                                                                                      -     Training program designed
                                                                                                                                                      -     Training delivered
                                                                                                                                                      -     Evaluation during training
                                                                                                                                                      -     Follow up on competencies

                                             OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Country          Labour market      Human capital and training              Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                            Vocational based    Competence based
Poland           96,5% of Polish    Researches unveiled that majority of                        WSHE analysed several companies and pointed out the main innovation approaches
                 firms are micro,   companies took no action to                                 concerning training needs analysis:
                 2,4% are small     investigate their training needs. In
                 and 0,9% are       top Polish companies an average of                          Method of developing competence of Computer Land S.A. workers: The project of
                 medium             58% of employees received a                                 competence identification and development with the use of project management is based on:
                 enterprises.       specific training in year 2000. State                       1.implementation of own methodology of project management, that is a formalisation of
                                    owned companies spend twice as                              knowledge and experience existing in ComputerLand SA in this field;
Source:                             much for computer trainings than                            2.managing corporate knowledge in the field of project management
WSHE                                private firms that can be explained                         3.working out an internal and external certification system for project managers
Academy of                          with the fact that private owned ones                       The mentioned model distinguishes four levels of competence:
Humanities and                      do not employ people without                                        level I is related to all ComputerLand SA employees participating in preparation
Economics                           computer literacy. Foreign                                           and realisation of projects;
                                    companies pay much more attention                                   at level II there are managers of small projects and assistants of medium and large
                                    than state or private ones to                                        projects
                                    managing issues and train their                                     at level III there are managers of medium and large projects
                                    employees in interpersonal skills,                                  level IV applies to project directors and program managers
                                    management of human resources                               Managers having knowledge and experience that qualify them to III or IV level of
                                    and running business undertakings.                          competence are additionally required to intensively self-develop and be active within the
                                    The analysis of training needs is                           environment of ComputerLnand managers. In practice being active in the environment of
                                    usually done on bases of the opinion                        ComputerLand managers means:
                                    of operative managers. Asking for                                   support within conducting traditional trainings inside the company - e.g. with the
                                    experts‟ opinions or market                                          use of case studies (e.g. related to project risk management, delivery, human
                                    researches as a basis for training                                   resources etc),
                                    needs analyses are rare. Direct talks                               working out internal intranet trainings for project managers
                                    (45% of companies), work                                            running and managing internal thematic portal in this field
                                    evaluation (43%) and direct work
                                    observations (37%) are the most                             Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A. Assessment of the training needs in the company is
                                    common methods of training needs
                                                                                                done in the context of:
                                    analyses. Other worth mentioning
                                                                                                    -     Planning personal development - that concerns all staff
                                    way of gaining knowledge of such
                                                                                                    -     Planning career and succession - that concerns selected group
                                    needs are group discussion (18%).                               -     indication of workers with substantial development potential. It is done by
                                    Researches pointed pout the rising
                                                                                                          managers and directors;
                                    importance of social communication
                                                                                                    -     check with what was written in assessment files that are being conducted
                                    skills, building coalitions, crating
                                                                                                          periodically and creation of the list of candidates;
                                    bonds.                                                          -     integration training “performance in action” and assessment centre as an individual
                                                                                                          and group test. At the same time psychological tests were conducted: analogy test,
                                                                                                          creativity test by Urban, a test called “ the great five” (extroversion, neurotism,
                                                                                                          openness for experience, conscientiousness, amicability), test MBT1 (preferences
                                                                                                          regarding the way of using information and gained experience). Additionally the
                                                                                                          following methods were used: analysis of documents (e.g. homework),episodic
                                                                                                          interview (the interviewees were asked about different situations from the past). On
                                                                                                          the basis of observation, information from tests, interviews and documents the

OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

                                                       characteristics of individual candidates were created and the leading group was
                                                  -    Development centre for the leading group. It aimed at examination of the style of
                                                       work group, ambition for achievements, motivation for work;
                                                  -     Creation of training plans for all participants and plan of monitoring procedures for
                                                       the leading group (the roles of mentors was fulfilled by the Members of the Board)

                                              Xerox Academy is a project aiming at preventing leaving the company by the best employees
                                              and preparing staff of the highest potential. The process of employees identification is as
                                              -    using a combination of several methods of identification what increases the chances of
                                                   choosing the best employees comparing to using just one, even tested method of
                                              -    three categories of sought persons were distinguished when creating “ a portrait of an
                                                   employee having high potential”:
                                                        1. potential leaders of large teams – these persons are able to take charge of top
                                                              level posts within 3 years ; we place them on the succession list of the posts
                                                              like: National/Regional General Director, this group makes up 1% of staff
                                                              population employed
                                                        2. employees with high potential – able to progress considerably within 3-8 years,
                                                              they make up around 10% of the staff population employed
                                                        3. women having high development potential – names of women included here
                                                              are often the same as the names included in the above 2 categories, the idea
                                                              was to promote women within the company.

                                              The following methods and tools are used to analyse managing staff competence in Xerox:
                                                      Planning Managerial Staff
                                                      Analysis of work achievements
                                                      Results of assessment done within “Assessment Center”
                                                      Support tools

                                                 OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Country              Labour market                   Human capital and training                             Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                                            Vocational based                              Competence based
Romania             In Romanian economy, small Currently only 2.5% of the unemployed are trained.           Study on 3 SMEs operating in ITC field.
                    and medium enterprises hire         Training mainly addresses short term demands from   Method:
                    over 60% of the labour force, individual employers thus contributing less to long-      -   data approach: analysis of available
                    having a major influence            term employability of the unemployed. Passive           information in statistical studies or
                    over the employees. The             measures continue to represent the bulk of labour       other information sources;
                    overall objective of the third      market expenditures financed via the Unemployment   -   Entrepreneur approach: considering
                    priority of the National            Fund.                                                   the technological, organizational,
                    Development Plan (2004-                                                                     cultural      changes      from       the
                    2006) is “Enhancing                                                                         entrepreneur‟s point of view, the
                    employability of the labour                                                                 analysis of training needs and its role.
                    force, as well as fighting
                    social exclusion”. The
                    choice of this priority is
                    justified by the need to
                    address several problems
                    appearing in the labour
                    market including the more
                    and more evident weakness
                    of services to promote
                    employability, particularly
Source:             the limited ability of
Temagon             education and vocational
Romania             training to meet the changing
provider of         labour market needs. With
consulting          17.6% Romania now has the
services            highest youth unemployment
                    rate in Europe and some 50%
                    of its unemployed are long-
                    term unemployed.
Source: Countries Reports on the state of the art of training needs analysis, OASI 2004

                                                   OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Mediterranean countries
    Country              Labour market                           Human capital and training                         Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                                              Vocational based                          Competence based
Cyprus             In the end of the year 2003       Recent researches fostered by the Human Resources                               In–depth study of the competency gap in the tertiary
                   the unemployment rate was         Development Authority state that in SMEs middle                                 sector. with the Actors: managers; opinions of
                   3,5%.                             managers and executive roles need technical                                     management and analysis of micro strategic goals.
                   In the year 2004 is estimated     knowledge/ skills and management /entrepreneur                                  Tools: structured paper questionnaire through a
                   that 95% of increased labor       knowledge (communication, marketing & sales,                                    personal face to face interviews
                   demand will be absorbed by        information technology, management, human                                       Cross – sectional study / survey of skills required
                   the tertiary sector that in       resources, financial management & costing, foreign                              within the self – employed
                   2003 employ 70.9% of total        languages, law, negotiation skills).                                            Actors: employees
                   employees.                                                                                                        Tools: structured paper questionnaire through a
Source:                                                                                                                              personal face to face interviews
Research and

Greece             There are a total of 249.285      Continuous learning is considered as a need in order                             Personnel performance evaluation on a constant
                   enterprises in Greece having      to keep up with the dynamic market and employee                                  annual or semi-annual basis. It is the most widely
Source: National   0-250 employees: 225.083          training is considered by most enterprises as a                                  used training needs analysis tool. It involves an
Technical          enterprises having 0-10           strategic competitive measure.                                                   employee performance evaluation form as well as oral
University of      employees 20.695 enterprises      Training needs analysis seems to be strongly                                     communication of the employee with supervisors and
Athens             having 11-50 employees            associated with evaluation processes. Various                                    subordinates.
                   3.507 enterprises having 51-      procedures exist for competence development which                                Survey on employee satisfaction or survey on
                   250 employees.                    is usually integrated into the company‟s Quality                                 customer satisfaction
                                                     management system. The most widely used tools for                                A survey is carried out on employee satisfaction or
                                                     training needs analysis involve filling in evaluation                            customer satisfaction with the objective to find out
                                                     forms,     answering     questionnaires     and   oral                           which skills and competences are absent on a
                                                     communication within all hierarchy levels of the                                 collective basis.
                                                     enterprise.                                                                      Recording and analysing all kinds of faults
                                                                                                                                      The diagnosis of educational needs results from the
                                                                                                                                      recording and analysis of all kinds of faults (e.g.
                                                                                                                                      accidents, near miss accidents, losing a customer).

                                                  OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

Country            Labour market                      Human capital and training              Training needs analysis projects: methodologies and tools
                                                                                              Vocational based                                     Competence based
Italy              95,4% of Italian firms are micro   In 2002 there is a lack of              Excelsior - Standing Informative System for          National survey on the managers of industrial
                   (1-9 employees), 4,2% are          participation among small               employment and training, Unioncamere since           and service’s firms, Foundation Taliercio, 2001.
                   small (10-49 employees), 0,4%      businesses, with only 13% of small      1998, determines and foresees the demand for         Aim: determining the kind of competences that
                   are medium (50-249                 businesses investing in training        professionals (managers, middle managers and         managers consider more important (specific or
Source:            employees). Only 0,4% employ       compared with 55% of medium and         operative roles) among national firms.               general competences) Tool: mail questionnaire
Ca' Foscari        more than 250 employees. In        large enterprises;                      Methodologies mainly quantitative.                   sent to a sample of 700 managers (44% hired in
University of      2002 labour market records a       From a regional point of view,          Tools: phone and direct interviews.                  SMEs). Managers were called to express their
Venice;            positive trend: employees          investment in life-long learning is     Minerva@Vulcano project, Confindustria 2002          opinions on the importance assigned to two
Speha Fresia       increased from 21.514 million,     greater in the north than in the        Aims: matching the demand for professionals          groups of competences: transversal competences
operating in the   in 2001, to 21.829 million. The    south. With regard to sources of        among SMEs with the supply of postgraduate and       (general management competences, like action,
areas of           unemployment rate went down        finance, only 9.7% of total             university training by creating a traineeship        efficiency, initiative, use of concepts, and
Directional        to al 9% and the employment        expenditure for life-long learning is   databank, accessible to SMEs online via the          managerial competences like problem solving,
Consultation,      rate increased to 61,3%.           from public funds.                      website Sample: 500 SMEs in South Italy and on       decision making, developing of others,
Training and                                                                                  four sector studies: food, chemicals, tourism and    relationship, empathy) and specific competences
Socio economic                                                                                ITC. After individualizing a range of vocational     (technical-functional competences and business
Research;                                                                                     roles (above all technicians in the main functional  specific competences). The competences
CONFAPI –                                                                                     areas), the questionnaire asked the firms to express considered the most important bust also those
Italian                                                                                       their opinion concerning the level of importance     where managers pointed out a skill gap were the
federation of                                                                                 ascribed to these roles).                            transversal ones (84.7% and 78.7% respectively).
Small and                                                                                     National survey on training needs in 16 sectors,     Observatory for the life long learning in
medium Private                                                                                OBNF, 1998-2004. Aim: individualizing a range of Veneto, CUOA and Veneto Region, since 1998.
Industry.                                                                                     professional roles and their least standards of      Methodology: competence based modelling
                                                                                              performance. Methodologies: qualitative, the         (Boyatzis, 1982) carrying out a gap analysis
                                                                                              standard vocational roles were defined by social     between the owned individual competences and
                                                                                              parties. Tools: questionnaire.                       the expected ones the most important
                                                                                              National survey on training needs of the             competence areas (technical, threshold and
                                                                                              craftsmen, EBNA, 2000. Aim: identifing standard      traversal competences). Tool: focus group and
                                                                                              vocational roles by social parties and individual    ICT tools (on line questionnaire). Actors
                                                                                              vocational profiles; the survey involved 11 sectors  involved: enterprises and workers in first person:
                                                                                              and for 6 sectors was carried out f 54 case studies  executives, middle managers, top
                                                                                              trough structured questionnaires and in-depth        managers/entrepreneurs.
                                                                                              interviews.                                          Rubik Project, Confapi 2000. Aim: Drawing up
                                                                                              Analysis of the Formative Requirements for Small a model in order to recognise the skills held by a
                                                                                              and Medium Sized Enterprise, Enfea-Confapi,          worker who is aware of his/her role and
                                                                                              2001. Aim: describing specialization (role/function  identifies the skills that are considered useful in
                                                                                              logic) and the transversal knowledge (process        order to upgrade his/her professionalism
                                                                                              logic). 5 sectors mechanical, textile and clothing,  coherently with company development policies.
                                                                                              manufacturing of plastic products, wood and          Methodology: survey which allowed to listen to
                                                                                              furniture manufacturing, ICT. Methodologies:         the individual in his/her „everyday business‟ and
                                                                                              concept of knowledge (and not of competence) and     appreciate his/her experiences, pointing out the
                                                                                              individualized 12 knowledge areas divided into       most important competence areas (technical,
                                                                                              three groups: product knowledge, operations          threshold and traversal competences), the gap
                                                                                              knowledge, resources management knowledge.           between the owned competences and those

                                             OASI – Final Report – The State of the Art: Training needs analysis in European Smes

                                                                                    Thought in-depth interviews and focus groups, the    expected and the preferred learning manner. The
                                                                                    key and innovative roles in the firm processes and   project, focused mainly on the mechanical
                                                                                    their profile were determined.                       sector, has reached by 2/3 intermediate level
                                                                                                                                         workers: employees, and management, and only
                                                                                                                                         by 1/3 the executive level.
Source: Countries Reports on the state of the art of training needs analysis, OASI 2004


Camuffo and Comacchio 2004, “The competent middle manager. Framing individual knowledge in
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