VIEWS: 372 PAGES: 22

The Baltic and North Seas
   Scandinavia including Finland
   Poland and Baltic States
   Russia: Novgorod and Pskov
   Northern Germany
Eastern Indian Ocean
   Horn of Africa – Somalia
   East Africa –Kenya, Tanzania
   South Africa – Mozambique
   Islands of Zanzibar, Comoros
Common Element
   Urban Cultures
The Cog
 Central to the success of the Hanseatic
 League was the cog. Although the Norse
 had elegant and seaworthy vessels, they
 had too small a carrying capacity to
 satisfy the Hanseatic merchants. What
 emerged to fill this need was the cog, a
 simple, rugged, double ended, clinker
 built ship with a single mast amidships
 and setting a single square sail on a yard.

The Dhow
 A dhow is a traditional Arab sailing
 vessel with one or more lateen sail. It
 was (is) primarily used along the coasts
 of the Arabia, India, and East Africa. A
 larger dhow may have a crew of
 approximately thirty while smaller
 dhows have crews typically ranging
 around twelve. For navigation, dhow
 sailors have used the kamal. This device
 determines latitude by finding the angle
 of Polaris above the horizon.
Polynesian immigrants settle parts, introduce bananas
Egyptians and Sabaeans
   Egypt referred to the area as Punt
    • Documentary evidence of trade between Egypt, Punt
    • Hatshepshut’s expedition to the area is quite famous
    • Products were spices, gold, ivory, animals, slaves
   Indigenous Semitics Civilization in Southern Yemen
    • Called Sabaeans: created dams, terraced agriculture
    • Cities connected by trade to SW Asia
    • Specialize in gold, frankincense, myrrh
   Semitic Sabaeans settle along Ethiopian coasts, highlands
   Civilization arose in Axum: records, coinage, monuments
   Great power mentioned in Greek, Roman, Persian records
   Controlled Bab-el Mandeb straits
   3rd Century conversion to Monophysite Christianity (Coptic)
   In decline after rise of Islam in Red Sea, Arabian Sea
Romans and Greek
   Both knew of region: Greeks called it Periplus, Romans called area Azania
   Greek, Roman, and Persian coins of 3rd century CE found in area
Three Movements Converge
   Bantu Migration Down East African Coast
   Arabic Merchants Along East African Coast
   Polynesians of Indian Ocean
Bantu Migration
   Introduces cattle, iron, slash-burn agriculture
   Bantu exploit resources of gold, ivory, copper
   Bantu’s begin to cultivate yams, bananas
   Settlements coast, natural harbors, islands, rivers
Muslim Arab merchants
   Arabs Muslims trade for slaves, gold, ivory
   Link East Africa to wider Indian Ocean, Muslims
   Arab merchants take Bantu wives
   Mixed families link interior Bantu, coastal Arabs
Trade Winds
   Monsoon winds dictate all movement
   November to April: Asians can arrive
   April to October: Swahili go to India
Imports and Exports
   Ivory, gold were key exports for East Africa
   Finished goods were imported especially cloth, blue dyes
   Slaves increased in importance after 17th century plantations
Cosmas Indicopleustes, Greek merchant, 6th century CE
   "They take with them to the mining district oxen, lumps of slate, and iron, and when they reach
   its neighborhood they make a halt at a certain spot and form an encampment, which they fence
   round with a great hedge of thorn. Within this they live, and having slaughtered the oxen, cut
   them in pieces, and lay the pieces on the top of the thorns, along with the lumps of salt and the
   iron. Then come the natives bringing gold in nuggets like peas, called tancharas, and lay one or
   two or more of these upon what pleases them - the pieces of flesh or the salt or the iron, and
   then they retire to some distance off. Then the owner of the meat approaches and if he is
   satisfied he takes the gold away, and upon seeing this its owner comes and takes the flesh or the
   salt or the iron.“
The Periplus of the Erithraean Sea, a Greek Sailors’ Guide from
Alexandria, Egypt, c. 100 CE
   "Two days' sail beyond the island lies the last mainland market
   town of Azania, which is called Rhapta, a name derived from the
   small sewn boats the people use. Here there is much ivory and
   tortoiseshell. Men of the greatest stature, who are pirates, inhabit
   the whole coast and at each place have set up chiefs.“

From Compendium of Knowledge by the Chinese Confucian scholar,
Tuan Ch'eng-shih, 8th century CE
   "From of old this country has not been subject to any foreign
   power. In fighting they use elephant's tusks, ribs and wild cattle's
   horns as spears, and they have corselets and bows and arrows.
   They have twenty myriads of foot-soldiers. The Arabs are
   continually making raids on them.“
Swahili is actually a language
   Comes from Arabic “Sahel swahili”
     • Means dwellers of the coast
     • Bantu speakers borrowed loan words from Arabic
   Came to symbolize a culture along East Africa
Bantu arrived in 1st millennium CE
   Settled coasts
Muslims, Indians discovered wealth of area
8th Century CE
   Settlement Shirazi Arabs from the Persian Gulf
   Small settlements of Sindi Indians
El Zanj: Land of the Blacks
   Coastal areas come under the control of Arab Muslims
   Muslims controlled coast from cities along strategic harbors
   Northern Swahili: Mogadishu, Pate, Zanzibar, Malindi, Kilwa
   Southern Swahili: Sofala pushed inland up to Zimbabwe, Mozambique
                   SWAHILI HISTORY
Swahili City-States
    Muslim and cosmopolitan
    Mix of Bantu, Islamic, and Indian influences
    All politically independent of one another
    Never a Swahili empire or hegemony control
Trade and Economics
    Cities like competitive companies, corporations vying for African trade
    Chief exports: ivory, sandalwood, ebony, and gold; later slaves
    Trade linked to both Arabia and India; even Chinese goods, influence reached area
Social Construct
    Arabs, Persians were significant players in the growth of Swahili civilization
    Cities were run by a nobility that was African in origin
    Below nobility: commoners, resident foreigners made up a large part of the citizenry
    Large group of artisans, weavers, craftsmen
    Slavery was actively practiced
The sixteenth century
    Advent of Portuguese trade disrupted trade routes, made commercial centers obsolete
    Portuguese allowed native Africans no share in African trade
    Set about conquering the Islamic city-states along the eastern coast
The late seventeenth century
    Oman (in the south of Arabia) conquered the Portuguese cities along the coast
    Eastern African coast controlled by Omani sultanate for another two hundred years
    Cotton, cloves, plantation agriculture thrived and used slaves for labor
European Imperialism: Germany, Portugal, Italy, Britain split control of Swahili lands
                     SWAHILI CITIES
Swahili Garden Cities
   Built around palaces, mosques
   Walled Cities
   Many markets, harbors
     • Built homes within walls
     • Endowed mosques, schools
   Wandering Muslims, Sufis create madrasas attached to mosques
   Climate led to creation of gardens
   Muslims transplanted many different plants, crops to area

Gaspar Correa, sailor and mercenary describing Vasco da Gama's
arrival in Kilwa, 16th century
   "The city comes down to the shore, and is entirely surrounded by a wall and towers, within
   which there are maybe 12,000 inhabitants. The country all round is very luxurious with many
   trees and gardens of all sorts of vegetables, citrons, lemons, and the best sweet oranges that
   were ever seen… The streets of the city are very narrow, as the houses are very high, of three
   and four stories, and one can run along the tops of them upon the terraces… and in the port
   there were many ships. A moor ruled over this city, who did not possess more country than the
   city itself.“
                GREAT ZIMBABWE
Called Mwenemutapa
    dzimba dza mabwe = houses of stone
    dzimba woye = venerated houses, describes a chief's house or grave.
    dzimbahwe = court, home or grave of chief
Bantu-speaking people in Southeastern Africa
    South of Zambezi River, North of Limpopo River
    Migrated from East Africa
    Brought iron smelting, agriculture, cattle-raising
Importance of Gold and Red-Gold (Copper)
    Area rich in both medals
    Easily mined and obtained
    Traded downriver to the coasts
Great Zimbabwe
    Centralized state around 1300 CE
    Huge fortification surrounded by stone walls
    Dominated the Zambezi river valley
Influence of Sofala
    Swahili coastal town in modern Mozambique
    Dominated trade in the Mozambique Channel
    Became the conduit for Zimbabwean gold to Indian Ocean
    Supplied Zimbabwe with Arab, Indian, Chinese goods
Trade Changes History
    Wealth led to centralization of Zimbabwean government
    Original ruler-priests replaced by military-economic kinship
Islam, Swahili culture made no impact on region
The Amber Route of the Greeks
   Largest world deposits in Baltic (Prussia)
   Greeks spoke of route to Mediterranean
   Keltic peoples in area participated in trade
Germanic and Viking Migrations
    • Goths moved from Gotland to mainland
         – Displaced Balts, Scythians
         – Settled southern shores of Baltic
    • Germans traded with each other, Mediterranean region
    • Arian missionaries active in area, convert many Germanic tribes
   Viking Age
    • Vikings were active traders, explorers
    • Viking settlements attracted merchants, markets
    • Vikings establish trade routes throughout area
Charlemagne and The Church
   Charlemagne subdues the Saxons
     • Incorporates areas into Frankish Empire
     • Establishes aristocratic hierarchy
     • Establishes church hierarchy
   Church sends in missionaries to the area
     •   Christian bishops established sees
     •   Sees build on existing settlements
     •   Conversions follow
     •   Monasteries established

Ottonian kings establish Holy Roman Empire
   Church hierarchy facilitated rise of cities around cathedrals
   Cathedrals, church had need for artisans, services leading to rise of marketplaces
   Few natural resources along coasts short of fish, salt, timber, pitch, tar
   Cities developed large merchant classes, specialists outside feudal society
   Rise of Imperial Cities: aristocrats, kings began granting charters to German cities
   Cities began to exercise political control over own affairs: regulate city life
   German cities assist emperors in eastern push along Baltic; granted privileges
Rise of Guilds (Hansa) in German cities
    Established contacts with other guilds in other towns
    Sought sources of timber, pitch, tar, wax, resins, furs,
    Began to move rye, wheat, salt, fish, honey
Role of Visby (Gotland)
    Germans traded under flag of Gotland
    Journeyed throughout Baltic especially to Novgorod
    Extreme competition of merchants led to conflict, rules
    Germans began to build German cities to control trade
Forming of The Hansa
    Lubeck founded in 1159
      •   Controlled transshipment across Jutland
      •   Granted status as imperial city
      •   Became Queen of Baltic Hansa 1227
    Formed alliance with Hamburg in 1241
      •   Hamburg controlled trade in Northern Germany to west of Elbe, Baltic
      •   Already had system of alliances with German, Flemish, Dutch cities
    Hamburg and Lubeck cooperated in alliances, with other cities
      •   Formal Diet and Treaty signed in 1356
      •   More than 100 cities participated although few formally joined Hanseatic Diet
    Established kontors or factories in area; became trading enclaves
    Exchanges goods of Baltic with cloth, linens, manufactured goods of England, Netherlands
    Member states adopted uniform Lubeck law code: heavily commercial
                             HANSA SOCIETY
Alliance State Structure
    Hansa Diet
         •   Treaties, Wars, Diplomacy
         •   Economic Regulations, Coinage
         •   Membership
    Used Law Code of Lubeck as common law
Local State Structure
    Imperial Cities owing allegiance to emperor
    Charter from emperor established rights
    Fiercely guarded rights against princes, bishops
    Town Hall often imposing structure
    Councils run cities
    City patricians run councils
    Patricians were masters of guilds
    Guilds regulated neighborhoods
Labor Structures: Guilds, Monopoly, Mercantilism
    Regulated all aspects of manufacture, trade
    Extreme hierarchy with masters, apprentices, journeymen
    Cooperate within cities and between cities
    Set prices, limited competition
    Some guilds higher than others
    Socialized within specific guilds
    Marriages usually within guilds
    Some guilds admitted women
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1188, one of the earliest references
to the liberties of Lübeck is found in the charter wherein he mentions
the rights given to that city by Henry, Duke of Saxony.

   . . . For these reasons, in order that they may come and go freely with their wares
   through the whole duchy of Saxony, free from hanse and thelony, except at
   Ertheneborch, where they pay five denarii for wagons.... The Ruthenians, the
   Gothlanders, the Northmen, and the other eastern peoples may come and go freely to
   the oft-mentioned city without payment of thelony or hanse....

Waldemar the Victorious, King of Denmark, who controlled much of the Baltic
lands by reason of his conquests, was able to grant privileges in southern
Sweden, the center of the herring trade, to Lübeck, since Scania formed a part
of the Danish dominions, 1288

   In ancient times King Waldemar granted to the city of Lübeck that its citizens could,
   and should, at the markets at Skanör and Falsterbo, sell their wares, retail and
   wholesale, and buy whatever might be found for sale there. Also that they elect there
   any advocate they choose to judge all offenses and faults except those of "hand and
   neck": and so this law has been faithfully observed throughout the past up to the
   present day except for bla and blot, and this is beyond the jurisdiction of the citizens,
   and of those who live by the law of the city. But everyone must give lawful thelony to
   the officials of the lord King: they can sell cloth by the cubit; they can, also, sell other
   things by weight, both besemer and punder and this for the reason that the said King
   granted that such liberties should be observed in their free markets.
    Started as independent or
    Gained independence by power of the League
    Such independence remained limited
     • Hansa cities owed allegiance to the Emperor
     • No intermediate tie to the local nobility
     • No trade moved in Baltic without their permission
     • States participate in trans-oceanic movements
    Military = Ships, Armed Merchants
     • Equipped to protect themselves
     • Intimidate reluctant members, larger states
     • Waged war against pirates
    Hansa merchants, cities cliquish
    Rise of nation states, modern cities threatened Hansa
    Economic crises of 14th century wounded Hansa
    Rise of Holland, Swedish Empire, Prussia destroyed Hansa
German Order (Teutonic Knights)
    German hospitaler order found 1182 in Holy Land
    13th Century switched activities to Baltic
      •   1226: Launched Christianizing crusade against Prussia
      •   Established military church state under imperial, papal jurisdiction
      •   Waged war against Poland, Lithuania, Novgorod
    Livonian Brotherhood
      •   Sub-branch of German Order assimilated into Order
      •   Conquered Latvia (Livonia), Estonia
    Founded towns and encouraged immigration
    Riga and Marienburg were centers of state
    German monk/knights formed military elite
    German nobles carved out large landed estates with serfs
    German towns, burghers graded rights, autonomy
    Free German peasants cleared land, planted crops
    Local Prussians “Germanicized” and granted equal rights
    Local Livonians, Ests, Lithuanians became serfs
Relationship to Hansa
    All cities in area were members of Hansa
    Settlers often came from Hansa
    German order formed military alliance with Hansa
    Economic wealth flowed through Hansa
   Venice, Genoa and Amalfi
Southwest Asia
Southeast Asia
   Cholan Empire
   Srivijayan Empire
Central Asia
Definition: A trade diaspora is a dispersed ethnic community which exists in
different geographic locations and specializes in trade. They are often religious
minorities who are accorded certain protections by a state and perform many duties
for the rulers of that state including diplomacy and long-distance trade.

Influence: Ethnic and family bonds help maintain strong links of communication and
trust, as well as maintaining a kind of "brand" identity in relation to local peoples.
Most major trade entrepots allowed trading groups to rule themselves under their
own headmen. But traders also got involved in local politics through marriage and
official positions, thus overlapping with state sponsored trade. Trade diasporas often
introduced new ideas, faiths, and technologies into existing regions while assisting
the formation of new cultures and languages.

    Venetians and Genoese in Mediterranean
    Swahili merchants in East Africa
    Hansa German merchants in Northern Europe
    Jews in Mediterranean, SW Asia, Europe
    Muslims in areas outside Muslim rule
    Armenians in SW Asia
    Nestorians in Central Asia
    Fukien Chinese in South, East China Sea
    Hausa people in the Sahel, West Africa
                  INTERESTING LINKS
Old World Contacts
  This tutorial focuses on the travelers of Eurasian and African history between 330 BCE
  and 1500 CE. It introduces students to the agents of contact: the merchants, military
  men, missionaries, and others who journeyed far from their homelands. It examines
  the foreign items and ideas these people transported with them across the vast
  landscape and surrounding seas of three continents. This tutorial explores how cross-
  cultural contacts/exchanges affected the Old World's diverse cultural communities
  through time.

To top