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					                                                  Roman civilization followed the
                                                  Etruscans on Italian Peninsula
ROMAN COSTUME                                      Kingdom 75B B.C. to 509 B.C.
                                                   • Founded by Romulus and Remus
                                                   Republic 509 B. C. to 30 B.C.
                                                   • Two classes of citizens, plebians and
Virginia S. Wimberley, Ph.D.
Clothing Textiles and Interior Design              • Government by two consuls taking turns by
The University of Alabama                            months or days
                                                   • 10 tribunes to protect plebian interests
                                                   Empire 30 B.C. to A.D. 476

Status of Women                                   Religious Factors
 Educated                                          Adopted Greek gods and renamed in Latin
 Able to read both Greek and Latin                 Formal worship a brief part of every day
 Studied philosophy and literature
                                                   Household gods
 Household accounts and inventories
                                                            shrine-                      Rome-
                                                   National shrine- the eternal flame of Rome-
 Spinning and weaving for textile production
 until factory system
                                                   served by Vestal virgins to keep it burning
 Inherited wealth
 Public activities - dinners, baths

                             Vestal virgin,
                                                  Roman villa and interior room
                             2nd C. A.D.

                             On ceremonial
                             occasions or in
                             mourning a fold of
                             cloth was drawn
                             over the head
Romans inherited designs from
Greeks and Etruscans:                                         Silk in Roman Times
 Patterns slowly evolved into mutations                        Little used in Republic period
 Roman versions were                                           Empire use of silk excited frowns
  •   more ornate
  •   richly adorned
                                                               Very expensive since it was imported from
  •   more varied                                              the east and had to be paid for in gold
  •   extensive use of jewelry                                 • 3rd Century A.D. - 3 lbs. gold for 1 lb. raw silk
  •   wearing greater numbers of layers                        Disapproved of for its thinness and was
  •   new fabrics of cotton and silk - Emperor Heliogabolus    considered degrading for men and a sign of
      first emperor218-222A. D. to wear
                                                               dissolute women

Silk                                                          Weaving
 End of the 1st Century B.C, silk in vogue                     Free Roman citizens did little weaving,
                                                               considering it beneath them
 Mixed with linen or cotton
                                                               Fabrics were imported from Greece or else Greek
 Later pure silk fabric                                        and other slaves were employed in weaving cloth
 Emperor Heliogabalus [218-222 AD] first                       and making garments
 emperor to wear garments of all silk                          Aristocratic households had slaves to weave and
 Silk was first imported from China and                        make garments for the family
 unraveled and rewoven                                         Those without slaves, bought from free
                                                               tradesmen who sold wears in shops
 A.D. 16 -pound of silk sold for 12 oz. of gold

 In Rome spinners and weavers and dyers                        Padua produced carpets and elaborate
 organized into guilds headquartered in the                    textiles
 temple of Minera Medica-patron goddess of
 weaving                                                       Gaul produced rough fabrics for workers
 Paid dues, passed guild regulations, had
                                                               and slaves
 individual and group privileges and had a widow’s             Po Valley and some parts of Gaul supplied
 fund                                                          Rome with woolen fabrics used for togas
 Each weaving center produced a distinctive type               and tunics
 of fabric using fibers of wool and linen
Toga was the symbol of
citizenship                                   Toga
 Toga - shape was oval, 18 ft. by 51/2 ft.     Central
                                               figure with
 Toga pura - white
                                               toga edged
 Toga virilis - unbleached, natural color      with clavus
 Toga praetexta - band of purple along         Grouping is
 semicircular edge for government officials    the
 Toga trabea - shorter with purple band for    god s for
 priests                                       altar area
 Toga sordida - black for mourning

Toga Draping                                  Men’s Dress
 Toga dimensions                               Colobrium
 were larger than the                          Toga
 Greek Himation                                Note: foot wear
 18 feet by 5 feet wide                        Senator
 Draped under right
 arm is the sinus and
 the pouch at front is
 the umbo

Other Outerwear Garments                                         Roman Male Costume
 Paludamentum - half circle cape, floor                               Tunic
 length, richly decorated for generals                                 • colobrium without
 Casula - poncho-like with no sleeves
           poncho-                                                       sleeves
                                                                       • tunic talaris with close
 Pallium - smaller rectangle used by lower                               fitting sleeves and
 classes to get rid of bulk of toga                                      floor length
                                                                       • dalmatic with wide
 Lacerna - small semi-circular wrap
 fastened on right shoulder by fibula
                                                                      Two clavi - vertical red
 Paenula - cape open down the front with                              stripes from
 peaked hood and collar                                               shoulders to hemline
                    Tunic Talaris
                     Long sleeves that fit                              Tunic talarus
                     close at the wrists
                                                                        Dalmatic on top
                     Usual length was floor
                     length                                             Toga has been desized
                                                                        from Republican size
                     Talus=of the ankles

Dalmatic                                      Tunic
                     Wide sleeved tunic        Vertical clavi
                     Loose                     Square, at lower level
                     Introduced about 190      and shoulders, called
                     AD                        segmentum
                     Persons of rank used
                     vertical band of
                     Width of stripe-
                     narrow and in pairs
                     were augusti clavi

Dalmatic form and
pattern                                       Roman Male Costume
                                                                        Shortened clavi
                                                                        Segmenta on ends of
Roman trousers
 A.D. 397 Emperor Honorus proclaimed                                      Central figure
 severe penalties against any man wearing                                 has colobrium
 trousers in Rome.                                                        in white with
                                                                          vertical clavi
 Trousers were badge of barbarians
 Knee length breeches were worn by Army
 officers during campaigns- femoralia or

                                            Costume for Roman Women:
                   Children in togas        Inner Garments
                                             Mamillare - Tight band bound about the
                                             Strophium - Top bandeaux covering for
                                             bathing costume
                                             Pagne - Lower trunks for bathing costume,
                                             with strophium these are the forerunner of
                                             the bikini bathing costume

                                            Costume for Roman Women:
Under garments or Bathing Dress             Outer Garments
                       Bust covering         Stola - Derived from Greek chiton, both
                       mamillare             Doric and Ionic, worn girdled at hips or
                       Briefs - pagne        waist or just under the bust
                                             Palla - Derived from Greek himation, large
                                             rectangular cloak, wrapped around the
                                             body, draped over the head for religious
                                             Toga - Worn during the Republic as a badge
                                             of citizenship
Costume for Roman Women                           Costume for Roman Women
 Palla is pulled                                                              Copied Greek forms
 up over head to                                                              Ionic chiton below
                                                                              has overfold
 be priestess
 for making

Costume for Roman Women                           Costume for Roman Women
                                                                              Dalmatic - A.D. 190
                                                                              • Wide sleeved
                                                                              • Loose fitting
                                                                              • over garment - layered
                                                                                on top of stola

Costume for Roman Women                           Costume for Roman Women
 Footwear:                                         Household
 • Solae - sandals                                 Hairdresser - Ornatrix
 • Calceus - outdoor shoe, low cut with leather    Hairstyles changed
   sole and thongs crossing highly across the      over time
   foot and up part of the leg                                  free-
                                                   • Republic: free-falling
                                                     or plaited
 • Soccus - richly decorated slipper               • Empire : high
                                                     pompadours and
                                                     corkscrew curls and
                                                     greater use of hair
Roman Women’s Hairstyles                       Hairstyles for Women
 Hair caught -up with
 nets or cauls of gold
 thread or wound with
 Hair dyes
  • Black like Britons
  • Red or blonde like
  • Courtesans - brassy
    yellow or blue

Roman Women’s Headcoverings                    Wedding Costume
 No hats were worn                              Orange veil - flammeum
 Veils which could be arranged in various       Wreath of marjoram and verbena or myrtle
 ways but always falling on shoulder in soft    and orange blossoms
 folds, called palliolum                        Unhemmed tunic belted by double knot
 Diadems with precious gem stones such as       Yellow sandals
 diamonds and emeralds                          Saffron colored palla

Mural of preparation of bride
Pompeiian Wall Mural                                  Accessories: Napkin for dining
                                                                             Note the folded mappa
                                                                             or napkin in the left

Costume Accessories                                   Bulla
 Bulla - freeborn child - gold or leather              Bulla was a
 locket as a charm against evil                        locket of leather
                                                       or gold
                                                       Put away upon
 Watches- mini-
 Watches- mini-sundials                                adoption of toga
 Gloves                                                symbol of
 Umbrellas                                             manhood
 Engagement ring - simple band
 Hair combs of tortoise shell/metal hairpins

Roman Cosmetics                                       Mourning Costume
 Eyeshadow                                             Men-
                                                       Men- toga sordida
 Lipstick                                              Woman who lost a child wore blue
 Rouge                                                 No jewelry for a year
 Face preparations
 • Plautus: “The right scent for a woman is none at
Roman Costume Accessories:              Roman Costume Accessories:
Earrings, pierced                       Earrings, pierced
                Earrings came in a
                variety of themes and
                Leech example

Roman Costume Accessories:              Roman Costume Accessories:
Earrings, pierced                       Necklaces
                                         As the
                                         change from
                                         Republic to
                                         Empire use of
                                         s and semi-

                                        Accessories: Men
                                         Gold wreath given as
                                         reward for service

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