Postmodern Art First, the collapse of modern art originated in the ancient Mediterranean (Egypt, Greece, West Asia) of Western art to the late 19th century, there have been signs of change, the signs of the 20th century, became the mainstream of Western art, this is the modern Western Art. ?Western modern art can be seen as a building. By a variety of different types of combination of visual style, the construction of this building principle is scientific and rational. This is the West hundreds of years of ideological and cultural core, Yeshi relative lack of things here, the West with those in the technical and social management made rapid progress; but also bring limitations, is the inhibition of the Bu Fen Sheng Ming energy, such as men and women gracious inseparable from the nature of the appeal, if only from the jobs, income, family status point of view and calculating, rational attitude is there, but the feelings will be affected. So, in relation to human emotion and spirituality of the place, not just listen to science. ?Modern art creation, and scientific thought are inseparable, Structuralism and cubism, industrial technology and futuristic thinking, style camp, machine forms and Dada mechanical drawings paintings, Freud&#39;s Interpretation of Dreams theory and surreal doctrine, there is a rational and irrational way that abstract expressionism, and so on, are the result of science and art together, people to art as a kind of rules to follow in the creation process, so that artists from drawings, art production facility in accordance with the drawings, it becomes a fair and reasonable process of artistic creation, the United States after 1960 is like this. At that time, many artists in a variety of industrial and material testing, the invention of new synthetic materials, use of mechanical devices into the power system works, sound and light electromagnetic become the new art resources, following a number of arts activities to demonstrate the circumstances : (1) optical effects Art (OPArt), which is a knowledge-based psychological testing of optical art creators accurate correction by the geometric shapes of color and light color Zaochu a dynamic effect, on behalf of the artist is 布里奇特里 out (Bridgei Riley) and Wasa Lei Li (Vasa-relev). ?(2) rarely Arts (nIlnlnlallsn1), prominent features produced by industrial art, the pursuit of mathematical precision, represented by Judd (Donald Judd), works often repeat the same unit. (3) &quot;moving sculpture&quot; (Kinetic Art), there are many representatives, such as the Swiss Tinggu Lai (Jean Tit-ian), has produced a variant of painting machines for the first Paris Biennale has produced a &quot;flavor a variant of the sound car &quot;; Riley (Len Iye) produced a delicate balance between the activities of sculpture, and so on. ?(4) light sculpture (Lighi Ari) is a sculpture of the other direction, in the form similar to neon. Representative of the young artists Frye temperature (Dan Fla-vin). ?(5) New York Armory in 1966 organized &quot;Art and Works&quot; pilot exhibition of works of art in many high-tech design, and thus bring artists and scientists work closely together. Subsequent establishment of the &#39;art and technology test &quot;organization, with 3,000 participants. And many more similar events occur frequently around the world to form a wave. Such as the New York modern art gallery&quot; mechanical &quot;Exhibition, Whitney Museum of Art the &quot;Light&quot; exhibition, London, mechanical &quot;power&quot; Art Exhibition, Los Angeles has &quot;industry&quot; exhibition, and more. technological capability development of the arts by the intervention to the arts, Western modern art in the use of force to create new achievements in science, while also their present a road of no return. ?The following is the 1960s these artists combine art and industry representatives: ?(1) color area abstract artist Newman (Barnetr-man), to near-way repeated to produce a single color block. ?(2) metal sculptor David Smith (David SITiith, 1906 ~ 65), early in the military tank factory welder, and later on develop a steel sculpture, this sculpture is made available to the audience it has no real function The mechanical quality. ?(3) action combination of art and color 100 abstract painter 弗 兰 肯 塔 拉 (Ftankenthaler, 1928 -) Abstract Expressionism and resource utilization, the artistic expression into a physical information. (4) black stripe painter Officials Terra (Frank: tLixlla, 1936 -), the use of copper and aluminum on canvas made in different shapes, rectangle and rhombus are more creative large-scale color works fast segmentation. ?Second, the nature of modern art to Western art history scholars summarized into three stages: pre-modern a modern ... post-modern. The staging, the art is all around &quot;modern&quot; to determine the time, the &quot;modern&quot; has become the historical division of the coordinates, this staging ruthless simple and easy to remember, we might hesitate to use one. ?Japanese-American literary theorist, sprinkle well Naoki (NaOki SakiIJi) on Japan in an article in the post-modern culture, said: &quot;The pre-modern a modern hint of a post-modern, a chronological sequence, we must remember that this order has never been all with the modern world&#39;s geopolitical structure together, and now well-known is. This order is essentially the history of nineteenth-century framework, this framework for understanding people through ethnic, cultural, traditional and ethnic in the system of Location. &quot;calendar Officials phase is not purely temporal division, but disputes and space together. This means that, at the same time, different regions may be scattered at different stages of civilization; similar experiences such as the 19th century, China is a feudal monarchy countries, capitalist West, has already entered, so, some people say all the contemporary art of both emerging contemporary art: it is wrong, and now our country&#39;s many art exhibitions in the works there will not have the characteristics of contemporary art, and even do not have the characteristics of modern art, this is the result of differences between eastern and western regions. ?Whether it is &quot;pre-modern&quot; or &quot;post-modern&quot; are the &quot;modern&quot; before comparing possible view to ascertain what is &quot;modern&quot;, is a prerequisite for this comparison. We can understand from two perspectives, &quot;Modern Art&quot; the reasons for a shift. One is the perspective of style and form, which is a quantitative concept. From the theory, we can calculate out the Western modernism in the visual form of phase and the style number, this number Henduo, past experience 任何 times to multiply Chao Chu also has Mei Shu Chinese forms and styles are also unable to match the number of Zonghe. ?The other is the value of the angle, the so-called value, is broken what is good, nothing wrong with the standard value of the concept of quality, vital. Different values lead to different evaluation results, for example, the value of viewing with the Ming and Qing literati painting in China today, will that is poorer than before. Quantitative point of view of modern art, we will find Western artists in just over half a century, to various angles. Full spirit of exploration and practice the art form (rack art) the possibilities of change, not to write and even how much space to be explored. Revolution, comrades do not work, then the artist had to open up ankle diameter. ?The value of modern art from the point of view, we will find that it is basically a category of elite culture, to adhere to the fine art festival parade, and the profane disdain the company of this concept by its nature, is a derivative of the history of aristocratic culture, but social change, and the spirit of hereditary nobles lost territory, but also had to hustle to earth. ?Specifically, the values of the performance of modern art who were in the following areas: ?(1) the pursuit of pure. Visual products of modern art to pursue purity, in writing only consider the form factor, ignoring other factors such as history, religion, literature and other content of intervention, which led to abstract art. Generally speaking, the pursuit of purely elitist and expert-oriented thinking, have limitations, equal Restricting. ?(2) to promote original, which is the standard used in competitive sports art, to art as art history, the record-breaking competition, but sport is a survival of the fittest, art not the case, development of the arts is not progress, is to change. For example can not say with Picasso Rembrandt difference. ?(3) cited the form of first, attention to form is not unique to the habits of modern art, classical art is also very particular sense of form, but the content of classical art in the form of obedience performance, or that the form of hidden behind the image, while the form of modern art is form, giving form to the independent value and function. ?(4) is called self-centered. Modern artists are more behind closed doors, to express themselves, regardless of the audience, often through the strange behavior and strange appearance of the show different, and therefore works very personal, not easy to understand, and thus help to explain the art critic got the privilege of such works . ?(5) the overall monotony. This is popular in the modern art period, all non-modern works, such as traditional realist style, there are national geographic features, non-developed countries work, were excluded, which makes the world&#39;s artists have to use &quot;cross-border language&quot; resulting in a degree of global language of art-poor disease. ?Several respects from the above, we can understand, there are forces opposed to it there is a piece automatic. ?Third, after the emergence of modern art against the forces of modern art in the 1960s did not occur. ?Power swept everything in science and technology, elite, pure artistic dead end of the time, the new arts activities there, these activities with the tide of time is so different, even to Western art took a dramatic turn, opened with the situation. Here are several of the newly emerging art activities: (1) Land Art (LandArt or Earth Art), indoor installation work can be seen as result of the development to the outdoors, the style can be traced back as early as the pyramids of ancient Egypt and the United Kingdom Stonehenge stone circle, a vast land in the Americas To provide a display of contemporary artists to the stage. To deserts, mountains and grasslands as the original material, trimming out or add on a huge geometric forms, is an early feature of Land Art. Romania&#39;s most famous works are afraid Tesimaisen (Robert Smithson) of the &quot;spiral jetty&quot;, the dam 15 feet wide, the audience can walk along the dam a few times, Chucierwai without any practical function. ?(2) Installation Art (InstallatiOn), is a non-Arts and wood material. Display in a short three-dimensional indoor exhibits, some of which will be very few museum collections, it is a method rather than the artistic arrangement of the exhibits feature or style, so it can for many art schools and services. The first device from the disposal of materials from traditional sculpture, the main definitions are: &quot;(1) they are assembled, not painted. Painted, plastic or carved out; (2) all or part of their elements, is Pre-formed natural or man-made materials, objects or debris does not intend to use art materials. &quot; Early installation art is represented by the German Dada artists Shiwei Te (Kllrt schw-Itter), he used various materials in the 1920s to their homes filled. ?(3) Body Art (BodV art), is the creator&#39;s own body as a material of artistic expression, combining painting, photography, video or other means of live recording. Formation of a non-dramatic performance art, &quot;non-dramatic&quot; is no fiction, performance, and artificial components. If lawa (Barry Le Va) is in the works of two walls separated by 10 meters between the run around, until they drop so far. Another 维 托 阿 康 西 (Vito Acconci) was a poet, psychologically abused tendencies, such as his efforts to graffiti his body to bite in the area and does not bite the traces do not give up, also said in public masturbation and loudspeakers to spread the voice of the shelves, forcing the public to become &quot;voyeur&quot; who attempt to break through social taboos, as well as a board is afraid of Chris (Chris Burden), this man is a masochist, masterpiece &quot;five days imprisonment&quot; is for 5 days at his yard in a metal box; another masterpiece, &quot;shooting&quot; is to his friends in the dagger-foot shot outward to his left arm, which shock the way, so he immediately obtained prestige in the world. ?(4) conceptual art (ConceptuaI Art), from the early 1920s, Dada art, that art nothing sacred and lasting value, it is the nature of thought or concept, the physical form of the specific work is not important, it is also called Thought Art (Ideaart), after the object Arts (Post Object art) or no object Arts (De-materialized art), the text materials used to record ideas, or an event camera recordings, is a common conceptual art form. Concept art and ideas of Marxism artists inquiry or the relationship between art and knowledge, this inquiry is the end of the text, or the aesthetics and philosophy of mathematics, from the logic that such work is not really used to watch the traditional development the form does not apply. However, it is necessary to show the inner thinking and also to avoid external form, is still long-term problem, which was seen as conceptual art, mostly art galleries and other public places in some temporary display devices, such as stacking a number of casual wood, bricks or other debris, one example is displayed in the museum a huge bird cage, inside some living birds and other items, while a concept is the number of arts organizations who engage in essay writing. Representatives have 约瑟夫库苏斯 (Joseph Kosuth), 迈尔波施纳 (MeI Bochner) and Hanna Road, Bowen (Hanne DarbOven) and others. ?(5) Process Art (Process art), that the artistic process of making important than the idea of prior experience the passage of time is better than watching static and lasting objects, trying to express fleeting transient, such artistic expression over time using the easy-to- changes in soft materials, the original source of Pollock and De Kooning in the creation of random chance dripping paint, mostly on the creative process any changes to the display materials. Representative is Robert Morris (Robert Morris), he&#39;s a work is piling up in the hall where some of the hybrid materials have no value. Every day he put these materials to change the state, to the end of the exhibition will throw these things away. With some of the activities above, appeared in Western art since the two opposing trends, one is pure art, is to bring art to remain independent character, to distinguish between the pool thing. In the pure arts, what is painting, what is sculpture, there is a clear definition of quality, another trend is confusing the boundaries of art and non arts, especially the confusing difference between art and life. The former art so-called &quot;pure&quot;, is exactly the latter art to the exclusion of things. The reason for exclusion is that the essence of art is inspired by creative, artistic range is divided artificially created the Creation of the binding force only when the integration of art and life, the artistic creativity to the broadest extent, be reflected . ?The rapid spread of new artistic ideas, to the River of years ago, the American art magazine is no longer filled with plastic steel and geometric style, and natural materials, operation of the process, the environment and audience intervention, semantic analysis, photography Record gradually become the main news was the media arts. At this point, are people of art concepts, methods and forms have been major changes, they say the post-modern art that is starting from this time, the next over, Art History and the change is not a military transfer. Completely be formed at both ends of the situation, the so-called old and new, end with the opening, often simultaneously, only the arguer easy to describe, accustomed to the fact that entanglement of separated, the prisoners of this, we often see many of the scholars the beginning of the so-called school movement has many claims, the paper discusses the post-modern art, because the order of deliberately looking for the passage of time, taking into account the space can not be divided, it is to readers attention. ?Contributed to modern Western art in the 1960s, many reasons not change shape, usually considered the social background of the following: (1) the failure of the United States in the Vietnam War, led to the emotional anti-war growth, coupled with the cold into a situation that the international environment, Ling awareness about human society and the reality most do not have hope, and they began to have contempt for the human living standard shell 1. In the field of counter-culture and the negative tendency of eternal value. (2) use of industrial by-ye. Industrial progress gave a wonderful display of human society and the prospects, but more and more obvious side effects, environmental pollution, energy shortages, toxic waste, nuclear danger, Ling was recognized that science and technology in solving some problem, bring fork new problems, people began to sober look at the pros and cons of industrial progress, have raised doubts on the scientific method. (3) Social issues highlight the rich material and spiritual life can not solve the problem of post-war &quot;Beat Generation&quot; appears. In 1968, Europe and the U.S. student movement have emerged boom. ?(4) the emergence of new ideas. J afternoon many European philosophers of contemporary culture that new ideas, which have an impact on the arts, the philosophers, including Roland Barthes, Foucault, Derrida, Lacan, Lyotard and others, their existing social theory proposed by shaking bark doubt any of a variety of related cultural forms, and guide people to suspect that any single theoretical framework and the ultimate judge, in the arts is to reaffirm the value of the concrete, resulting in the pursuit of modern art from the metaphysical. ?In addition to these external factors, over-rational children and to promote science and technology is the shift in artistic direction of the underlying reasons. Notice the spiritual world of human and natural ecology, as an endeavor not only changes in balance one another, if one over-development of a Chung Hsing prisoners, will have the opposite power to overcome it. If the majority of scientific intervention in the arts, there will be anti-science forces there. ?4, after the values of modern art since the 1980s, the United States as the center, post-modern art has surged to become the new artistic trends worldwide. Comprehensive look at the phenomenon of these arts, can now clearly perceive the value of new growth, it is mainly in the following areas: (1) a pure, contemporary art is not limited to visual form, language, music, drama, mass media. Digital video down, sound and light technology, as long as specific information to convey, anything goes, beyond the planar limit painting, sculpture and architectural landscape junction station, exhibition space is not limited to the Gallery Button Museum, in the contemporary West, the so-called visual art has Art is difficult to distinguish from other categories of quasi-solution. ?(2) serve good traditional. Human beings have a rich tradition of cultural resources, discarding it like a contempt Unfortunately, contemporary artists do not oppose tradition, but to use the past to update the self. In time and environment changes, the old symbols may have a new meaning, sub-ice of the &quot;bible&quot;, Cai Guo-Qiang&#39;s &quot;Cao Chuan Xi Arrow.&quot; Like this. (3) non-personal, in the art above, in addition to the late 19th century to the J) mid-century period, &quot;personal performance&quot; are not the main objective of creative explosion, the social function of post-modern art was to make art out of the ivory tower close to public life, the artist of any responsibility to the world, concerned with social problems, and actively participate in social activities, is no longer an alternative line of special legislation voiced characters. (4) a variety of standards, &quot;multiple&quot; is the core concept of contemporary art, while the international mainstream art trends still exist, but they no longer use a uniform standard to judge the merits, such as recognition of different national, ethnic, regional arts the value of women&#39;s art, indigenous art, non-developed art of attention, and so on. But because of complicated and confusing situation there is difficult to systematize. ?Discussion of the above, perhaps we can post-modern art on a superficial understanding: it arises from the rebellion of modern art, Fazhan the Biaodasixiang and 传递 messages using, Guannian of change, a technical conversion, and it Daibiao public awareness, pluralistic values and free creation, embodied the development of the West in Modern culture trend, but due Di Yu, cultural and institutional differences in Chinese art circles not work on the short period of time to the overall appearance of the worldwide Rongru art movement, but that does not impede the growth of new artistic elements, does not prevent us from common sense point of view to get the knowledge of Western contemporary art. ?5, inspired by Duchamp in relation to Western post-modern art topic, can not fail to mention the French artist Marcel Duchamp (MarceI Du-champ) transfer pool has been described as the father of modern art after the West, to understand his art and life, Western modern art after understanding the many wonderful phenomena of great help, but it is difficult to understand Duchamp) because of his work and life with the ordinary people too far; difficult to justify. ?Although Duchamp&#39;s artistic practice beyond the 1930s. And died in 1968, but his dry arts short period but later had a lasting influence. In 1913 he completed the first pieces of readymade art &quot;bicycle wheel&quot; to express the structure of the traditional emphasis on works of contempt. And implied that art is the most important factor in the concept rather than production skills. &quot;Chocolate grinder on the 8th,&quot; almost the last one rack Duchamp works, is a mockery of academic painting. After Duchamp in 1915 to settle in New York, completed in 1917, &quot;Spring&quot; is a urinal; another piece is L.II.OOQ, (1919), is to print &quot;Mona Lisa&quot; added mustache. Duchamp&#39;s most important works are &quot;glass&quot;, also known as &quot;the bride stripped by her guy was nothing left,&quot; the beginning of the work produced from 1915 to 1923 have not been completed. 192O years later, Duchamp on the growing interest in optics and the film, after Chuan&#39;s interest in him in turn to chess. ?Duchamp&#39;s most important contribution is the &quot;readymade&quot; art. Although from a secular point of view, the ready-made industrial products, or other items placed in Fine Arts Exhibition is ridiculous, but in fact it has changed the art of human perception and even the whole world, people began to question traditional values model concepts and the need for artistic creation, at least. Post-modern art in the West, &quot;is now finished,&quot; the impact of everywhere, and from the following aspects to the people to inspire: ?(1) forms with the United States is not important. Since ancient times, the artist to create beauty in the form of duty and give such work to high status and value. But Duchamp that the U.S. does not exist, the arts and people to create art is nothing special high places, he told people, no different from ordinary objects and works of art, fruit art is beautiful; that ordinary objects are beautiful, if not ordinary items United States, that Art was not much better, the so-called aesthetic value of art is just stereotyping it. He put the &quot;urinal&quot; sent to exhibitions, to break the stereotypes play a significant role. ?(2) environment and time is more important than work, realization of finished products for the art of determining factor is the environment and time. And the work itself. This shows that under certain conditions. Anything can be art as well as behavior; also Conversely, when conditions change anything and even acts can not art, according to the Chinese saying that one also goes right and wrong, He is also a right and wrong, because the environment and time forever Button Bianhua flow, so the Renaissance of Jingdian &quot;Mona Lisa&quot; to the 20th century, the Keyipihua Shang Xiao-Hu Yu, Cheng Wei jokes; Hang OK Chelun and stool Fang Jin Mei Shuguan li, on Dengyujiegou Zhu Yi&#39;s Diaosu. ?(3) lead back to the spontaneous and natural art of the state of the art of human activity is the first spontaneous and natural, without specialized training, not to artists and non-artists do. But then there is the division of labor, the arts have become a specialized work, and therefore have a special standard of art. Obviously, this division of labor and standards is a product of the previous system. Impede healthy human development. If the situation changes in social conditions, despite these existing standards as to the observance of the supremacy of law, it is too unreasonable, &quot;is now finished art&quot; is entirely to the art has been looked down on the standard scale and even culture , in a seemingly funny and actually quite profound thought, laughing at the man in the field of culture cautious and unimaginative, and thus calls for a new era of full freedom of creativity coming. ?(4) called the cancellation of technical constraints, people are accustomed to art as a specialized technical operation of this process, so only Academy of Fine Arts and a professional painter, &quot;is now finished&quot; art has nothing to do with the author&#39;s personal technology, it only a choice of view, the choice is a thought process, and material, the production technology at all. Duchamp here to tell people the value of art lies in thinking. Thinking, and any material product can become works of art. This is equivalent to thinking of art practice, the objective of abolishing the traditional artistic disciplines, implies the end of art and art history will judge the theory. ?American painter De Kooning (De Koonig) said: &quot;Duchamp launched a campaign to a person-this is a true modern movement, which suggests it all: every artist can get inspiration from him&quot; to appear is readily Nianchu&#39;s &quot;readymade&quot;, easily reversing the direction of the development of Western art, is a pioneer in the image of Duchamp left to future generations. Duchamp later, against all established artistic patterns and evaluation standards to the spirit of freedom without Guaai goals for artistic creation, has become the consensus of Western art. (From &quot;U.S. Court&quot;) ?