Practical 1 by jianglifang


• Geography21(gY) > 3C+c >6C?

                      Brian Whalley

             Presented at The HERODOT meeting
                  Liverpool Hope University
                     5th September 2008

 The PowerPoint in Screen mode has a number of images in some
 NOTEs, including references, are included in the
            Notes section of the slides
  Geography21(gY) > 3C+c >6C?

(Towards Bologna and Lisbon; perhaps with some
        help from the Elephant's Child)

           or, ‘You’ll never walk alone’

                   Brian Whalley
School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology
         Queen’s University, Belfast BT7 1NN
 Education 21C is a function of:
• Over-arching policy
  – Governments and Institutions (Bologna)
  – Employers and employability
• Educational means
  – Deep learning etc developed pedagogy for 21C
• Educational aspirations
  – Curriculum aims, syllabus achievements
• Students (Generation Y)
  – The 6Cs to graduateness
• Student-centred education
  – The 3Cs for tutor involvement
• Support mechanisms
  – PDP, charting, 'conference-system classroom'
How do we deliver a geography degree for
  the 21st Century?
For ‘Generation Y’
Taking into account:
  –   Bologna
  –   National preferences (mass education in UK)
  –   Institutional preferences
  –   Personal idiosyncrasies
  –   Idiosyncrasies of tutors?
         And, inevitably:
    Skills (and employability)
What skills? Traditional typology
 'Professor Snape's' perspective, 'in
 today's competitive job market, the
 pressure is on students to obtain a ‘good
 degree’ '.
                        (Higgins, Hartley, and Skelton, 2001)
                This begs the question:

       ‘what makes a good degree?’
      and thus, how might it be (best) delivered?
          What is a graduate in Geography?
What should the institutions be like?
  • To research or not to research?
    – Charles Clarke 2003
  • Funding of HEIs?
  • Students’ funding?
  • Should students attend their home
    university (UK)?
  • What lessons can we share across
    Europe - and beyond?
   Whatever happens -
   we need a good adaptive system for students
Some things that Bologna/Lisbon
           suggests or requires:
One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits, equivalent
to 1 500 - 1 800 hours of study

i.e. 10 ECTS credits 150 hours of ‘involvement’ per module -
what do we do in this time, but Lisbon statements say the

‘gives greater weight to practical training, and the way credits
are measured reflects how hard a student has worked. The new
grade will reflect not only a student’s performance on exams,
but also his or her lab experiments, presentations, hours spent
on study, and so forth’

  I’ll use this as an underlying issue to see how we might look
          At student education in the (mainly) First Cycle.
             Learning experiences
NOT: ‘pile ‘em high and lecture ‘em long’
    – And then examine them!
Sage on the stage from this; the
Traveling scholar and student

The Name of the Rose -
Umberto Eco (The Sage of Bologna?)

               (The Sage on the Page?)
  Could Bologna/Lisbon bring:
• Master-apprentice
• Centres of excellence (Masters as well as PhD)
• Sharing resources
   – Distance learning etc
• Sharing Experiences
• Focus on
     Educational Aims:
  TP1 Citizenship etc
  TP2 21st Century geography
  TP3 Innovative Teaching
  TP4 Lifelong Learning
   Back to medieval learning via
      personalised learning
• The mediaeval university
• '[she] argued that we should get back to a
  medieval concept of the university as a
  community of scholars unfettered by difficulties
  of the wider society.’
• Traveling masters and their apprentices
   – Was this medieval situation as elitist as has
     been made out?
• We now have the chance to broaden the scope,
  access and allow 'elitism for all'.
• ‘Stuff on the web’ - well rather more than this
   – Using e-learning in a wider context
          Trial and error - how can we provide
              good learning experiences?

      'You know what a learning experience is? A
        learning experience is one of those things
        that says, 'You know that thing you just
        did? Don't do that.’

                    (Douglas N Adams, 1992)

                                    How to avoid the panic?

Photo: Chris Ogle
   Or Tom vs
 Captain Najork
 as a metaphor
  for student
You win by ‘messing
around’ rather than
learning the Nautical
      Five conceptions of learning
                     (Säljö 1982)
 1.    as passive receipt of information
 2.    as active memorisation of information
 3.    as active memorisation of information or
       procedures, to be used at some time in the
 4.    as understanding
 5.    as a change in personal reality; seeing the
       world differently.

How can we best bring in good assessment practices?
Are there ways in which e-communication could help?
        How might we get there?

It will not be easy - to get from a 21C lecture theatre to
a revitalised medieval mass apprenticeship scheme
The Elephant’s Child
                              Experiential learning:

                              E-learning etc
Limpopo - in Mozambique

 Keen Sage
                                   Acacia xanthophloea
Subject matter (syllabus) is really no problem
          Howard Gardner
•   The Disciplinary Mind
•   The Synthesizing Mind
•   The Creating Mind
•   The Respectful Mind
•   The Ethical Mind

             Gardner, H. 2007, Five Minds for the Future
   At de Lange (2001)
Humankind characteristics:

• Thought-exchanging (dialogue)
• Game-playing
• Exemplar-exploring
• Art-expressing
• Problem-solving
                     6 Competencies
                    students need to gain

Marcia Mentkowski                                        Mihály Csíkszentmihályi

        Competence – encouragement by challenge and
           remarks to achieve skills levels

        Confidence – promoting remarks to show themselves,
           and others, their achievements
        Critical thinking – which is what we have been wanting
           all along in 'Thinking skills’, used in problem solving
        Creativity – in what students do and how they do it
        Collaboration – bringing in team-working and ethics
        Commonality – of purpose, to achieve specified (and
           unspecified) objectives
        Curtiosity – which is more than curiosity.
            Itiel Dror

Control – handing appropriate
 responsibilities to students
Challenge – student abilities
Commitment – student commitment to
 learning opportunities

What might be the best ways (note plural) to
develop these?
Using cognitive psychology
           What actually is
           ‘deep learning’
• Something that is assessed in ways other
  than unseen examinations?
• Experiential?
     • Thought-exchanging (dialogue)
     • Game-playing
     • Exemplar-exploring
     • Art-expressing
     • Problem-solving
     (Using the ‘150 hours’ effectively)
           Quick break!

• What questions do you want to ask?
• Does your neighbour agree?
• Make a note - and if I can’t answer
  them at the end then question
  yourself (or colleagues)
                 Structures to help
Scaffolding* so things don’t quite hit the ground! -
better have a safety net
Trial and error

Where does the feedback come in? Remarks?
This should be a continuous (or stepwise) process
Can we build all these components together?
To emulate what?
Perhaps a student learning system
     within a medieval mass apprenticeship scheme
*Scaffolding relates to PBL via Vygotsky but some have queried its value
                                Identities: preferences, needs motivations.
                                 Competencies: skills knowledge, abilities
                               Roles; Approaches and modes of participating

 Learning                       Specific interaction of learners with other
                                people, using specific tools and resources,
 Environment                    oriented towards specific outcomes              Outcomes
 Tools, resources, artefacts
 affordances of the physical
                                    Learning activity                           New Knowledge, skills
                                                                                and abilities. Evidence of
 and virtual environment for                                                    This and/or artefacts of the
 learning                                                                       learning process

An outline for a learning
activity, Helen
Beetham 2007
                                 Other people involved and the specific role
                                 they play in the interactions, e.g. support,
                                          mediate, change, guide

• DIDET project

• Allison Littlejohn
  – Flexible learning

                    PhD and the wider community
charting   employers
           another 3Cs
           Slides from:
           Littlejohn, JISC
           Presentation, 2008

             Hamilton Holt
          Task                    Task                Task
             Problem                                 Problem
             specified                                solution
                         S        T           Assessment

                                            R                   R

                                      Clues             Provision of
               Rules                 Guidance           Feedback on
              System                   Help               solutions
             Examples                    Support             Support

                             T Tacit knowledge required
                               S Sticking point(s) likely

A temporal sequence describing a rule-based learning design, In Oliver et al. 2007.
Describing ICT-based learning designs that promote quality learning outcomes
   Back to our 21st century,
‘Medieval university’ structure?
Can we build, via ‘Bologna’, a system which
provides the best of the old with the new?
   Which allows all of our students to:

     Undertake the ‘best’ education
  A best fitted curriculum and syllabus
                for the 21C
         Communities of learning
We need to develop these
  –   At a variety of scales of operation - HERODOT
  –   In particular, at our own institutions -
  –   Student centred but bringing in
  –   Tutors, pedagogy*, employers, internet,
      web 2.0, digital repositories,etc
      Wisdom of Crowds (Surowiecki) etc
                                 Collective Learning:
  * Using cognitive psychology    Consuming knowledge
                                  Connecting knowledge
                                  Contributing knowledge
                                  Charting knowledge
             Ways forward
         (rather than conclusions)
•   Develop a broad skills base
•   Include employability skills
•   Use Problem-based learning       Confidence

•   Aim for the 6Cs                  Critical thinking
                        Control      Collaboration
•   Use the 3Cs         Challenge    Commonality
                        Commitment   Curtiosity
•   And charting (etc)
Geography21(gY) > 3C+c >6C?
And from the Elephant’s child -
who, after all his struggles and
‘satiable curtiosity, had a very fine,
and very useful, new nose.

            Thank you
Hamilton Holt (born August 18, 1872, Brooklyn, New York, died April 26, 1951, Woodstock, Connecticut) was an American educator,
editor, author and politician.

[edit] Editor

After graduating from Yale University, Holt became the editor and published of the liberal weekly the Independent in 1897 and remained
so until 1921. He was an outspoken advocate for reform, temperance, immigrant rights and international peace. In 1906 he published a
collection of immigrants' life stories entitled The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans as Told by Themselves. In 1909 Holt was a
founding member of the NAACP. In 1924 he unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate from Connecticut as a Democrat. He was soundly
defeated by Hiram Bingham III, 60.4% to 38.6%.

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