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Note • Geography21(gY) > 3C+c >6C? Brian Whalley Presented at The HERODOT meeting Liverpool Hope University 5th September 2008 The PowerPoint in Screen mode has a number of images in some places NOTEs, including references, are included in the Notes section of the slides Geography21(gY) > 3C+c >6C? (Towards Bologna and Lisbon; perhaps with some help from the Elephant's Child) or, ‘You’ll never walk alone’ Brian Whalley School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology Queen’s University, Belfast BT7 1NN Education 21C is a function of: • Over-arching policy – Governments and Institutions (Bologna) – Employers and employability • Educational means – Deep learning etc developed pedagogy for 21C • Educational aspirations – Curriculum aims, syllabus achievements • Students (Generation Y) – The 6Cs to graduateness • Student-centred education – The 3Cs for tutor involvement • Support mechanisms – PDP, charting, 'conference-system classroom' Consider…. How do we deliver a geography degree for the 21st Century? For ‘Generation Y’ Taking into account: – Bologna – National preferences (mass education in UK) – Institutional preferences – Personal idiosyncrasies – Idiosyncrasies of tutors? And, inevitably: Skills (and employability) What skills? Traditional typology 'Professor Snape's' perspective, 'in today's competitive job market, the pressure is on students to obtain a ‘good degree’ '. (Higgins, Hartley, and Skelton, 2001) This begs the question: ‘what makes a good degree?’ and thus, how might it be (best) delivered? What is a graduate in Geography? What should the institutions be like? • To research or not to research? – Charles Clarke 2003 • Funding of HEIs? • Students’ funding? • Should students attend their home university (UK)? • What lessons can we share across Europe - and beyond? Whatever happens - we need a good adaptive system for students Some things that Bologna/Lisbon suggests or requires: One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits, equivalent to 1 500 - 1 800 hours of study i.e. 10 ECTS credits 150 hours of ‘involvement’ per module - what do we do in this time, but Lisbon statements say the process: ‘gives greater weight to practical training, and the way credits are measured reflects how hard a student has worked. The new grade will reflect not only a student’s performance on exams, but also his or her lab experiments, presentations, hours spent on study, and so forth’ I’ll use this as an underlying issue to see how we might look At student education in the (mainly) First Cycle. Learning experiences NOT: ‘pile ‘em high and lecture ‘em long’ – And then examine them! Sage on the stage from this; the lecture? Traveling scholar and student The Name of the Rose - Umberto Eco (The Sage of Bologna?) (The Sage on the Page?) Could Bologna/Lisbon bring: • Master-apprentice • Centres of excellence (Masters as well as PhD) • Sharing resources – Distance learning etc • Sharing Experiences • Focus on Educational Aims: TP1 Citizenship etc TP2 21st Century geography TP3 Innovative Teaching TP4 Lifelong Learning Back to medieval learning via personalised learning • The mediaeval university • '[she] argued that we should get back to a medieval concept of the university as a community of scholars unfettered by difficulties of the wider society.’ • Traveling masters and their apprentices – Was this medieval situation as elitist as has been made out? • We now have the chance to broaden the scope, access and allow 'elitism for all'. • ‘Stuff on the web’ - well rather more than this – Using e-learning in a wider context Trial and error - how can we provide good learning experiences? 'You know what a learning experience is? A learning experience is one of those things that says, 'You know that thing you just did? Don't do that.’ (Douglas N Adams, 1992) How to avoid the panic? Photo: Chris Ogle Or Tom vs Captain Najork as a metaphor for student learning? You win by ‘messing around’ rather than learning the Nautical Almanack Five conceptions of learning (Säljö 1982) 1. as passive receipt of information 2. as active memorisation of information 3. as active memorisation of information or procedures, to be used at some time in the future 4. as understanding 5. as a change in personal reality; seeing the world differently. How can we best bring in good assessment practices? Are there ways in which e-communication could help? How might we get there? It will not be easy - to get from a 21C lecture theatre to a revitalised medieval mass apprenticeship scheme The Elephant’s Child Experiential learning: Fieldwork Labwork Projects E-learning etc ‘Exploration’ Limpopo - in Mozambique Keen Sage Acacia xanthophloea Subject matter (syllabus) is really no problem Howard Gardner • The Disciplinary Mind • The Synthesizing Mind • The Creating Mind • The Respectful Mind • The Ethical Mind Gardner, H. 2007, Five Minds for the Future At de Lange (2001) Humankind characteristics: • Thought-exchanging (dialogue) • Game-playing • Exemplar-exploring • Art-expressing • Problem-solving 6 Competencies students need to gain Marcia Mentkowski Mihály Csíkszentmihályi Competence – encouragement by challenge and remarks to achieve skills levels Confidence – promoting remarks to show themselves, and others, their achievements Critical thinking – which is what we have been wanting all along in 'Thinking skills’, used in problem solving Creativity – in what students do and how they do it Collaboration – bringing in team-working and ethics Commonality – of purpose, to achieve specified (and unspecified) objectives Curtiosity – which is more than curiosity. Itiel Dror Control – handing appropriate responsibilities to students Challenge – student abilities Commitment – student commitment to learning opportunities What might be the best ways (note plural) to develop these? Using cognitive psychology What actually is ‘deep learning’ • Something that is assessed in ways other than unseen examinations? • Experiential? • Thought-exchanging (dialogue) • Game-playing • Exemplar-exploring • Art-expressing • Problem-solving (Using the ‘150 hours’ effectively) Quick break! • What questions do you want to ask? • Does your neighbour agree? • Make a note - and if I can’t answer them at the end then question yourself (or colleagues) Structures to help Scaffolding* so things don’t quite hit the ground! - better have a safety net Trial and error Where does the feedback come in? Remarks? This should be a continuous (or stepwise) process Can we build all these components together? To emulate what? Perhaps a student learning system within a medieval mass apprenticeship scheme *Scaffolding relates to PBL via Vygotsky but some have queried its value Identities: preferences, needs motivations. Competencies: skills knowledge, abilities Roles; Approaches and modes of participating Learners Learning Specific interaction of learners with other people, using specific tools and resources, Learning Environment oriented towards specific outcomes Outcomes Tools, resources, artefacts affordances of the physical Learning activity New Knowledge, skills and abilities. Evidence of and virtual environment for This and/or artefacts of the learning learning process An outline for a learning activity, Helen Beetham 2007 Others Other people involved and the specific role they play in the interactions, e.g. support, mediate, change, guide Charting • DIDET project • Allison Littlejohn – Flexible learning Undergraduate-postgraduate- PhD and the wider community Supporting charting employers and employment using another 3Cs Slides from: Littlejohn, JISC Presentation, 2008 Hamilton Holt Conference-system classroom Task Task Task Manipulation Problem Problem of specified solution system S T Assessment R R Clues Provision of Rules Guidance Feedback on System Help solutions Examples Support Support Procedures Resources T Tacit knowledge required S Sticking point(s) likely A temporal sequence describing a rule-based learning design, In Oliver et al. 2007. Describing ICT-based learning designs that promote quality learning outcomes Back to our 21st century, ‘Medieval university’ structure? Can we build, via ‘Bologna’, a system which provides the best of the old with the new? Which allows all of our students to: Undertake the ‘best’ education A best fitted curriculum and syllabus for the 21C Communities of learning We need to develop these – At a variety of scales of operation - HERODOT – In particular, at our own institutions - – Student centred but bringing in – Tutors, pedagogy*, employers, internet, web 2.0, digital repositories,etc Wisdom of Crowds (Surowiecki) etc Collective Learning: * Using cognitive psychology Consuming knowledge Connecting knowledge Contributing knowledge Charting knowledge Ways forward (rather than conclusions) • Develop a broad skills base • Include employability skills • Use Problem-based learning Confidence • Aim for the 6Cs Critical thinking Creativity Control Collaboration • Use the 3Cs Challenge Commonality Commitment Curtiosity • And charting (etc) Geography21(gY) > 3C+c >6C? And from the Elephant’s child - who, after all his struggles and ‘satiable curtiosity, had a very fine, and very useful, new nose. Thank you Hamilton Holt (born August 18, 1872, Brooklyn, New York, died April 26, 1951, Woodstock, Connecticut) was an American educator, editor, author and politician.  Editor After graduating from Yale University, Holt became the editor and published of the liberal weekly the Independent in 1897 and remained so until 1921. He was an outspoken advocate for reform, temperance, immigrant rights and international peace. In 1906 he published a collection of immigrants' life stories entitled The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans as Told by Themselves. In 1909 Holt was a founding member of the NAACP. In 1924 he unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate from Connecticut as a Democrat. He was soundly defeated by Hiram Bingham III, 60.4% to 38.6%.
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