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					                           Digital Media & the Library
                        Online at:

                                Scott Kehoe, Technology Consultant
                    Northeastern Massachusetts Regional Library System (NMRLS)
                                978-762-4433 x16 /
                      IM: AIM-bibliotechy / MSN-bibliotekky /Yahoo!-biblioteky

Technical Considerations
Network bandwidth - impact of allowing patrons to download media files in the library
- 1 song = 3-5 MB per song
- 275pp audiobook w/ multiple actors/sound effects= 100 MB
- 40 minutes of medium quality video = 200 MB

Got a public wireless network?
Then students, faculty, staff, and librarians(!) are already playing games, downloading music, audiobook and
video files for themselves!
Where to save downloads?
Will you allow patrons to save media files to your hard drive?
Burn files to CD / DVD?
Load files from your public terminals to their iPod / MP3 player?

The right equipment.
The right cables to hook up an iPod / MP3 player
USB 2.0 and/ or FireWire ports for fast transfer of data (some devices will not work with USB 1.x ports).
Loaning equipment to patrons? iPod / MP3 players, headphones, cassette adapters / FM transmitters (for car

Staff training
If you offer a digital audio service, even as a remote service, your users are going to ask about this, so make
sure your staff knows the answers (Why won’t this work on my iPod?)

Copyright education - an opportunity for instruction

Licenses & Contracts
get legal consul to help review contracts, do you own the digital material or are you leasing it? Do you care?
Digital Audio formats - CODECS (Compressor / DECompressor software):
MP3 = everybody!
MPEG Audio Layer 3 – the most popular compressed audio format, commonly assumed to be a public-domain
or open-source format, but the format is licensed and patented, as well as developed, by the German research
firm Fraunhofer IIS.

AAC = iPod
Advanced Audio Coding - audio format used by Apple iTunes and only playable on iPods.
Created by a consortium of AT&T, Dolby, Fraunhofer IIS, and Sony.

WMA = Windows-based players
Windows Media Audio - audio format developed by Microsoft, used with many portable players and the
download format used at Napster, Yahoo!, OverDrive, NetLibrary, and many other fee-based sites.

Other formats
    OGG (Ogg Vorbis) - compressed format, open-source
    FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) - lossless format, open-source
    ALTRAC - Sony proprietary format, no longer support as of Fall 2007.

                                  DRM = Digital Rights Management
         DRM is built into the individual digital audio files and knows where it is allowed to play,
                                 your laptop, your iPod, and where it isn’t!
The ACC and WMA audio formats have built in DRM components, which is why they are used by commercial
                          vendors like iTunes, Napster, Yahoo!, and OverDrive.

                                            The great divide!
                     iPods vs. MP3 players compatibility … Or rather, incompatibility …
                               The following formats will play these devices:

                    AAC format                                            WMA format*
                                                         *to further complicate matters, Microsoft has a new
                                                          licensed WMA format that is only used on its Zune
                                                                         player & software.

                     Apple iPods                                        Creative: MuVo, Zen
     Shuffle, Mini, Nano, Photo iPod, Video iPod                              Dell: DJ
                                                                          Microsoft Zune
                                                                          SanDisk Sansa

   Note: iPods work on both Windows & Apple computers.        Note: players only work on Windows computers.

     Cell Phones - Motorola ROKR & SLVR                                  Cell Phones
     Apple & Windows Computers & Laptops                              PDAs (Palm, Treo)
                                                                 Windows Computers & Laptops
The following commercial services use these DRM audio formats
       iTunes = AAC
       OCLC Recorded Books NetLibrary, OverDrive , Napster, Yahoo! Music, Real Networks = WMA

                                   Digital Audiobooks in Libraries
                                         Current Library Models

                     Remote access                                     Library facilitated

                         Vendors                                              Vendors

            OCLC NetLibrary Recorded Books                             iPod Shuffles projects

 Patron does not need to physically come to the library      Patron must come to Library to obtain their
                                                               audiobook selections and / or a device
 Patron does need a library card to authenticate through
                        a website                                Popular content, current bestsellers

   Patron needs relatively high-speed internet access,     Library staff downloads audiobook to an iPod or
    modem access is possible, but frustratingly slow            MP3 player (library or patron owned).

      Patron must first download & install proprietary     If Playaway, no downloading, just check-out the
       software on their computer: OverDrive player,                     pre-loaded device.
                  Windows Media Player

  Patron can listen to audiobooks on their computer or
               download to an MP3 player

             Some titles can be burned to CD

 Does not work with iPods, both these vendors use the
      WMA audio format, unplayable on iPods.

     Libraries in Massachusetts using the                   Libraries in Massachusetts using the
             remote access model.                                 Library facilitated model.

        OCLC NetLibrary Recorded Books                                    Apple iTunes
                                                                     Wilbraham Public Library
              Minuteman network
            Boxford Public Library                              
             Orange Public Library                                Memorial Hall Library, Andover

                     OverDrive                                             Playaway
                Boston Public Library                          Manchester-by-the-Sea Public Library
                  CLAMS network                                  Memorial Hall Library, Andover
                C/W MARS network
                  MVLC network
                   OCLN network
                   SAILS network
                         Some Libraries also loan the equipment to patrons.

           Devices: iPod shuffles / MP3 players / usually not headphones (for sanitary reasons …)
                      For car stereos (commuters): cassette adapters / FM transmitters

                          Libraries in Massachusetts using that loan equipment.
                                  iPod Shuffle: Wilbraham Public Library
                              MP3 players: Memorial Hall Library, Andover
                             FM transmitters: Memorial Hall Library, Andover

Library facilitated models
Memorial Hall Library (Andover, MA) - patrons can borrow one of 40 MP3 players loaded with digital audio
books, or bring in their own iPod or select model of MP3 player and have digital audiobooks loaded! MHL
primarily uses as their vendor.
     - Main site for patrons.
     - For Librarians, links to other libraries
       also providing this service, their policies, technical issues and tips.

OCLC NetLibrary/Recorded Books
- Boxford Town Library

Vendor allows remote downloads from a website to a patron’s own computer. Also offers music and video
collections. Once downloaded, the file can then be loaded onto an MP3 player (not iPod) and most can be
burned to CD-ROM.
    - Boston Public Library:
    - C/W Mars Library Network (Shrewsbury, MA):
    - SAILS Library Network (Middleboro, MA):
    - Merrimack Valley Library Consortium (MVLC), Andover MA:

iPod Shuffle projects
Wilbraham Public Library (MA) iPod Shuffle Project – “The library has purchased five iPod Shuffles to
circulate with audiobook content.”

South Huntington Library (Long Island, NY) offers iTunes music on their iPod Shuffles. These are the folks
who got lots of positive press offering digital audiobooks on iPod Shuffles earlier this year. An audio report is
available at National Public Radio’s Talk of the Nation, March 3, 2005 (
-Music on iPod:
-Books on iPod:

Playaway –
An all-in-one digital audiobook. The player is preloaded with one audiobook and encased in book’s dust jacket,
it’s like a little plastic book! The audiobook is not transferable, cannot be erased, nor can anything be added to
the player. Pricing is about $35+ per device. Can be purchased with library-specific packaging which includes
a video-tape sized container, it includes the player, headphones and battery.

Consumer options for Digital Audiobooks – places to let your patrons know about
Apple iTunes - Download iTunes, click on Music Store, click on Audiobooks. Most Audiobooks provided by, but iTunes has some exclusive audiobooks too, most famously, the Harry Potter series! - Offers it's own digital format that can be played on iPods and select MP3 players. Its online
digital bookstore is also available through Apple iTunes. Once you've created an account, you can buy books,
magazines, podcasts, and MP3 players.

Playaway ( - the all-in-one digital audiobook, available at major office-supply
stores and bookstore chains, more information above.

Project Gutenberg - FREE DOWNLOADS! - public domain audiobooks read and created by volunteers.
Their mission is simple, "to encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks."
    Human-read: / Computer-generated:

                                       Digital Music in Libraries
Public Library Example
   South Huntington Library (Long Island, NY) is offering iTunes music on their iPod Shuffles.
        Music on iPod:

Library Vendor Example
   OverDrive –classical music from the Naxos label is available as an option for a library’s OverDrive
   subscription. According to their press release, the Naxos Music Library contains over 5,000 classical works
   and patrons will be able to download music to their computer and supported audio players.

          Press release on Naxos collection:
          Boston Public Library’s OverDrive Music Collection (

Campus-wide Online Media Stores
These services provide students at colleges and universities access to these vendors’ media catalogs. Usually
this consists of streaming music (playing only, no downloading) and allowing students to download to a hard
drive for a limited time period. But if a student wants to burn a CD or load music onto a MP3 player, they must
purchase the songs (usually at a discount) and they are then theirs to keep.

Apple iTunes U ( - Duke, Stanford, Michigan
Offering not just the full complement of iTunes music, videos, podcasts, and TV shows. But an “institutionally
branded” iTunes with school colors and logo! It also a way to distribute lectures, campus news, and video and
audio podcasts.
       Univ. of Michigan, School of Dentistry profile:

- CIDIGIX - Rochester Institute of Technology, Tufts, Yale
- Napster - Cornell, Middlebury, Rochester
- Real Rhapsody - Adelphi University, UC-Berkeley, Minnesota
- Ruckus Network - Babson College, Bridgewater State,
Northeastern Univ., Stonehill College, Syracuse
- Yahoo! Music - Stanford University

                                 Consumer Online Music Sources
Current consumer digital music delivery model
    Purchases are geared toward individual tracks, but albums and even “liner notes” can also be purchased.
    Tracks are generally 99¢ apiece.
    To buy & download music, most music sites require downloading and installing their free proprietary
      software (iTunes, Napster)
    Sites require users register with personal information, email, and a credit card. Most sites allow users to
      create a deposit account.
    The software (iTunes, Napster) links to specific user accounts on individual computers and iPod / MP3
    The music is licensed to individual user accounts and individual computers/MP3 players using
    DRM (digital rights management) software.
    If a consumer’s hard-drive crashes and / or their player is lost, so is their music! After you buy and
      download a track, it is the consumer’s responsibility to back it up. Some services remind consumers of
      this after a purchase.

                                    FREE Online Music Sources
Free Multi-Band/Multi-Genre Sites

CNET Free MP3 Music Downloads for all genres of music from Children’s to
religious to hip-hop to punk, it’s all there! It’s free MP3 files so they will play on any MP3 player or iPod. The
catch? Sometimes the reason why the music is free is quickly apparent to your ears

Internet Archive’s Live Music Archive “Live Music Archive …has
teamed up with to preserve and archive as many live concerts as possible … music in this Collection is from
trade-friendly artists and is strictly noncommercial …Artists' commercial releases are off-limits.”

Apple iTunes load iTunes software(, click on “Single of the Week” icon or look for
the “Free Downloads” section on the iTunes homepage (usually need to scroll to bottom of site). Also try the
multitude of music podcasts available through iTunes that feature new artists.

Artist sites – free & fee - downloads direct from the artist!

       Just Google an artist or band, they’re sure to have a website with streaming music or downloads.
     – all the cool bands have a site there!

Multi-Band/Multi-Genre sites – free & fee - Even old-fashioned CDs for sale.

       Smithsonian Global Sound (SGS) “delivers the world's
        diverse cultural expressions via the Internet in an informative way for a reasonable price." A project of
        the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. Search by geographic area, instrument type,
        and cultural group, tracks 99 cents in MP3 or FLAC formats.

Music podcasts A short listing of websites for music podcasts. Individual shows may be downloaded directly
form most sites. Most shows are in MP3 format and will play on any MP3 player or iPod.

The fast-growing phenomenon of free talk, commentary, music shows , and video(!),available in the MP3
format for download to your computer or MP3 player/iPod. You can listen whenever it is convenient. The
shows range from those made in someone’s basement (and sound like it) to FM radio quality from WGBH.

You do not need an iPod or MP3 player to listen and download a podcast! You do need an internet connection,
a computer, audio software (Windows Media Player, iTunes). And if you want to subscribe to a show, free
podcast software (Juice, iTunes).

Podcast Program Directories

       Podcast Alley - one of the first podcast directories and all-inclusive.
        Links to programs, websites and software
     - Created by Adam Curry, the self-proclaimed “father of
        podcasting” or podfather. Includes a “how-to” and directory to shows that are part of this "network."
       Directory of NPR programs available as podcasts:
       iTunes podcast directory - not only a massive directory, but easy to search and free downloads!!!
   Yahoo! Podcasts–combines a podcast directory with subscription and listening functions in a
    convenient web-based interface:

Free Software for downloading podcasts
There are 2 popular free software choices : Apple iTunes & Juice. Both will work on Windows or Apple
computers (Juice also on Linux). These programs help you choose what to download, when to download and
how long to keep old programs on your computer’s hard drive. The software automatically downloads podcasts
of your choosing, then loads the podcasts into iTunes or Windows Media Player library, and then copies them to
your iPod or MP3 player!

      Juice -
      Apple iTunes - /

YouTube - - started as a simple idea by 2 guys who wanted an easy way to share some of
their party videos, in less than a year it turns into a cultural phenomenon and is bought by Google for over 1.4
billion dollars! To see some samples of libraries using YouTube, just type in "library" or "public library"

Yahoo! Video - - more a video search engine than collection site.

                                              TV on the Internet
Legal offerings of real TV shows on your computer whenever and where-ever you want! These are usually not
downloads, but streaming video. You must have a fast broadband/DSL internet connection to really enjoy
these shows ... and not mind the small screen ...

AOL Television - - AOL Time-Warner's internet TV network. TV classics like
Gilligan's Island and Welcome Back, Kotter.

       Some shows may be downloaded using a plug-in with Windows Media Player and the Microsoft IE 6
       browser. This is not available for users of the new Microsoft IE 7 browser, users of the Firefox browser
       or Apple computers.

ABC TV - - offers full-length streaming of it's most popular
shows: Desperate Housewives; Grey's Anatomy; Lost. No special software needed to watch episodes.

CBS TV - - offers full-length streaming of it's most popular shows: CSI
franchise; Survivor. Plays via Windows Media Player or Real Player.

FOX TV / FOX on demand - - corporate tie-in to sister entity MySpace, use the
FOX Full Throttle Player (via Microsoft IE browser) to view full-episodes of popular shows: Bones; Prison

NBC TV - - offers show clips, deleted scenes, and previews via their 24/7 video
player (Windows Media Player plug-in). Site has web-only exclusives and award-winning “webisodes” for The

                                         Where to get more Info

Scott's bookmarks - - his favorite tech-related web sites and links to
Scott’s Tech Tips column from the NMRLS Newsletter. You can subscribe to the RSS feed too!

Print Sources

OCLC reports – results from in-depth surveys on library user perceptions of libraries.
   Perceptions of Libraries And Information Resources (2005, ISBN 1556533640)
        o Download PDF:
   College Student’s Perceptions of Libraries And Information Resources (2005, ISBN 15565336590)
        o Download PDF:

Pew Internet & American Life Project Reports - Facilitating, timely, and useful surveys on how
American’s use the Internet and technology. Reports are concise and easy to digest. Download PDF reports &
subscribe to RSS feed at:

The New York Times – see Technology section and David Pogue’s weekly columns and equipment reviews
as well as his Missing Manuals book series and YouTube videos, free online & subscribe to RSS feed at:

The Wall Street Journal – see Walt Mossberg’s weekly columns and equipment reviews. His columns are
also free online & subscribe to RSS feed at:

Websites with RSS feeds -
A great site for off-beat techy, entertainment, gaming and science news. Users can register to submit and vote
on stories they liked most. Top votes are reviewed weekly on the diggnation podcast (see below).

Digital Music News –
A great site that aggregates news from various sources on the business and technology of digital music. Email
Subscription option (plain text with links).

engadget -
get your first looks at the newest electronic gadgets, from cameras to MP3 players to cell phones. Started as a
blog, bought by AOL in October 2005 … hasn’t lost it’s hippness yet …
Available via website, a RSS feed, and a podcast. -
Another site that aggregates news from various sources on all forms of digital content and their related
businesses (music, movies, news media, ISPs, etc.). Email and RSS Subscription options.

Buzz Out Loud: CNET's podcast of indeterminate length –
A witty and entertaining discussion of the days technology news with three of CNET’s editors, they also answer
listener’s email and voicemail questions about products and services.

Diggnation – a very humorous weekly look at stories that were most read on the social news site
Both a video and audio version are available, teach episode an enjoyable half-hour.

NPR podcasts -
Nation Public Radio produces weekly podcasts made up of stories from all of their news and national
programming. The NPR news podcasts are available by genre: technology; pop culture; health & science; etc.


Creative Commons Podcasting Legal Guide (wiki):

Electronic Frontier Foundation Legal Guide for Bloggers:

NMRLS Copyright Webliography:

                        Updated: 09/04/07 / Online at:

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