INTRODUCTION TO CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION A Closed Circuit television (CCTV) system is a television system, which operates on a closed loop basis, unlike the Television at home, which is a public system available to anyone with a suitable receiver, CCTV images are only available to those connected to the closed loop. The main function of the CCTV system is to allow surveillance and remote viewing, typically; from several cameras, back to one location within the same building. Usually, it is a part of an overall integrated package operated by security personnel that includes access control, alarms, intrusion detection and communication. The true scope for+ applications is almost unlimited. Some examples are: o Monitoring traffic on a bridge. o Recording the inside of baking oven to find the cause of problems o A temporary system to carry out traffic survey in a town center. o The well-publicized use at foot ball stadiums, etc. o Hidden in busses to control vandalism. o Production control & Security monitoring a factory. Through these systems some of the on-going hazardous processes are being monitored remotely from the control rooms which are in the Vicinity of the production facility. This is the only on line visual communication in the plant. That is the reason why CCTV systems are so important in the shop floors. A traditional CCTV system recording was on video tapes. This was fine for recording what was going on, but it didn’t broadcast actual live information, so it wasn’t practical for monitoring stores, for instance, from a remote location. It simply provided what happened after the fact. The picture quality wasn’t great and it relied on human reliability as well someone had to remember to change the tapes regularly, etc. For lthe authorized personnel; to view continuous production processes round the clock, IP based CCTV system is very essential. So this project describes IP based CCTV in a site. EXISTING CCTV SYSTEM The simple system Is a camera connected directly to a monitor by a coaxial cable with the power for the camera being provided from the monitor. The camera generally mounted on a fixed platform or movable platform bear to the scene whereas the TV monitor is kept at the control room. There is an empirical cruel issued widely in CCTV system design that in order tyo distinguish a person a monitor, they must be at least 10% of the height of the screen. The camera converts the optical signal into electrical signal (composite video signal) and at the TV end the electrical signal reverts into optical(video) signal. BASIC CCTV SYSTEM When designing a CCTV or Video communication Network, there are a lot of details to consider: colour or black and white, distance from the camera to the surveyed point, capabilities of camera and lenses, video resolution, video processor type, recording, maintenance and the environment. Now depending upon the environments and area of observations different types of accessories are required in the CCTRV systems. These are mainly Plan and Tilt drive unit, Video Switcher, Video distribution amplifier, Protective housing, cooling jackets etc. Pan and Tilt drive unit : Pan and Tilt drive unit; are used for ;remotely controlling the position of cameras so as to enable to view a particular zone of the on going process. Depending upon the capacity of P & T drive it can be light duty, medium duty and heavy duty. In most of VSP SITES medium duty P & T drive is used. The specification of the medium duty P & T drive (Model no V330 APT). o Operating voltage : 24 v AC. o Operating load: 15.9 kgs. o Angular travel. o Pan: 350 degr4ees (max) o Tilt: +- 90 degrees(max) o Speed:pan:7 degree per sec (max). o Tilt : 4 degree per sec (max). In this connection one point to be noted that with the help of limit switches (individual for the P&T), the angular travel can be controlled. These limit switches are adjusted in the site in such a way so that the camera can move up to the desired area of observation. In this connection one more point to be noted that from the control room; with the help of joystick switches mechanisms the directional voltage of AC230v is extended up to the camera end which ;is being either directly or stepping down before connecting with the control drive.` A four-camera system with video switcher Video switcher: In a multi camera system video switching facility is employed for the choice of signals to the TV monitor. The switcher can be mechanical, electro-mechanical or fully electronics type. These are of different capacitities. The 8 x 1 video switcher accepts eight different video signals and selects any one at a time. The selected camera’s video signal reached to output of video switcher where TV monitor is connected with the coaxial cable. The electronic ;video exchanges are microprocessor based and are user friendly. Video distribution amplifier: The output from a single camera can be displayed on several monitors (either by loop through technique or using a video distribution amplifier). The distribution amplifier also compensates for the loss of video due to increased length of cables. But generally it becomes a gate way for all types of noise entry into the video stream Equalizing amplifier: The attenuation of video increases as the cable length increases and this loss is more at higher frequencies due to cable capacitance. Using an equalizing amplifier in the video path can compensate this. So that unit can produce a clear and constant image in the TV monitor despite of relatively long distances. Protective housing: In some cases camera are placed in some rigorous environments where temperature, dust, vibration humidity etc, are very much more than the normal. In those areas a protective housing is being used to protect the cameras and other accessories. This protective house is chosen in such a way that the camera, lens, power supply unit etc, can be accommodated in the housing. The front portion of the housing is made of special glass. Cooling Jacket and Vortex Cooler: To protect camera from high temperature a special type of camera housing with water cooling jacket is used in the site. For this type of housing one water inlet and one water outlet are there. Apart from the cooling jacket in some high temp, areas (for example: mills female) vortex cooler enclosure cooling systems is also used. Vortex converts compressed air into cool, filtered air without using refrigerants. Vertex cooler use a vortex tube to convert filtered compressed air into two air streams, one hot and another cold. The cold air is discharged into the enclosure and the hot air is vented to the outside. It requires no electricity for its operation. Lens: It is fixed in front of the camera and is used to focus the required object on the photosensitive plate. The specification of CCTV lens contains parameters like format, focal length, iris control, focus control and voltages in case of zoom lenses. The selection of lens mainly depends on the camera size, area of coverage and place of use. Lens can be divided broadly into three types : ☻ fixed focal length ☻ variable focal length ☻zoom lens. Fixed focus lens are of two types : Auto iris or manual iris. In the manual iris the aperture of the lens is opened to such an extent so that good contrast picture is available in the TV monitor. This type of lens is used in areas where there is not much variation of light. Fixed focal lenses are available with focal length (2.3 mm to 25 mm). Fixed lenses have a predetermined focal length and manual focus control. Monofocal / Fixed Lenses In the auto iris lens the aperture varies with the level of video signal. For the brighter object the video signal is more, so this more video signal reduces the aperture and vice versa. Hence this type of lens is used in those area where there may be a lot of light intensity variation (for example: in the cast house of Blast furnace). Vari-Focal Lenses: Lenses are available with adjustable zoom for a large range of focal lengths. Unlike a zoom lens, a varifocal lens does not maintain focus when zoomed. The lens at installation is set for optimum field of view. Varifocal lenses For zoom lens there are three controls namely zooming, focus and iris. These control can be manual or automatic (only iris). For getting the good picture quality these controls are to be operated from the control console. A motorized zoom lens keeps the viewed object in focus while varying the length of the lens. ZoomLenses Multiple Camera System: The next development was to incorporate the outputs from four cameras into the monitor. These could be set to sequence automatically through the cameras or any camera could be held selectively. There was even microphone built into the camera to carry sound and a speaker into the monitor. The speaker, of course, only put out the sound of ;the selected camera. For production monitoring audio transducers are not used. The system was, thought, inexpensive to buy and simple to install. It came complete in a box with camera, 16mm lens, bracket, switching monitor and 12 meters of coaxial cable with fitted plugs. An outlet socket for a video recorder was provided, although reviewing could be a little tedious when the cameras had been set to sequence. When more than one camera is required, then a video switcher must be included as shown in the diagram. Using the switcher any camera may be selected to be held on the screen or it can be set to sequence in turn through all the cameras. Usually the time that each camera is shown may be adjusted by a control; knob. In the microprocessor based systems this programmable variably for individual camera and also the location of the camera can be made to appear on the monitor making the job of the supervisor easy. In many applications the area to be covered would need many fixed cameras. The solution to this is to use cameras fixed to a movable platform. This platform can then be controlled from a remote location. The platform may simply rotate in horizontal plane or in vertical plane or ;both, and is generally ;known as a pan, tilt unit. Cameras may be used indoors or outdoors. When used outdoors they will always require a protective housing. For ;indoor use the environment or aesthetic constraints will dictate whether a housing is needed. Systems may contain a combination of both fixed and movable cameras. Limitations of conventional CCTV systems: As the analog or conventional CCTV systems have their own uses but they are also have the following limitations. Complex and costly installation Long process to find and Monitoring console has to be in close proximity to cameras. No remote viewing capabilities. Very limited ability to integrate with other applications Complex archiving process. Systems required large real estate space. ♦Dedicated run coaxial cablestill used for each camera in the system. ♦CCTV installations still require use of expensive hardwar multipluxers, switches and matrix. ♦Use of proprietary hardware and software does not fit the enterprise digital video surveillance requirements of most organizations operating in open environments. review an event. Inability to record and review taped events at the same time. Very limited motion detection ability. So in order to avoid the above limitations we have to 1. Convert Analog cameras to digital or 2. Use Digital Cameras Conversion of analog cameras to digital: For the conversion of Analog camera to a Digital one a particular device named as DIGITAL VIDEO RECORDER is used. Digital Video Recorder: Digital Video Recorders(DVRs) were introduced marking the evolution of the second generation of CCTV. The DVR originated with mechanical-type devices resembling VCRs with functions controlled by on screen displays. The beauty of the mechanical device was that it was something anyone could operate and the function keys were similar to a device they were already familiar with the VCR . So this made i less intimidating. The DVR allowed a video to be recorded in higher resolutions than VCRs and eliminated video tapes, which in turn eradicated the need to physically change the tapes. The second generation DVR Comes in two forms, appliance based DVRs, which are boxes similarity in appearance to VCRs and PC-based DVRs which look like regular computers. Withbothofthesesystemsthecoretechnologyhasremainedthesame. The NTSC or PAL video signals from analog cameras are connected to video capture cards inside the DVR APPLIANCE OR PC. The capture cards take the analog signal and digitize it. These digitized images are then compressed by a mathematical algorithm and stored on a hard disk or a multiple disks. The DVR software then allows the user to monitor live cameras, review stored video data ,save images and video clips to disk and connect remotely to the main unit via the network. NET DVR: Net DVR-64 uses IP technology to create digitized video streams that, when transferred via a computer network, enable remote control, monitoring and recording of live video, this means there is no distance limitation to operating cameras and monitoring, recording archiving surveillance video. SUGGESTED SOLUTION WITH REASONS The conventional CCTV systems at VISAKHAPATNAM STEEL PLANT use equipments that are of analog version. When these equipment are used for applications over long distances apart from the difficulties indicated in the earlier chapter some unwanted signals (noise) are added to the original signal during the process of transmission causing deterioration of picture quality. In order to over come this drawback it is suggested to use digital version equipment. Generally for transmission of digital signals OSI network is used. OSI network is already installed in the plant, for recording attendance, processing finance bills and recording production data and also in the marketing department. In this OSI network optical fiber cables are used. For extending the cameras / extension of monitors no additional cables / long line amplifiers etc are not required if OFCs are used. The proposed system envisages using OFC network for transmission of digital video signals based on LANs. Analog CCD cameras are not directly compatible to the LANs. LANs are compatible with only digital stream of signals. Hence in the proposed system LAN based CCD cameras are being suggested. Along with LAN based camera other accessories required are also to be used in the network. The accessories available in the market are depicted in the typical CCTV network. The digital signal output of the LAN based CCTV camera is transmitted on to the 10 BASE –T/100 BASE-TX coaxial cable, because coaxial cable only is compatible to the LAN based CCTV camera. From this cable the data is transferred on to the OFC through media converter. A media converters is used for achieving compatibility between OFC and coaxial cable. CCTV SUGGESTED SYSTEM The proposed system would contain black & white and colour cameras connected to colour or B&W monitors of the personal computers over the existing OFC network. By assigning unique IP addresses to these digital devices on the Ethernet it would be possible to control and / or monitor from any authorized location on the network. The digital cameras utilize Super Dynamic function to capture natural images at entryways, near windows, and in other locations with harsh contrasts between light and dark. It automatically stores images in repose to inputs form motion detectors and external sensor alarms and can send images automatically as e-mail attachments. In addition, this colour camera can also control external devices, turning on lighting or starting a surveillance recorder working. Its Day/Night switching function automatically switches to black-and white recording when available light is low. Thus, this single Security camera can deliver 24–hour surveillance. The camera is designed for monitoring over a WAN or over the Internet a snap. Its sophisticated surveillance functions make this network security camera of choice for a wide range of settings. Analogue vs Digital ? TAPE CHANGE VCR Records (Analgoue) DVR Recorders (Digital ) Users are required and relied upon to change With the memory box solution no tapes ever tapes at regular intervals need to be changed. Even with the DLT solution there is a buffer to give leeway fro tape changing While tapes are being changed recording is Duplex recording solves this problem, the not taking place. system is always recording TAPE WEAR VCR Records (Analgoue) DVR Recorders (Digital ) VHS tapes should be replaced after 10-12 The Data stored on Mitsubishi systems is passes. Tapes used in Time Lapse mode or digital, therefore no loss of quality can occur. searched through frequently will wear out even faster. The quality of recording will diminish even after a few passes. MAINTENANCE VCR Records (Analgoue) DVR Recorders (Digital ) Units must be maintained on a regular basis. The MEDSS solution eliminates this constant This level of maintenance is necessary due to need for maintenance. the high number of moving parts in a VCR. This involves cleaning / replacing the heads, The only moving parts are the HDD, but replacing gears, even replacing in VCR. these have a very high life expectancy. BREAKDOWN VCR Records (Analgoue) DVR Recorders (Digital ) Breakdown of VCR’s are more liley due to Due to the low amount of moving parts in the the number of moving parts. MEDSS solution the likelihood of a breakdown is grately decreased No one may notice this problem for some The DS system incorporates a ―Watchdog time. card‖ which continuously monitors the system and alerts the user of a problem. This results in lost recording which is unacceptable. PLAY BACK VCR Records (Analgoue) DVR Recorders (Digital ) In existing VCR’s the recording must be Duplex operation removes this aspect. stopped if the video is to be retrieved. This can be solved by a second VCR Again duplex operation is the answer. resulting in extra cost and is more susceptible to human error. Tape swapping for review is a logistic When using purely HDD storage, no taps are challenge when cataloguing tapes. used. Searching for an incident can be time The searching capabilities of the system cut consuming. This can lead to incident review down on review time. This means all being ignored. incidents be easily reviewed. DEGRADATION OF QUALITY OVER TIME VCR Records (Analgoue) DVR Recorders (Digital ) Due to wear and the quality of the recordings Digital recording eliminates degradation and decrease with time copy quality is close to cloning. IP BASED SURVELLIANCE CCTV SYSTEM Introduction: CCTV records images on videocassettes, so emergency personnel can’t view the event live. Therefore, they often don’t kbnow an emergency is occurring or jhow serious it is. If they are informed of an emergency these first responders can’t understand its circumstances or context through CCTV. They see the event only after viewing the video, which is usually long after it’s over. In some cases, authorities can’t ever view the event. Savvy employees often take the tape with them as they leave the scene. Therefore, a successor suystem is needed one that delivers secure, real time images of an emergency as well as the flexibility to snow both full-motion and still images. More and more, companies ;are installing internet-based IP surveillance as a far superior alternative to CCTV. This technology offers real-time delivery of video and still images from a crime or emergency scene via LAN or the Inmternet. In the nutshell, IP surveillance requires a cable network and Internet technology to transmit images from analog cameras and/or IP cameras over public networks. These systems allow live streaming video and still image transfer(both one-way and two-way) at an average of 30 frames per second into a standard, easy to use Web browser, so video can be viewed in real time from police cars and other emergency vehicles. IPbased systems deliver a great deal of additional functionality. For instance, they provide motion detection, auto time and data stamps, easy transfer of visuals, and preand post-alarm messaging. Authorized personnel can log on to the system remotely to see what’s happening in their offices and businesses. Most users also have discovered that IP surveillance is very affordable, since companies already have many components of the system in place(such as IP network and broadband connectivity). IP-based str4eaming video surveillance lets organizations monitor, prevent and/or respond to emergency situations more effectively and affordably, via the Internet. Thus, the Physical safety of a company’s vital human and business assets is far more secure and protected. The diagram below suggests Digital IP CCTV system to be implemented in VSP IP based CCTV surveillance system configuration CCD CAMERA OPERATION A CCD camera uses a small ,rectangular piece of silicon wafer rather than a piece of film to receive incoming light . this is a rectangular special piece of silicon called a charge –coupled device(ccd).This silicon wafer is a solid state electronic component ,which has bee micro manufactured and segmented into an array of individual light sensitive cell called photo sites .Each photo site is one element of the whole picture that is formed ,thus it is called a pcture element ,or pixel.The more common CCD’s found in cam coders and others commercially used equipment have a pixel array that is few hundred photosites wide(e.g.,500x300,or 320x 200)yielding tens of thousands os pixels.since most CCD’s are only about ¼‖ or 1/3‖ when measured diagonally, each of the many thousands of pixels are only about 10 millionths of a meter(4-ten thousandths of an inch)wide! The photo sites accomplish their task of sensing incoming light through the photoelectric effect ,which is a characterization of the action of certain materials to release an electron when hit a photon of light.The electrons emitted within the ccd are fenced with in the nonconductive boudaries ,so that they remain within the area of the photon strike.as long as light is allowed to impinge on a photo site ,electrons will accumulate in the pixel ,when the source of light is extinguished computer s are used to unload the CCD pixel array sequentially,count the electrons in each pixel,and process the resulting sig data into an image on video monitor or other output media. Finally ,there are two characteristics of CCD’s which are factors that must be considered in making a final astronomical image:1)since they are electronic components CCD’s are sensitive to heat within the camera as well as light from the object of intrest and 2)the individual photosites in the CCD array may vary significantly in their sensitivity to both heat and light.first this means that the electrons generated by heat rather than ny light need tobe subtracted from the final tally of electrons in each pixel so that a truer image can be rendered. This is called‖dark subtraction‖. Second the variance in electron depth across the CCD array due to inherent differenceamong the pixels needs to be leveled by dividing each pixel value by array’s average pixel value . this is called flat fielding Dark substraction is accomplished by subtracting by a dark frame from the object image (called a light frame ).taking a exposure while the ccd ismaintained in complet e darkness creates the dark frame . this exposure must be the same duration as the light frame and be made with the ccd at the same temperature as during the light frame so that electrons generated during the dark frame replicate the heat generated electrons present in the light frame. Flat field images are made by taking a picture of an evenly illuminated scene,such as the sky at dusk or the flat gray interior of an observatory dome. The resultant image shows the inherent variances in pixel value across the ccd array due to differencesin photosite sensitivity or to dust specks or vignette in the optical system .Image processing software use mathematical algorithms to divide all pixel values in the flat field image by the array’s average pixel value.The results are then correlated ,pixel-by-pixel,against the array values in the light image to produce a better representation of the object of interest. In the final stage of image production ,the light frame(object image)is adjusted by first having an appropriate dark frame subtracting and then having an appropriate flat field divided into an image.this process is called image calibarationand results in truer noisy image Benefits of Digital IP CCTV: ●Remote access any time, anywhere: We can access real-time video images at time from any computer anywhere, saving time and traveling costs. The video can be stored at remote locations for convenience and/or data backup. Cameras can be viewed and controlled from any point on the network . ●High resolution: Software based video recording and retrieval. Excellent live video quality. ●Functionality: Network video programs can be programmed for a wide range of applications. IP-base recording is highly compressed for easier storage and can be transported over a variety of media. Adjustable frame rates. ●Scalability: Designed to provide plug-and-play simplicity for small installations and flexibility for integration into larger, more professional applications. Additional cameras can be added anywhere on the network without additional cabling. ●Ease of installation: Everything needed to connect and start streaming video is built into the device, which reduces installation time and simplifies network management. ●Reliability: Several levels of password protection and a tamper-free network appliance design deliver the most reliable operation. ●Future proof: Use of open standard protocols and networks for manufacturers. Standard IP video compression techniques are used. ●Cost-effective infrastructure: Significantly reduces the cabling and installation costs associated with wide systems. ●Flexibility: IP-video systems can be implemented without degradation to the overall performance of the IT network-they can be easily fitted to existing LAN/WANs. It can be placed anywhere.We can connect the product to a LAN, DSL, modem, wireless adapter or cell phone. Can easily integrate with existing CCTV systems. ●Wide area connectivity: Can be used over large distances compared to the traditional CCTV system. IMPLEMENTATION OF CCTV: In order to implement digital IP CCTV in VSP, the following items are essential: digital IP cameras, Lenses, Net DVRs, Encoders and Decoders, Camera control equipment, Monitors, transmitters and receivers to be added to the network. The design envisages using ordinary cameras as well as day and night cameras for complimenting the efforts of security personnel. SOME IP CAMERAS AND LENSES USED IN CCTV ARE: 7100 SERIES MEGAPIXEL CAMERA: The Cohu 7100 Series is more than just a camera: it’s a suite of intelligent surveillance tools combined in a multi- megapixel, high resolution CMOS camera. The 7100 Series is essentially a Unix derived computing device combined with a high resolution, progressive scan CMOS sensor and Ethernet interface. The imager has a minimum of 1288 (horizontal) x 1028 (vertical) pixels. The Ethernet interface is 10/100B ase-T. Specifications: ●Camera Format: model dependent, from 1280x1024 to 2048x1536 ●Input Voltage: 24 Vac (interior model) or 115 Vac (model dependent) ●Exterior Housing: Sealed and pressurized barrel style, IP67 rated ●Temperature (Operating): –40°C to 60°C (no heaters are used) By providing computing power on board the camera, virtually every task that the camera is required to perform is accomplished without external computers or programs. The JPEG image compression can be configured for low-bandwidth networks and maximum bandwidth efficiency while still providing high quality video. On-board features include on-chip digital image manipulation, user-defined motion detection windows, alarm input/outputs, and built-in web page viewer. So, this camera can be used at BF, SMS, CCD, Rolling Mills, LMMM, WRM, MMSM departments, etc. The chart below was used to identify the camera option that matches the project requirements for image sizes, down sampling, and quality. Camera Option Resolution (Max. Frame Rate at 704 Hx 480V image size) resolution 301 1280 H x 1024 V 6 ips 302 1600 H x 1200 V 6 ips 303 2048 H x 1536 V 6 ips 601 1280 H x 1024 V 100+ ips 602 1600 H x 1200 V 100+ ips 603 2048 H x 1536 V 100+ ips LENSES: 1) CS MOUNT MANUAL IRIS LENS: Specifications: ♦2.8mm manual iris ♦Super wide angle lens ♦CS mount lens ♦F1.4/angle: 95 degrees 2) AUTO-IRIS VARI-FOCAL LENS: Specifications: ♦1/3" image format ♦6-15mm vari-focal lens ♦Auto iris (DC) ♦F1.4 ♦CS mount ♦Angle of view:48.1-18.6 degrees ♦56 x 42 x 48mm COMPUTER VIDEO LENS: Computer video lenses include megapixel, telecentric, macro, zoom lenses. They are ideal for machine vision applications. They provide the flexibility to get the precise angle of view for image processing, automated inspection, gauging and other factory automations. These lenses are to be used in BF,SMS, Sinter Plant, etc. These can be used in Instrumentation Department and this helps in monitoring and controlling the process so that product quality is improved, yield is maximized, energy consumption is optimal and safety of the plant is ensured. POWER OVER ETHERNET: Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a revolutionary technology that integrates data, voice and power over standard LAN infrastructure. It is the means to supply reliable, uninterrupted power to IP telephones, wireless LAN access points, network cameras and other Ethernet devices, using existing, commonly used cable infrastructure. Power over Ethernet technology saves time and cost of installing separate power cabling, AC outlets and wall warts, as well as eliminates the need for a dedicated UPS for individual devices. The power delivered over the infrastructure is automatically activated when a compatible terminal is identified, and then blocked to legacy devices that are not compatible. The PoE technology is to be designed in a way that does not degrade the network data communication performance or decrease the network reach. The Endspan – PoE enabled Ethernet switch. Power is supplied directly from the data ports. The Midspan – A patch-panel like device, residing between an ordinary Ethernet switch and the terminals, often referred to as midspan. Power is added on the spare wires, with data uninterrupted. Benefits of PoE: ◙ Simple means for resetting IP cameras. IP cameras, as complex devices, may need to be reset from time to time. By using PoE, resetting becomes a trivial matter, enabling reset via the camera’s respective PoE port. ◙ Easy changes to camera positions as needed. Altering a camera position, no longer requires new AC installation. It is even possible to experiment the camera position to achieve the ultimate camera results. ◙ UPS back up for the security network. By backing up of the PoE midspan in the communication room, the entire camera network can continue operation during a power outage. ◙ Assured safety with advanced line terminal detection. Line detection is the technology, which enables safe installation without worrying at high voltage damages to laptops, desktops and other non-power ready devices, due to a misplaced connection. A faulty camera or an access control terminal can be detected and shut down preventing damage to expensive switches and patch panels in the Ethernet network. The detection is one of the reasons the power over LAN midspan is much more than an intelligent power source. The Ethernet lines run from the network switch, sometimes through a patch panel, out of the communication room and connect to the digital cameras and analog to video gateways (see below figure). Adding PoE cables the cameras to be powered through the same cabling infrastructure, providing the most cost effective solution. When the switch is already installed, the simplest means to add PoE is by adding a dedicated PoE midspan. CCTV CAMERA IP speed dome Day and Night colour camera : 1. Sensor – 1/6‖ CCD type Super HAD 2. Type – IP Speed Dome colour camera with accessories, PTZ motor and vandal proof enclosure of IP 65 rating. 3. Interface- TCP/IP , 10/100 Base – T RJ 45 Ethernet ports dual for LAN/WAN 4. Compression format –MPEG4 Hardware compression 5. Protocol supported – FTP, SNMP, TCP/IP, HTTP, ARP, DDNS, DHCP, RPT/RTCP, IGMP 6. QOS –enabled Layer 2, Layer 3 7. Sensitivity – Day & Night vision Min 0.08 Lux at F = 1.4 night 8. Day & Night switch over – Auto with ICR Technology 9. Control – Remote PAN / TILT / Zoom using TCP/IP command set 10. Panning : 340O, Tilting : 90O range 11. Zooming Optical – 25X 12. Zooming Digital -12X 13. Shutter – On/Off (Max. ¼) 14. Focal length – 1.4 to 73.8 mm 15. Motion Detection – to be provided with multiple sensitivity windows 16. Effective Pixels – 800 K for PAL system 17. Min. Lumination – Normal mode : 3 Lux F= 1.4, 1/50 sec, Night mode : 0.08 lux F = 1.4, 1/3 sec., Slow shutter mode : 0.2 lux, F : 1.4, 1/3 sec., 18. Presets - 64 points 19. Image Frame Rate – 25 fps at 720 x 576 resolution (PAL) 20. Output – 2x RJ45 (LAN/WAN) 21. Serial Port – 1 x RJ45 port RS485 FOR PTZ CONTROL 22. Video output – 1 x composite BNC 75 Ohms 23. Operating temperature – 0 to 50 degree C 24. Client software supported –Win 2000, win XP 25. Power supply – Input 230 V AC with a suitable adapter 26. Web Browser support – Internet Explorer, Netscape navigator 27. Security – User authorization needed for protecting camera access a. 28) Accessories- Vandal proof enclosure, AC power adapter, AC power cable, camera software in CD, user manual, RJ 45 UTP cable / cord (2 meters), one spike buster with 3 pin 5 Amps individual switch and sockets to be accommodated inside vandal proof enclosure, suitable brackets and other hardware for pole / roof / structure / wall mount facility as required at site. Light guide Interconnect Unit (LIU): 1. Shall be made of standard powder coated metal construction and suitable for wall mounting or 19‖ switch rack mounting as required. 2. Shall have provision for fiber cables entry, fiber reeling spools for maintaining minimum bending radius, and suitable arrangement of dressing & physical protection of fiber cores. 3. Shall have management rings within the system to accommodate excess fiber cordage behind the through adapters and maintain min. bending radius. 4. Shall have built-in label facility, an open-able top cover . front two doors, mounting aid, adapter rails and other mounting hardware, etc. 5. Shall be suitable for terminating 12 numbers of fiber cores (with pigtail arrangements for SC/MTRJ connectors as required ) and all the slots are to be loaded with SC adapters / couplers of multi-mode & dust covers as required. 6. Shall be of 1 U height for rack mount or 300 x 300 x 80 mm box type for wall mount respectively. 7. Shall have a fiber splice tray for accommodating incoming fusion spliced fiber cores to pig tails. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS : Network Attached Storage : Shall have the following parameters : 1. Processor system – CPU Intel Pentium 4 processor min 3.06 GHz 2. FSB – 533/400 MHz 3. Memory – 3 GB ECC DDR 266/200 SDRAM memory in 3 DIMM sockets 4. Storage capacity – Minimum 1000 GB (1 Teri byte = 250 GB x 4) expandable to 5000 GB with same make expansion storage device 5. Type of drive - IDE 6. Storage – Hard disk drive bay X 4 7. HDD – Hot swappable 8. Mounting – 1 U height, 19‖ Rack mountable. 9. I/O Interface – Serial ATA, SCSI 10. Interface – 10/100/1000 RJ 45 Ethernet port X 2 11. PCI slots – 2 nos. 64 bit 12. Serial Port – 1 no. Com port 13. Protocol – TCP / IP a. Operating Systems supported – Windows 2000, windows XP or windows storage server 2003. 14. RAID configuration – RAID 5 15. Authentication – Watermarking 16. Search – Time, Date, Event 17. Recording – Camera name assignment 18. Activation – Continuous, Scheduled, Alarm triggered 19. Capacity – Capable of recording 100 cameras simultaneously. 20. Recording Format - MPEG 4 21. Recording speed – up to 30 fps per camera 22. Power supply 230 V AC with suitable adapter 23. Operating temperature - 0 to 40 degree C a. Accessories – Suitable 6U, 19‖ rack as per spec., NAS software in CD’s user manual, RJ 45 UTP cable / cord (2 meters), AC pow4er cable SOFTWARE: 1. Support – IP video surveillance with corporate feature set 2. Control – up to 64 cameras per server 3. Scalability – Easily scalable for future expansions 4. Compatibility – IP video products like MJPEG, MPEG4, etc., 5. Remote access – for surveillance system from any place and time 6. Architecture – LAN technology 7. Support – To support simultaneous viewing of 16 camera images on the desk top PC’s connected in the LAN. 8. Recording technology – high speed database holding JPEG images, MPEG4 steams 9. Audio recording - Multi channel with instant playback 10. Monitoring – Dual, triple computer monitor viewing with hotspot window 11. Searching – Instantly based on date / time and activity / alarm (Video motion detection) 12. Evidence – To be generated as a printed report as a JPEG image or as an AVI film with date and time 13. PTZ control – Pan / Tilt / Zoom preset position up to 25 positions per camera, IPIX technology, remote PTZ camera control, VMD sensitive PTZ patrolling 14. Motion detection –Built-in, real time, fully adjustable Video Motion Detection, can speed up number of frames when motion is detected or an event occurs. 15. Administration & Integration – Hourly to daily database archiving options, multi threaded 32-bit programming technology, DNS support 16. Remote client – 16 user license, remote viewing of live video from 1-16 cameras simultaneously, browse and play back recorded images from 1 -16 cameras from same or different servers simultaneously, advanced user profiles via he camera – to – user assignment function, support for importing static maps of locations, view or playback camera images from multiple servers simultaneously, control your PTZ cameras remotely, view alarm summaries remotely SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION UNIT : 1. Technology – Centrino mobile technology 2. CPU* Intel Pentium – 4 processor with HT, 2.8 GHZ or more 3. Monitor – 17‖ colour monitor 4. Chipset – 865 GV or latest 5. Video memory – Intel extreme graphics 2 with up to 64 MB shared 6. Key board – Windows / internet Key board 7. RAM – one GB expandable up to 2 GB 8. Hard Disk -80 GB HDD (Four equal partitioned ) with 7200 rpm minimum 9. Floppy drive – 3.5‖ FDD 10. CD ROM drive – 48x /32x/48x/16x CD-RW/DVD-ROM combo drive 11. Modem – 56 KBPS internal modem 12. Network care - 10/ 100/1000 Mbps Ethernet card 13. Wireless LAN card- PCMCIA type IEEE 802.11 b/g wireless LAN card 14. Video card –AGP with minimum 1024 x 768 resolution 15. Mouse – Optical wheel mouse with mouse pad 16. I/O ports – one serial, one parallel port or USB to serial converter, six USB 2.0 ports (two ports on front side), one type 2 PCMCIA port, integrated secure digital (SD) flash media slot 17. Spike buster-one no. 230 V Ac, 3/5 pin, 5 Amps, 5 universal sockets spike-buster with individual switches 18. Anti-glare screen – To be provided for monitor 19. Memory stick – one no.1 GB detachable Thumb drive and USB cable extender 20. Audio card – Integrated audio with line in, line out, microphone ports 21. Power supply – 230 V AC working system 22. Operating System – Windows 2003 Server licensed version preloaded and media CD to be provided and shall support IP cameras, NAS, Enterprise software for viewing and control 23. Other software’s – MS office 2003 home edition, Norton / Mc Affe anti-Virus 2004 or latest, other related software for IP speed dome cameras, switches, management software, G.SHDSL modem software, NAS software, etc., in CD medium. 24. Other accessories – Dust covers, ten nos. CD-RW, Cat 6 RJ 45 UTP patch cord ( 2 meters) NETWORK SWITCH : 1. RJ 45 ports – 4 nos. of auto negotiating 10/100/1000 Mbps RJ45 ports. 2. Fiber ports – One No. of up linking 100 base Fx port including transceivers suitable for connecting to the core / workgroup switch. 3. OSI layer – Layer 2 functionalities. 4. Status indicators – required for all ports 5. Mounting facility – Suitable for m mounting in 19‖ switch rack of 4 U heights with mounting arrangements. 6. Console port – F or switch configuration and management. Console cable has to be supplied 7. Fiber patch cords – Two nos. 62.5 / 125 microns MMF fiber patch cords ( 2 meters) suitable for up linking ports are to be supplied with required connectors and as per specification. 8. UTP patch cords- four nos. of Cat 6 UTP patch cords (2 meters) with factory crimped RJ 45 connecters and as per specification shall be supplied. 9. Power supply – Operation on 180-240 V AC of 50 Hz. 10. Standards and features – RMON, SNMP, VLAN, UDP, ICMP, TELNET, TCP/IP etc. 11. Software – Latest version of software released for that model by the manufacturer. 12. Warranty – Covered under warranty for three years from switch manufacturer. 13. Accessories – One 4 U height, 19‖ rack as per specification. G.SHDSL (Symmetric High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line) Modem 1. Type – G.SHDSL bride / router (LAN extender) 2. LAN: Interface- RJ 45, Ethernet – 10 base – T, 100 base – Tx, Data rate 10/100 Mbps, Full / Half-Duplex 3. Console port – RS – 232 4. LED indicator : General – PWR, WAN-LNK, ACT, LAN LNK/ACT, 100 M 5. Routing – IP , RIPv1 / RIPv2, Static, NAT, DHCP server, DNS relay and caching 6. Bridging – IEEE802.1D transparent learning bridge 7. Configuration -Console (RS 232), Telnet, Web (HTTP), Password control 8. Network management – SNMPv1/SNMPv2 agent, MIB II 9. ATM : Up to 8 PVC’s, UBR / CBR traffic shaping, AAL5, OAMF5 loop back, ATM Forum UNI 4.0. PP – PPP over Ethernet, ATM, User authentication with PAP/CHAP/MS-CHAP 10. EMC/EMI-FCC, CE compliant Distance support – Maximum upto 6.7 kms on 26 AWG copper pair and 2.3 Mbps at 3.2 kms full duplex transfer rate. Application – ISP solutions, SME, SOHO users, IP telephony, Web hosting 11. Power source – 230 V Ac with suitable adapter 12. Accessories- One no. Cat 6 RJ 45 UTP patch cord (2 meters), RJ 11 line cord, Modem software in CD’s, mounting stand if any, etc., In order to implement digital CCTV we have to use the above specifications. At present analog cameras are in use hence DVR based LAN based CCTV system was suggested. For new installation where LAN based cameras are used they can be integrated into the LAN using the following equipment. At present above equipment are new to the market and are relatively costly, in future as and when they become popular it is recommended to use them due to their technical supremacy over DVR systems. DESIGN OF IP BASED CCTV SYSTEM IN VSP NETWORK OF VSP Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP) presently is having IBM 3090 catering the need of various computer application running on it, for the entire plant. This mainframe computer system is associated with it’s SNA network for catering the needs of mainframe connection to various units of plant. As this system is old and outdated the entire Mainframe system is being replaced with new computer system of open standard (i.e. client server system). Below we discussed about the Client Server Technology The total plant is divided into three zones .Each zone is provided with a zonal server connected to central system at computer center.One typical system located at sms is given below.similiar systems are available for CCCDand its peripherals and also one more system for rest of the plant including BC gate and PP gate. The envisaged IP based system is linked to this third zonal server. Features of datacom network The network is fiber optic and its faster with PIV PCs as user nodes. All the applications are GUI with oracle 8i at the bancked and forms 6i /Reports 6i as front end. All the screens are user friendly and information will be available at the click of mouse. The central switch will be supported by 100/100 Mbps zonal switches and inturn will be supported by 10/100 Mbps zonal distribution switches,catering to user node. COMPARISON Present Network New Network ---------------------------- ------------------------ Types of terminals AT – ASCII Terminal PC terminals only AP-ASCII Printer Minimum configuration TE-IBM Terminal Pentium processor IP-IBM Printer 64 MB RAM PC-PC terminal 4-40 GB Hard Disk Speed – 9.6 Kbps Speed – 10 Mbps User Interface – CUI User Interface – GUI No. of connection - No. of connection – 434 (working) 434 (working) 222 (free) Features of New Computer System and Datacom Network New network is fiber optic and it will be faster than existing network by hundred times at the user end. All user nodes will be Pentium PCs All the existing applications will be converted from character based to graphical based user interface, with Oracle-8i at the backend and forms 6i/Reprots 6i as the front end. All the screens will be more user friendly and information will be available at the click of the mouse. New IBM RS/6000 servers were already installed on 1st Aug 2001. The central switch will be supported by 100/100 Mbps zonal switches and in turns will be supported by 10/100 Mbps zonal distribution switches, catering to the user nodes. NEED FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS: ☻ The existing system at converter shop of SMS is facing problems due to the environmental conditions. The coaxial cables are getting burnt frequently due to various accidents that are taking place on the shop floor. The system was restored several times by rerouting the system cables. Even then cables were getting burnt at newer locations. To overcome such problems wireless CCTV system can be implemented. ☻Hot metal is produced in Blast Furnaces, which are tall vertical furnaces. In SMS, heat is generated by exothermic reactions of oxidation of metalloids and temperatures rises to 1700 degree C enabling refining and slag formation. In Coke Ovens, carbonization takes place at 1000 – 1500 degree C in absence of air for 16-18 hours. Such high temperatures may damage the cables. ☻During the extension of the plant, offices are set up at remote location and work is carried out over there. Carrying some processes could not be procrastinated until the constructiuon of roads and laying of cables is complete. In these cases, wireless CCTV system plays a major role in providing on line visual communication in the plant. WIRELESS CCTV SYSTEM A good CCTV system design should consider the best plan for existing systems as well as new construction. Wireless systems use battery-powered radio transmitters and receivers to connect various components such as cameras, sensors, area motion detectors, sirens, central controllers, smoke/fire detectors and video displays. The basic advantages of wireless systems are: ●Wireless systems are easy to install—They avoid the expensive and time-consuming task of installing new wires in the walls of existing industry. ●Wireless systems enable we to take the components with you when moving to a new location. ●Wireless sensors are designed to transmit a unique identification code to a controller—The controller learns the identity of each sensor and links it to an appropriate zone. Each sensor also transmits status information such as battery voltage, condition of the sensor switch, and other diagnostic messages. ●Some homeowner-installed wireless security systems can be set up to record a voice message and to call programmed numbers in the event of an alarm—This saves the cost of a professional monitoring service. ●Wireless sensors, motion detectors, and video cameras can often be installed in locations that are not accessible for wired equipment. WIRELESS CCTV CAMERAS B/W MINI WIRELESS CAMERA (2.4 GHz)(ECL-374WRLS): Key Specifications:- ☻420 lines 0.1 Lux ☻3.6mm pinhole lens ☻Channel 1 : 2413MHz Channel 2 : 2432MHz ☻Channel 3 : 2451MHz Channel 4 : 2470MHz ☻Output power : 100mW ☻Range : 500FT l.o.s. ☻Impedance : 50 ohms ☻Power : 12 VDC ☻Current : 220 ma 2)WIRELESS COLOR PIR SENSOR CAMERA (2.4 GHz) Key Specifications: Non-working sensor ☻380 lines 2 Lux ☻3.6mm wide angle lens ☻Channel 1 : 2413MHz Channel 2 : 2432MHz ☻Channel 3 : 2451MHz Channel 4 : 2470MHz ☻Output power : 100mW ☻Range : 500FT l.o.s. ☻Power : 12 VDC ☻Current : 220 ma ☻Dimensions:110(L) X 70(W) X 50(D)mm 3) WIRELESS COLOR SMOKE DETECTOR CAMERA (2.4 GHz): Key Specifications:- ☻Non-working sensor ☻380 lines 2 Lux ☻3.6mm wide angle lens ☻Channel 1 : 2413MHz Channel 2 : 2432MHz ☻Channel 3 : 2451MHz Channel 4 : 2470MHz ☻Output power : 100mW ☻Range : 500FT l.o.s. ☻Power : 12 VDC ☻Current : 220 ma ☻Dimensions:110(L) X 70(W) X 50(D)mm TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS: 1) RCA420A+220CHWAS CCTV RECEIVERS AND TRANSMITTERS WITH 380-TV-LINE RESOLUTIO Key Specifications/Special Features: ☻Transmission and receiving frequency: CH1: 2,414MHz, CH2: 2,432MHz, CH3: 2,450MHz, CH4: 2,468MHz ☻Working temperature: 0 to 50 degree ☻transmission power: 20mW ☻image sensor: 1/4-inch Sharp CCD ☻Valid distance: 100 meters ☻horizontal definition: 380 TV lines ☻size: 46 x 42 x 60mm ☻Frequency system: PAL/NTSC ☻power adapter: (220C) 12V or 500mA ☻Remote distance: 6 - 8 meters ☻Weight: 115g 2) RC810A+812CWAS CCTV RECEIVER WITH 500MW TRANSMISSION POWER Key Specifications/Special Features: ☻Transmission/receiving frequency: CH1: 2, 414MHz CH2: 2, 432MHz CH3: 2, 450MHz CH4: 2, 468MHz ☻Transmission power: 500mW ☻Valid distance: 500meters horizontal ☻Frequency system: PAL/NTSC ☻Horizontal definition: 320 lines ☻Size: 68 x 52 x 100mm ☻Weight: 245g ☻Validity pixel: PAL: 628 x 582/NTSC: 510 x 492 ☻PAL: 512 x 582/NTSC: 512 x 492 ☻Power adapter: RC810A: DC 6V/2A 812C: DC 12V/500mA 3) RF DIGITAL TRANSMITTER – RFD28005 418 MHz, 5 Button (5 function) Key Chain Transmitter (KEY FOB). To be used with RFD28004 Five output receiver/decoder. Description: When this Key Chain Transmitter is used with the 28004 receiver/decoder, we can send and receive up to 5 remote control commands, up to a 75 foot line of sight range. The transmitter is ready to use, it is shipped with the CR2032 battery installed. The receiver is a 7 pin module that plugs into your Parallax Board or any solderless bread board. The transmitter has 5 buttons, the receiver has 5 outputs. While any of the 5 buttons on the transmitter are pressed, the corresponding output goes high for the same duration of time. 1, 2, 3, and 4 button versions of of the Key Chain Transmitter are also available. They are all the same price as the 5 button Key Chain Transmitter. 4) LLT401T/R SOLUTION FOR TRANSMITTING CCTV VIDEO VIA UTP Key Specifications/Special Features ☻Spec.: 4ch ☻Video: Frequency response: DC-6MHz Common-mode/differential-mode rejection: 15kHz-6MHz 60dB typ. Impedance: BNC coax: 75 ohm UTP/connector: 100 ohm or RJ-45 100 ohm ☻Control: Receiver: 4 rang distance at option; adjustable brightness and sharpness Transmitter: adjustable gain ☻Environment: Temperature: 0 - +50 deg. C Humidity: 0-95% ☻Wire type: Spec.: 24AWG UTP CAT-5 Impedance: 100 ohm +/- 20% DC loop resistance: 18 ohm/100M Differential capacitance: 62pf/M (max.) ☻Power:DC 12V < 180mA ☻Surge suppression: 6000V 1.2 us x 50 us ☻Dimensions: 180 x 70 x 25mm ☻Weight: 400g 5) SINGLE CHANNEL RECEIVER (2.4 GHz) Key Specifications/Special Features:- ☻2.4GHz audio/video trans. ☻4 channel (Selectable): 2413,2432,2451,2470MHz ☻Video input: 1 Vp-p composite ☻Audio input: 2 Vp-p (max) ☻12VDC/240mA ☻115 x 80 x 20mm 6) SWITCHER RECEIVER (2.4 GHz) Key Specifications/Special Features:- ☻2.4GHz switcher reciever ☻4 channel (Switching): ☻2413,2432,2451,2470MHz ☻Video input: 1 Vp-p composite ☻Audio input: 2 Vp-p (max) ☻12VDC/350mA ☻190 x 134 x 33m Conclusion:- Iron and Steel play a significant role in the growth of the economy of the country and in every manufacturing sector they are the most essential elements that are required. Out of all steel industries present in India, Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP) itself is one that proved to be one of the best developing organization. This project helped us to know the existing CCTV SYSTEM in VSP. In order to overcome the constraints of existing, traditional CCTV system and to meet the immediate requirements of gate monitoring and production process monitoring in VSP, this project envisaged a solution using existing cable network. Going digital, we can have crisp, quality images that can be stored on a hard disk at remote locations for convenience and/or security purposes. With the implementation of this project in VSP, visual access is ensured to critical points along the production line. We can discover and avoid potentially dangerous incidents at an early stage. It saves money by preventing costly production jams. It also enables to observe the physical conditions of remote equipment to prevent potentially costly malfunctions. It not only keeps project management informed about the real time status at a construction site but also suggests for the optimization of a LAN based security network with Power Over Ethernet(POE). The advanced features of the POE midspans vastly simplify the on-going maintenance of the security network, enabling reliable, continuous operation with minimum downtime. One thing that we noticed in this study is the level of input given by the employees at this work place. Every employee takes his job as a challenge and performs for the betterment of the organization. The role played by CCTV system in this organization is highly appreciable. IP-based streaming video surveillance lets organization of VSP monitor, prevent and/or respond to situations more effectively and affordably. Thus, the physical safety of workers and organization assets are far more protected.
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