On the contribution of Postmodernism

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					On the contribution of Postmodernism
As people are tired of the style internationalism, to the 60's, designers
introduced the "Pop Design (pop Design), to satisfy the public taste. The
purpose of the pursuit of widely appealing. Color and decorative once again been used.
And in 70 age in the rise of various "postmodern" style of
design against the monotony of the form of internationalism.
"Postmodernism" design refers to "the modern
doctrine, internationalism, decorative design, a lot of use of the historical motives
eclectic style of decorating a design style," it has a definite time period,
from the 70's until the early 90s and then began to decline.
Postmodernism is a modernist design design challenge is to modernism,
internationalism, a decorative design of the development of internationalism against
the design, Minimalism style, advocated the decoration technique to the visual
aesthetic pleasure , focus on consumer psychology meet. Designed to make extensive
use of a variety of historical decorative symbol, but is not a simple retro, adopted a
compromise approach to the cultural context of traditional and modern design
combine to create the decorative arts of the new stage.
Key words: post-modern design modern art design
1. After the emergence of modern design and development
Design concept first appeared in the post-modern architectural design. American
architect, theorist Robert Venturi (Robert Venturi) first explicitly anti-modernist
design. He published in 1966, "Architecture of Complexity and
Contradiction" (Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture) a book,
called an opposed internationalism style and modern ideas of the Declaration. In the
book, he first affirmed the modern doctrine is a great contribution to human
civilization, and he also proposed modernism has completed its historic mission in a
given period, internationalism ugly, mediocre, monotonous style has limited the
designer can play and enjoy the fun has led to tedious. He believed that modernism
has become obsolete, the modernist master who created the brilliant change has
become a new shackles, Venturi made although no clear rules of postmodern design,
but his style of confusion, ambiguity, with the metaphor and the symbolic
construction shown interest in guiding the direction of development of post-modern
design. In 1972, Venturi published another book "to Las Vegas to
learn" (Learning from Las Vegas) on the performance of a more vague and
clarity of style preferences. It can be said Venturi made the aesthetic taste of
traditional and confusion is the formation of post-modernist design prototype.
Venturi, the British architect and theorist Charles 尔斯詹克斯 (Charles Jencks) to
establish the architectural design of the post-modern theory has made important
contributions. He at 3:32 p.m. on the July 15, 1972 bombing of the U.S. city of St.
Louise, by the famous Japanese modernist architect Minoru Yamasaki designed the
classic modernist residential architecture as a modernist moment of death. He is also
the first made in the construction and design concept of postmodernism figure, he
published a series of post-modernist architectural theory works, such as
"postmodernism"                        (Post              Modernism),
"today's construction" (Architecture Today),
" postmodern architectural language "(The Language of
Post-modern Architecture) and so on. Jencks detailed listing of all the construction
and analysis of fashion, and attributed them to areas of post-modernism to
postmodernism began to be widely spread the word.
60's began in the anti-modernist architectural design, architectural practice
in the 70's shows up in prominent places. In 1977, Venturi and Denise
Scott Brown, his wife (Denise Scott Brown), known as the United States to risk the
best product designs of the shops along the road: the exaggeration of the low door of a
straight line eaves above, is a wall decorated with huge colorful floral walls, the
striking visual effect is the style of 60s POP direct reference. Charles Moore (Charles
Moore 1925 -) designed the New Orleans Square is the Italian postmodern
architectural ideas and models. In 1975 -1,980 square built in the design of the Rome
show - Mediterranean style of preference. This design is also fluent in the local
culture and Moore result of close cooperation of architects. The square in the design
take into account both the aesthetic taste of the local population and way of life, but
also take into account the coordination with the surrounding environment. Square
incorporated in the design of a skyscraper near the black and white lines, the changes
will be for the ring of concentric circles from the big and small. Moore also moved
directly to a map of Italy, the square design, the emission from the center of the water
fountain, symbolizing the Alps from high waterfall flowing down a camel, both sides
are five typical classical column. Moore and the magic of this classical style, set in
one of the design imagination, a post-modernist design classics. To the late 70s and
early 80s, post-modern architecture has begun to gradually accepted by consumers,
and won the trust of some well-known clients. In 1980, the United States known as
the most innovative architect Michael Graves (Michael Graves 1934 years -) twice
beat the pure modernist architect, accepted the Oregon Public Service Building
(Public Services Building) Design project. 1980 -1 982 completed in this building,
like a child barricaded in the building with blocks, cube shape reflects the classical
simple lattice of the small window and the sheer size of the building formed a strong
contrast, and to building full of an exaggerated sense of expansion. The middle
vertical bar and the bar's large windows again separate buildings, a pair of
huge brown red pilasters with small windows on both sides of the white walls contrast,
for the feeling of unreal buildings played a strong supporting role in the visual effects .
The classical mode of deformation and a masterpiece of creative freedom as a cover
the dignity of the human past and the present vitality of the real public buildings.
-1,983 In 1978 in New York in the United States Telegraph and Telephone (AT
& T) New York headquarters building, post-modernist architecture is the
largest and most famous masterpiece. This structure consists of the twentieth century
the prestigious architect Philip Johnson (Philip Johnson 1906 -) and Burch (Burgee)
design, is to use a hybrid of architectural language of eclecticism works. The overall
shape is similar to a skyscraper tall cabinets, floor, body supported by a high floor,
feet up, using the classical architectural language - arch, to borrow a 15th century
church in the form of the Italian Renaissance. In this way, Johnson moved into the
modern classical style building, the magnificent Baroque era and the modern
business-oriented style of integration of POP, is the use of previous works and
symbolic immortality trick for. This series of post-modern architecture of
post-modern theory stands to be an excellent explanation.
Postmodern architecture in the field of design, led the design of other post-modern
design movement. After a number of radical groups to explore and practice the design
after the late 70s, after brewing in the coming peak of modern design. Milan, Italy in
1976 set up a "Ekamiya" (Alchymia) of the studio, this studio
for the designers to showcase samples of their design space, the samples from the
industrial design of their After the free play of the shackles of the design product
design talent.
"Ekamiya" studio designer Aituosuote SARS in 1980 left the
"Akamiya" the studio, then at the end of 1980 to early 1981 set
up the "Memphis" (Memphis) group. Be 80 years after the most
striking modern design activities to the design of this long-awaited campaign reached
a climax.
The organization has never been systematically expounded any design ideas or design,
they just use their design work to show their modernist design and the design of
different ways. They are primarily designed to break the shackles of functionalist
design concepts, emphasizing decorative items, a bold and even some rough use of
bright colors, show and internationalism, functionalism completely different design of
the new concepts. September 1981, "Memphis" organization
held its first exhibition in Milan, those colorful, plastic sheets covered with fine, or
decorated with colorful lamps lively, optimistic, happy, strange objects aroused
interest . Audience with the traditional design of these different furniture and other
items shown great enthusiasm.
Sottsass is "Memphis" one of the initiators, although he soon
left the organization, but his design left a lot of people think. His masterpiece is the
shelves look a little bizarre, to use the plastic veneer, bright colors, very like an
abstract sculpture, collage combination of its shape can be placed almost did not
provide the space. Without a doubt, it does not have the bookshelves function. He also
designed a number of uses are unknown, ambiguous items. His modernist design
principles from the design of products, people not prepared for, the design is still a
topic of debate.
"Memphis" was also designed to show other members of
modernist design with a completely different new way of thinking, such as
Hansihuolei due to the design table, desktop, log into five different levels or planes,
the weakening of the function of it difficult to match the traditional concept of the
table. Bitexiaoer more creative furniture design, he designed the table desk is a sharp
wooden triangle, the following support by the geometric shape of the wood, the color
is very bright with yellow and green. Bitexiaoer's design talent is also
reflected in the design of a teapot, he who, or cylinder, cube or triangular, or irregular
cube designed products painted bright colors like children's building blocks
after the toys, have left far cry from the teapot features. Mateo Dayton pleasant series
called "naked bird" teapot design, similar to the shape of
animals, great fun and a sense of humor. "Memphis" The pen is
a colorful world, such as George J · Sutton effect in 1983, designed the city plan, is
divided by the number of shapes, bright colors, like building blocks consisting of
barricaded houses.
"Memphis" design movement is the world's 80 most
dramatic events of the design world, they are held in various countries show their
designs again spread of new ideas to the world. Their design not only provides a
reflection modernist theorists design topics, but also inspired designers to create
inspiration. Since Memphis has an impact although no radical design groups and
organizations, post-modern design activities because of their lack of survival do not
have the practical basis for the gradual decline, but the design of novel and unique
product has been elected, and his anti-modernist design feature is also very clear that
these design products are gradually accepted. Post-modern design concepts and
aesthetic principles have been slowly deep into the minds of designers and consumers.
2. After the challenge of modern design
Post-modern design with its brilliant display of color and sensational effects of the
incident became a hot media. But the post-modern design has not changed anything
substantive modernist design, it is only in modernist design to do some superficial, or
is the modernist design to do some rectification work. Modernist design is based on
democratic ideas and industrialized production and meet the needs of people living on
the basis that it had complied with the emergence and development trend of the times,
its a solid ideological foundation is not because some bright colors and unusual ideas
can be shaken. In meeting the needs 的 premise is still the mainstream of
contemporary design pay attention to Modernist design features, and, designed as a
practical art, and its functional requirements will become permanent in Biaozhun.
Modernist design to emphasize standardized, systematic for more advanced because
of transportation and communication have become increasingly small planet, is a very
useful design, integration in the global economy today, it can be in different countries ,
speaking different languages with ease. Standardized signs, sign design can even
become a world language, convenient for people. Relative to the modernist design and
a solid ideological foundation for the rational features, with a strong postmodern
sensibility color design is extremely fragile, its modernist design challenge is
basically to stay in style and form, and no related to the core of modernist design.
Post-modernist design was concerned only with the design of the form and content,
and explore creative disorder exist in the purity and romantic nature, to be understood
as a culture of "laissez faire" (Laisser faire) mood, so after a
after a while sensual matched by the decline of the glory. Postmodernism in the
design of the long history of development, perhaps only a spray, dazzling in the
sunshine reflecting the brilliant, but immediately went to import to the rivers.
Product design is closely linked with the historical background, regardless of their
structure, shape, or color, decoration will deeply mark the times laid the contrary, the
design of this product will help us to understand the times and understand the
aspirations of the people of this age, ideals, dreams and disappointment and hidden in
the deepest hope and desire. Design has not only technical standards and functional
needs, it expressed a social philosophy, ideology and complex cultural phenomenon,
in material ways to express the progress of human civilization. Post-modern design
that people have on prospects for the development of modernism had doubts about the
general turn of the century nostalgia and cultural background in the new complex
emotions generated by replacing the purely functional aesthetic needs. On the other
hand, the development of high technology by telephone instead of direct contact
between people; floppy disk instead of the fun of reading books; more realistic CD,
instead of live music to enjoy; TV expands our vision and perception; various about
our ads discretion, and today we have to live in a symbol and image of the software
era. Symbolic production has overturned all other forms of commodity production,
the object attached to the object of semiotic value of the object itself is more
meaningful than the objects, individuals are symbols, appearance and space
overwhelmed by a flood of hard to understand. For information dissemination in such
a narrow space in which all the progress of the modern belief in ability to reason and
human consciousness have been lost. Freudian psychology shows that we can not
control by our unconscious? Quot; hidden iceberg "of the rule, the linguists
also imply that we are created by language rather than its creator. People with a
similar belief in absolute truth has been expressed questioned, or our own Jibei form
and continue to be a series of signs, symbols and metaphors of. It is now completely
re-designed according to people's individual needs and appreciate the
different items. On the other hand, this means strain into a spirit of community by the
fission of the situation. This action by the mass media era of feature, by the French
philosopher Jean Bode Renander (Jean Baudrillard) to create a word
"spread trance" (ecstasy of communication) to express, which
means we have a label stuck around Dionysian ritual that is lost, although binge drunk
in the ritual activities do not start with this, the only surface and not the essence.
popular style, CI design and advertising company about our positive activities.
postmodernist attempt to get rid of the increasingly technical and commercialization
of human social development, the fate of alienation, their desire to drown the world in
being symbolic of human nature in the pursuit of greater freedom and complete
liberation, the pursuit of a greater degree of self-expression and self-satisfied,
therefore, they have a new way of life for the pursuit of expression in the
post-modernist design. But postmodernists are not in constant movement and change,
it was found They expect to represent contemporary culture and life of the main
features of the new things.
As an expression of style and a sense of post-modernism has been criticized by many,
especially those who still cherish in whole or in part also those who believe
modernism purpose. Many people believe that to retain the post modernist pioneer of
the modern movement in unrestrained, leading to drawing no one can understand, no
one can understand the books, construction could not bear to see the product features
and the lack of sensory appeal unclear. Postmodern architecture is different in
different periods of history, style and eclectic mix of Marxist and a
"sample." Some people think that a lot of post-modernism and
cultural phenomenon just as "decadent" modern doctrine, its
colorful appearance just some utopian fantasy. But the post-modernist design caused
by the momentum and the challenges posed by the modern design should not be
ignored, we can not not put the book shelves, chairs can not take no notice of their
objective existence, and consumers demonstrated their enthusiasm, but also worth
thinking designers and design theorists.
No matter how postmodern design product features and deliberate neglect of the use
of materials and colors, postmodern design are greatly enriched the vocabulary of
contemporary design, many of them first appeared in the incredible performance of
practices, some of the design has now been Normal use in their designs, but also
received consumers. Such as "Memphis" member Michael
(Germany (painted by Luke the "Hi-Fi" sound design sketches,
children's toys with a similar shape, thick buttons exposed and painted
bright colors, this design concept was Day "Sony" (Sony)
Electric direct reference to their 1988 production of "ROBO"
children's tape recorders on the use of a striking black, red, yellow, green
color, fully borrowed Michael (Germany (Luke modeling, market After the young are
very popular with customers, have been successful. visible in the post-modernist
design mischievous appearance, they still have market potential, it opens a new
designer design ideas. in Postmodernism Design Thoughts of intervention, design has
become traditional, historical, cultural and ideological nature and complexity of
cultural phenomena linked.
3. Post-modern design to the design and development of practical significance in
China is a slow process of industrialization in developing countries, when the
post-modernist design style in Europe and intensified when the United States
mainland, China's modernist design has just started, the economic
development           objectives        are        clearly        designated         as
"modernization", but not that we do not need to study
postmodernism, or post-modernist design did not use our country do not meet
China's national conditions. With the development of communication and
transportation, the earth is getting smaller, the spread of ideas is more and more
rapidly, many designers have seen the design of post-modernism has accepted the
post-modernist design, how should we regard this One design trend has become an
extremely urgent problem, if blindly follow the trend or of no response, will result in
the design of misleading.
Modernist design is established based on the idea in a democracy, and its purpose is to
meet the vast majority of the daily life of Xu Yao, China is a large population 国家,
economic Fa Zhan Ye still Luohou, to meet the needs of working life Renmin
China's socialist construction, the main objective, so modernist design
ideas in Ours is a mass basis of. Modernist design emphasizes functional items, the
importance of standardization and mass production, which is also very low for the
level of industrialization with Chinese national conditions and is not replaced by
practicality. Internationalist style buildings with low-cost industrial materials,
emphasizing the functions of a reasonable layout, to meet the housing requirements of
most people, for our lack of such a large population, big country house, the
internationalism of modern architecture style will be long existence. Post-modernist
design in a large extent, is a modernist in terms of the amendment, is the modernist
design for weaknesses arising, its modernist design issues see we have a warning. Our
design and development of developed countries, but we can learn from their
development experiences and lessons learned to accept their strengths and avoid their
weaknesses. Thus, our design will be in a correct road of development and progress.
Like the blind pursuit of modernist design features, ignoring human; the blind pursuit
of simplicity, the lack of decoration; the blind pursuit of innovation, the traditional
neglect; the blind pursuit of unity, neglect of diversity, this is our development needs
in the design to avoid.
Postmodernism is the product of post-industrial, although China's
industrial development objectives is modern, but the electronics, microelectronics,
characterized the post-industrial development in China is still fast, high-tech
development in some areas has reached world advanced level can be said that China is
in the parallel development of industrial and post-industrial period, so the background
after the industry's post-modernist design in our country still has conditions
for development. But we can not because China has the possibility of post-modernism
on the development of European and American developed countries to follow blindly
the left modernist design path. We need to understand the form of post-modernist
design, but also to understand its form behind the complex social phenomenon,
objective look at post-modernist design, otherwise it will produce some do not meet
the conditions and people's aesthetic appreciation of the monster, as the
streets of Beijing " wear a hat, "the so-called post-modern
In the post-modernist thought, the main disadvantages of modernist design is treated
the same way in different places and different people, thus ignoring national
characteristics and local characteristics. Postmodernists to promote cultural pluralism
and its diversity, openness and variability, emphasizing the design of individual and
national identity is a part of post-modern ideas, but in the post-modernist design and
acts in a classical regression. Our design has just started, the future direction and
development ideas are worthy of designers and design theorists thought. China is an
ancient civilization with a long tradition of history, arts and crafts for thousands of
years has left many of our precious heritage of Chinese traditional crafts of the shape,
decoration is when we design and create a source of inspiration, a wealth of folk crafts
are also our design can learn from the data. China has a rich tradition of information
available, the traditional folk and ethnic arts and crafts, such as paper cutting, batik,
embroidery and other decorative patterns can for us to add luster to the modern design.
In the succession of national heritage, our senior designer has made a successful
attempt. Such as the Central Academy of Arts Professor Chang Shana, Xi Xiaopeng,
Zhang Qi-man, Yuan Jieying so that they do so for the Great Hall of the designs
reflect the strong national style. As long as we pay attention in the design to absorb
nutrients from the traditional, you can design with the design of our products to
national characteristics, in the world of the future design of unique elegance of the
Chinese nation has become distinctive of the future design power.
Internationalist style of design is considered to reduce aesthetic, ecological
destruction of the human environment, the perfect accomplice, it is a simple
mechanical way, the original tradition, the natural environment into one of the city
into a glass curtain wall and reinforced concrete in the forest, Artificial city around the
world, the form of identical glass boxes so that the city lost all personality, and caused
irreversible environmental pollution. Against industrial civilization, postmodernism in
the context of the global emergence of the protection of natural, environmental
protection calls, that call for modern industrial development, particularly the waste of
resources, Huanjingwuran from, designed to play in this important role. In the early
70s, the famous American designer, critic 维克多佩帕里克 (Victor Papank) in his
book "Design for the real-life" (Design for real life) in his book
that "there are some occupational more dangerous than the industrial
design, but not much. " Under the influence of this trend, the global
emergence of "green design" (green design) of the wave,
"combinatorial design", "Cycle Design" is
the implementation of green design. In developed countries, the design has become
product designers, government officials, banks, engineers and environmental experts
to participation in one thing, it is especially worthy of our reference design.
China's industrial development has exposed the environmental degradation,
waste of resources such as the sign of a very serious, township process of enterprise
development has caused very serious environmental pollution Wen Ti,
"white trash" has become a serious hidden danger, out of China
Mei Nian Du Xu Jue funds Lai treatment of contaminated environment. If we can
learn from developed countries to reflect on the development of industrial civilization,
we can avoid the meandering paths to go before the developed countries. In his
well-known critic Bideduomo "in 1945 to design" (Design since
1945) the book "Design of the future" (Design Futures) that
"designers and engineers to jointly towards this ambitious energy
conservation goal. " Under the guidance of this thinking, there are many
large foreign companies, big factories and design of organizations committed to the
environment from pollution caused by product design, such as the United States and
Germany, BWM Group, 3M Company. They can easily be demolished at any time to
replace parts of product design as a design development ideas. Germany has also
appeared in the Green Party specifically to protect the environment, bank supervision
by the lending facility is producing products that pollute the environment. In order to
protect the environment in many countries have in controlling the development of
automobiles, to promote cycling. Tram because of clumsy, slow and replaced by a car,
but because of its safety, pollution, France again they dug up the bustling streets of
Paris to serve, "green design" is an important part of the 21st
century. If we can from the reflection of Western industrial civilization, get alerts,
aware of the risks of industrial development, reflected in the design of environmental
awareness, we can design in the future to avoid causing environmental pollution.
When the stress of innovative modernist design in every corner of the world
beginning of time, the modernist determination to create a whole new world of people
lost in the jungle in the machine himself. And when people realize that the old man
seems to have a long tradition and a very distant past when, after the modernist appear,
they attempt to connect from the past and present and future links, retrieve lost in the
noise of the machines self. Postmodern design in the design of exploratory activities,
has obvious experimental features. The aim is to break the internationalism of modern
design in the style tedious and boring, atmosphere, shows the information age and the
fear of facing mankind "out of control" feeling and it is a utopia
of ideas and materials, Jie Ge Wu Zhi.
Postmodernism is not only a reaction to Modernism, but also to the transcendence of
modernism, postmodernism is modernism deny recognition of the tradition of
attention to the various regions and traditions of folk culture and arts learning and
absorption, in the integrated traditional and modern culture has to go beyond the
modernist. Postmodernism funny and full of suspicion, but does not deny anything,
does not reject the ambiguity, contradiction, complexity and inconsistency, so the
design becomes rich. This new life on the active participation and intervention, so that
the connotation and extension of the design is more enriched.

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