On the conflict in the Palestinian Arabs and Jews

Document Sample
On the conflict in the Palestinian Arabs and Jews Powered By Docstoc
					On the conflict in the Palestinian Arabs and Jews
                    ?On the conflict in the Palestinian Arabs and Jews
                             Peng Shuzhi
                        Chinese Islamic information site

 ?Summary of Palestinian Arabs and Jews, the conflict in the history of human
civilization exchanges typical case. These two different centuries of conflict between
civilized nations, "deadlock", has its history, culture, geography
and international political context. The only correct choice of solution is
reconciliation. Courage, wisdom and reason is the way to the bridge of reconciliation,
but it takes time and patience.

    Near the Commercial Press compilation, "General History of the
Middle East Palestinian volume" ①, through draft after enough, then there
are five topics fill out postscript, which is slightly below Chen.
    ① "General History of the Middle East," edited by Peng
Shuzhi Middle East History in 13 volumes by the Commercial Press in 2000-2004 at a
time. "General History of the Middle East, the Palestinian National
Study" will be published in 2002. This postscript was written in October
    Now the "General History of the Middle East Palestinian
volume" is generally understood by the people and the conventional title,
the name "Palestine" shows.
    In fact, it is not a total area of Palestine General History of Stan ground.
    The task of this volume is only the Palestinian Arabs of the past and present, for a
brief, general history from the ancient and the nature of this narrative.
    According to the Palestinian areas of historical and practical, I am in the design of
"General History of the Middle East," the overall structure, the
Palestinian areas into "Volume Israel" and "Volume
of Palestine." The two volumes have their own division and focus on,
respectively, outlined in the same area, two different ethnic and historical change and
civilization development track contact characteristics.
    The two volumes of ideas, both from the reality, and then back and reflect on
history, from a historical perspective, look at the reality; and from the political,
economic, cultural, geographical environment factors, examine the process of
exchanges between different civilizations.
    Strictly speaking, living in the Palestinian Arabs and Jews, are the Palestinians.
The exact title, should be the Palestinian Arabs, the Jews of Palestine. 2nd century BC,
before the great diaspora, Jews have become a nation. Long-term rule in the Arab
Islamic Empire and Arabization process, the Palestinian Arabs as part of the Arab
nation. They and the history of the Jews, and later returned to Palestine from the Jews
in various regions are different cultures, different ethnic Palestinians. The two peoples
of different civilizations, in Palestine through the complex linkages, the establishment
of a changing relationship. These contacts and relationships, formed countless
civilizations called historians explore history of exchanges.
    View of the "Study of Israel," Jews in Palestinian areas is
mainly discusses the past and present, and focus on writing the history of 19th century,
so in this paper an overview of the Palestinian dedicated ancient history and
civilization of introduction, reflecting the end of the period in this region the total
classical Ming Zhao appearance. This is for the Palestinian and Arab and
Islamic-based to provide historical background.
    While the Palestinians of their history can be traced back to Canaan and Felix
period. Palestinian Arabs also roots to the local Nighbert States and the Roman
Empire the third Palestinian. However, the formation of the Arab Empire --- the result
of exchanges between Arab civilization and Islamic nature of Palestinian Arabs are
the direct ancestral source. This is the historical changes in the region.
    Communication from the Palestinian civilization seen in the history of the process,
this change is after the Jewish exodus, the region's second turning point of
civilization changes. This is the Arab civilization in Palestine are dominant changes.
Palestine by the Jews into the main ethnic Arabs. Islam, the vast majority of people of
    In my book, "The Beginning Syria and Italy," pointed out:
"The nation, the linkages between the various countries, depending on each
nation, each country's productivity, division of labor and degree of
development of internal communication. All nationalities, the state itself The entire
internal structure, it also depends on the production and internal and external
communication level of development. "① Palestinian Arabs of various
civilizations with the relationship between peoples and nations and their internal
structure, in the Arab Empire, the Ottoman Empire, British Mandate reign, as well as
future development, are subject to the laws of the civilized exchanges.
    ①       "General History of Afghanistan, the Middle East
volume," The Commercial Press 2000 edition, p. 7.
    Palestinian Arabs are a unique nation. The rule of the Ottoman Empire nearly a
century, economic, cultural, political structure and the extremely backward state of
internal and external contacts, family disputes and tribal conflicts, the political
dependence of the elite family, gave the development of national independence, a
serious obstacle. Early 20th century, the rise of Arab nationalism, because of this
productivity, contact force developed, although the national awakening of the
Palestinian Arabs played a catalytic role, but the impact of the weak, slow
communication, independence worse. Between 1919 to 1928, seven Palestinians were
held in the Assembly, have no clear goal of Palestinian independence. Weak sense of
national independence, this can be seen.
    Basisitan Arab nationalism is unique, concentrated expression in the establishment
of independent nation-state issues. Long-term Palestinian Arabs living in Palestine, it
has been in a dependent position. Is not only dependent on the political organization,
but also ideological and theoretical dependence. Their political organizations and
representatives of the nationalist ideology and theory, long-term can not escape to the
South Syrian Arab nationalism attachment. Only in the 1936-1939 Palestinian
uprising on the eve of nationalist parties was jointly proposed the establishment of an
independent national political demands of the Palestinians. In contrast it is opposite of
Zionism, in 1896, had "Jewish State" in the system theory and
program. Since then the tendency to become increasingly strong, pro-active
implementation in the Palestinian goal of statehood. Until the September 2000
Palestinian uprising, Israeli troops have occupied the initiative repression, military,
economic, and diplomatic in the absolute superiority, and the Palestinian Arabs in
guerrilla warfare, psychological and public opinion can only play a destructive,
suffered huge losses in the negative conditions, away from statehood even more
remote. In contrast, the gap between the two nationalist how poor!
    Exchanges between peoples of different civilizations, the absence of absolute
fairness and justice, power politics and power policy has always been important. The
strength of the root is the developed productive forces and relations the different
levels of force is a result of the Palestinian social structure of organizations behind the
proliferation of factional disputes. In July 2001, long-term rival Palestinian factions
nationalist organizations, but also bloody clashes, Abu - Hassaneen and Abu - Guer
Fu clan, the family has a bloody vendetta. This is the Palestinian Arabs and
Palestinian Jews in dealings between lies.

?Second, exchanges of human civilization, there are many factors, such as subject and
object, transportation and technology, national and state, religion and culture,
language and literature, interest and justice and so on. This caught the extreme
pressure, endless strife situation, would the Palestinians do not fight from the chaos,
"Yintifada" will hardly succeed.
    Interaction of these factors in human civilization in the geographical and
environmental status of living space for basic. It is a way of life among the region,
cultural tradition, groups of character, physical shape and so on racial or ethnic
homogeneity or heterogeneity of the root index.
    Palestinian areas since the beginning of human civilization is an important region
interaction, it is necessary to briefly its geographical features.
    Geopolitical and even blood of long-term survival of the nation. According to
May 2000 released a new genetic study showed that between Jews and Arabs are
inextricably linked. 29 countries of the world men's Y chromosome 1371
survey results confirm that the genes are Arabs and Jews living in this land from the
earliest common ancestor. Participate in the study of New York University School of
Medicine Human Genetics Project Leader Haliaosi Teller said: "Jews and
Arabs really are the descendants of Abraham. 4 000 years they have been preserved
their Middle Eastern genetic roots. "In fact, Jews and Arabs in language
factors have in common. Hebrew and Arabic are both Semitic languages. Common
geographical factors also affect the customs of the Jews and Arabs, in this regard, they
have many similarities.
    Geographical factors determine the interaction of the Palestinian special in many
aspects of civilization. Overview map of Palestine, in front of us is a only 27 million
square kilometers of long, narrow areas. It is west of the Mediterranean, the southwest
border with Egypt, thus leading to the sea and land circle of European civilization and
African civilization circle. It's directed at the southern end of The Gulf of
Aqaba and the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and then connected with the Indian Ocean,
which has been with Eastern civilization along the sea route of communication. The
northern and eastern areas with close proximity to ancient civilization in Western Asia,
more direct contacts.
    This can be seen as the geographical features of Palestine, both marine and
mainland China become a dual nature of civilization, and showed a fusion of East and
West and the diversity of style.
    Palestinians living in this land, the land around the same time and place in the
world all kinds of contact. Their internal and external contacts in here to change the
nature and sensitivity to society, taste life and gradually expand their scope of
    Palestinians have experienced a period of many civilizations. Original prehistoric
civilization, far Gu Jianan civilization, Felix civilization, the Assyrian civilization, the
Babylonian civilization, the Persian civilization, Greek civilization, Roman
civilization in the Palestinian territories a glorious shining light. However, the main
indigenous civilization of Palestine is the Jewish civilization and Arab civilization.
    Palestine, given its geographic characteristics of rich colors religious civilization.
East and West Jerusalem embodies the religious civilization exchanges reflected the
characteristics of accumulation. It is Judaism, Islam, Christianity these world religions
holy civilization. Coexistence of different religions and conflict between civilizations,
the history and reality of many a military and political incident place.
    Historically, Palestine has been a frequent but a turbulent flow of the triangle. Asia,
Africa, Europe continents, the edge of civilization and geopolitical environment,
especially the East and West by land, sea transport's strategic position,
political, military, business interests have long-term forces driving the race in the
campaign here. Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece - Alexander the Macedonian,
Roman, Byzantine, Crusaders and the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, have successively
occupied the area. Especially after the opening of the Suez Canal, Palestine, trade,
military-strategic position, even more important. After World War I British Mandate
of Palestine to become. November 1947 the UN General Assembly partition
resolution of Palestine will be divided into Arab and Jewish States. May 14, 1948 the
State of Israel was established. Occurred many times after the war in the Middle East,
especially the 1967 war, Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory, resulting in the
Arab refugee problem. Palestinian Arabs fighting for the restoration of the legitimate
struggle of survival and long Middle East peace process, is still the region's
top priority.
    Geographical features of Palestine, in the concentrated expression of the political
dealings of Western imperial expansion of the major forces the power forward
position and the East-West conflict in the buffer zone. This is mainly external
relations and political contacts. In the internal contacts, as the major national Jewish
Palestine from the 2nd century AD to the 19th century up to 17 centuries of time,
basically no contact with the Palestinians; and from the 7th century AD until the 19th
century, the Arabs have been Palestine's main ethnic groups. Over the next
50 years, the Zionist movement, especially after 1948, Jews and Arabs to fight for
their national rights in Palestine, there were frequent and violent conflicts and wars.
State land edge is always the core of survival and security interests.
    Three conflict and reconciliation, has been the interaction of human civilization,
key chain, a pair of links. The coordination of the link, leading to peace; the rupture of
the links will lead to war.
    From the late 20th century, researchers look more and more attention on the
conflict ①.米歇尔卡拉耶 in 1988 and 1989 has published the "20th
century crisis" and "crisis, conflict and insecurity,"
two books. He used foreign policy and international cultural, political and economic
integration method, 1929-1979 and 1980-1985 in the global crisis, a statistical
analysis. University of Heidelberg Institute of Political Sciences of the conflict since
1994, has been on the worldwide crisis and the war system. This is to submit an
annual report, known as "conflict barometer." This is a detailed
analysis of the data, the German foreign affairs and defense departments often serve
as reference for decision making.
    ① Peng Shuzhi: "On the interaction of human civilization",
"Historiography", 2000 No. 1.
     If the conflict is a barometer of the international political contacts, then the
conflict in the Middle East will be in the barometer on a significant landmark in the
position. It is the most complex since World War II and the longest duration of the
political geography of conflict. Conflict in the Middle East, Israeli-Palestinian conflict
in particular, eye-catching. Terms in 2000, 144 conflicts in the world, the Middle East
remains the same as the previous year, is 24. But the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
re-aggravated the lives of the people of this region has a huge negative impact. Arafat
May 19, 2001, said in September last year, since the outbreak of the Palestinian
intifada, the Palestinians have lost five billion U.S. dollars. Israeli high-tech stocks in
the United States declined by 30%, which trade with neighboring Arab countries have
also been hit hard. The two sides have deepened the ethnic hatred. Conflict can be
said on both Palestine and Israel will suffer.
    Palestinian-Israeli conflict is the contact arm of contemporary civilization, one of
the typical cases. It is three years as a turning point:
    May 1948, after the founding of Israel conflict developed into the highest form of
political communication --- the Palestinian war. From the beginning of a Jewish small
country in the military confrontation pattern of many Arab countries. This pattern is
called "David said to the Philistine giant Goliath," the pattern.
Many Arab countries, the United Nations partition resolution opposed to the
Palestinian state could not be substantiated. This marked the beginning of the
decades-long Arab-Israeli conflict.
     June 1967, which is another development by the conflict, the highest form of
political exchanges --- "Plan" war. The lightning lasted only six
days of war, to break the Palestinian war in 1948, formed after the pattern. Israeli
forces occupied the West Bank, Gaza, Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. Conflict
into the relationship between occupation and the occupied. Researchers to this pattern
than the apartheid in South Africa and France on Algeria's colonial rule.
Fait accompli on the Palestinian Israeli rule, while the proposed Palestinian Arab state,
but has been delayed.
     September 2000, this is a revolt and repression of armed conflict. With the French
"Le Monde" May 23, 2001 reported as saying that Israeli M-16
assault rifles from the F-16 fighter jets to suppress the stones and bombs against the
situation; while defenders of the Palestinian Hanan Ashrawi put the situation as
"Palestinian history - and the Palestinian-Israeli relations --- one of the
darkest periods." In short, this is the third turning point in
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, it once again changed the Middle East situation.
  The distinctive feature of armed conflict is between two different civilizations
exacerbated religious conflict. Palestinian uprising in the streets, first of all is the
Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Sharon's words and deeds of the response,
rather than Barak and Clinton peace proposal made at the negotiating table response.
It is Sharon who detonated the Palestinian uprising, was defeated in the election of
Barak peace plan put forward. Interaction of different civilizations focused on Islamic
militants and attacks on holy sites of Judaism. Holy Land is a noble symbol of
religious civilization. Competition for the sovereignty of the Holy Land conflict and
attacks on holy sites, to Palestine and Israel caused a deep injury settlement. Sharon
claims that Israel has sovereignty over the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, and
accompanied by armed police to enter the Temple Mount, which Palestinians view, is
Islam's third holiest site in a deliberate desecration of the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Muslims also feel angry that the Israeli bomb destroyed two mosques in Jaffa, Israel,
in their mosque in Tiberias gasoline ignited tires, graffiti hate slogans, and Sener was
insulted by a Muslim cemetery equally angry. On the other hand, Jews are condemned
Muslims set fire to Jaffa, Haifa, Ramla, and Shenfalamu the synagogue and the
destruction of several towns in the Galilee region of the saints tomb. Israeli
government condemned the destruction of the mosque, said it was criminals do; also
believes that in the Palestinian Authority under the control of terrorist destruction of
the Jewish holy sites, that Arafat's administration inability to protect such a
sacred, holy and therefore should not be Temple Hill's sovereignty.
     The last Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation, which resulted in the
Oslo accords. The uprising is dissatisfied with the peace talks, peace talks aim is to
improve the strength of the uprising, to strengthen internal unity, attracted worldwide
sympathy. However, the establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its
capital, is the ultimate goal. In the last Camp David talks, Arafat wanted to resolve the
refugee problem, and to Jerusalem's status until later. He believes that
Al-Quds is the Islamic world, not that he can solve. This is actually the issue of
Palestinian statehood and religion, and religious issues and the Islamic world, linked
together. Camp David talks, when Arafat that President Clinton would like to make
decision-style program, he would pre-empt an uprising forced the Clinton plan was
revised to recommend type. Therefore, the uprising was accumulated between
Palestine and Israel conflict broke out again. Sharon is the Israeli-Palestinian case two
different civilizations in the religious and political hot spots on the fuse. Sure enough,
10 months later, on Sept. 28, 2001, following the salon, the "Temple
Mount loyalists" responsible person You Aile shouted, "We
have only one Temple Mount," a slogan to mark the first, second St.
Temple had been destroyed. Palestinians threw stones at the Jews. Both the recurrence
of bloodshed.
    In Palestine between Arabs and Jews, secular politics, social issues and religious
and cultural issues, both as people of different faith, because the issue of Jerusalem
holy sites, as the parties or the forces of religious communities, as both sides in the
Islamic world and the Jewish world of religious identity, secular and religious conflict,
the conflict is difficult to separate. Secular war into religious war between the two
peoples of different civilizations always disappeared the. September 2000 start of the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, religious stand out at an unprecedented situation, and to
continue the violence of political contacts.
    In short, both Arabs and Jews, the destruction of the Holy Land conflict is the
ethnic conflict over land and religious conflicts and into the body, thereby causing the
complex Middle East peace variables. Historically, almost every 8 years the
Arab-Israeli war broke out once. Peace and reconciliation process has always been
intertwined conflicts showed their talk. In any case, political, ethnic or religious issues
ultimately must be resolved at the negotiating table.
    Four pairs of September 2000 start of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the American
scholar Thomas Friedman in "The New York Times," March 6,
2001 published a report entitled "New Middle East situation,"
the article. His modern perspective from the conflict. He said: "Israelis and
Palestinians conflict, not only because of the land, political or religious. For the Arab
leaders and Arab people, the causes of conflict there is modernization. This is a
successful modern developed society and a not modernization, and would like to
blame others, developed the tension between society. "He also raised the
Arab leaders to focus on trade, development and democratization of the"
new Middle East "or to focus on anti-Israel, the liberation of Palestine
"old Middle East" problem. He also said that in September 2000
after the Palestinian intifada, the Palestinian young man with a Che Guevara-style
uprising, against Israel, a symbol of modern society and an important factor in the
decline of their country's leaders.
    The reason I want to quote Thomas Friedman's argument in detail,
because he made little mention of the last people to modernization. Indeed, over the
past half century, the Middle East conflict and war, the tide covered the Middle East
social change and economic changes. Peace, development and modernization in the
Middle East shows hints of easing into the state. Israel in war and peace, cutting
conditions, rapid modernization has made the development of a "Middle
East to Japan." Middle East Arab countries, but also the process of
modernization with varying degrees of success, but failed to achieve modernization in
the underdeveloped society. In their agenda not only to resolve the Palestinian-Israeli
conflict. Therefore, Arab countries, the realization of modernization should be their
main issues on the agenda.
    However, he accused the Palestinian leadership does not really give the young
people to choose whether to go national to modernize the road of opportunity, but it is
not realistic. Modern nation-state political premise is established. There is no
independent Palestinian state, there can be talk about going to modernize the road of
opportunity! Other Arab countries in the Middle East to establish an independent
nation-state, occupied by Israel of the Palestinian Arabs still not have their own
independent state. In the Palestinian areas, we see the same piece of land, live in two
different nations, experiencing a completely different history. "Jerusalem
Post," conservative columnist 赫布凯诺宁 to mark the 53rd anniversary
of Israel's independence, said the article in the current conflict,
"the majority of Israelis recognize the Jewish state of Israel as the only
presence in the Middle East is not a matter of course The. " Israel,
"Ha'aretz," the more free thinking Columnist 吉迪
恩萨梅 special to mark the Independence Day of the article, as long as Israel
continues to occupy the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel will never be able to freely
celebrate their independence "In order for Israel to achieve real
independence, the independence of the occupied land is inevitable."
Palestinian nationalist goals, was to establish an independent Palestinian state, while
Israel allowed the Palestinians to achieve precisely this modern a political premise.
This is the crux of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.
    Five Palestinian-Israeli conflict the problems of contemporary human civilization,
communication solution, the only correct choice is reconciliation, both Arab and
Jewish life in Palestine in the same area, different national reconciliation between
    Reconciliation, is the inevitable trend of human civilization exchanges, is the
current world trend of peace and development, the Palestinian Arabs and Jews use the
blood of life after suffering and the reality for which conclusions.
    Reconciliation, not only conducive to both Palestine and Israel. Palestinian-Israeli
reconciliation and lasting peace in the Middle East a cornerstone of a comprehensive,
lasting and comprehensive peace in the Middle East, but also conducive to the
modernization of the Middle East is conducive to world security.
    Reconciliation, peace and communication methods need first need to abandon
violence and communication methods need to contact the civilization. To condemn
the violence, deprivation of the rationality of violence, to stop all violence. Armed
conflict of civilizations, terrorism and revenge, endless retribution, can only increase
the social and psychological despair.
    Reconciliation is a process of rationalization of civilization, the characteristics of
this process is understanding and tolerance replace hostility and hatred, with dialogue
and cooperation instead of confrontation and exclusion. Back and forth between the
Arab-Israeli conflict, the two sides sooner or later, eventually realized that the
teaching of human civilization exchanges: "and as you."
"Solution           of       rancor       should        not,"        the
"solution-maker" and mutual understanding, mutual exchanges
of civilization, and sang each other songs, such as the Spring River water, soft can
overcome the hard. It is like a Chinese folk song sung by:
    Well, sing folk songs!
    Side to side and singing,
    Folk songs like the Spring River water
    Not afraid to bend addition of rapids!
    Peace should bear the risk, the cost of peace. But people will never forget the
cause of peace before Rabin sang the "Song of Peace", which
last aphorism is: "sing a song of peace, this is our top priority."
    Shimon Peres is not said to you? "The peace process will not die,
people need peace just as need air to breathe." Willing to Palestine and
Israel often sing songs of peace, mutual interaction and sing!
    Reconciliation, of course, abide by common principles, the need for basic
common interests and common spirit of reconciliation, and internal and external
contacts to coordinate organic. Relevant United Nations resolutions, land for peace,
national sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, security and legal rights of
the Palestinian people, especially the establishment of a Palestinian state, are common
interests. Reconciliation, consistent with the fundamental interests of both Palestine
and Israel.
    Reconciliation is a process of mutual exchanges. Palestinians and Israelis in
earnest and practical negotiations and strict compliance with the agreement of the
interaction process, will gradually eliminate the grievances, establish mutual trust and
spirit, changing disappointment and distrust of social psychology. Palestinian-Israeli
conflict, to give people an experience is that it is anxious to exclude here the special
needs of calm and patience.
    Reconciliation can not do without the cooperation of international mediation.
Israeli-Palestinian conflict no longer the case in the Palestinian areas, the Middle East,
the world's major countries, various international organizations, have been
involved in many, also has shown its role. To realize a just and comprehensive and
lasting peace in the Middle East, whether Israel or the Palestinian policy of strength to
punish and promote diplomacy, or in the future international system led Middle East
peace talks are advised to make a fresh start.
    I am from the geopolitical front, talked about the historical connection of Jews and
Arabs. Nation in the history of the two corporations are different civilizations, but
have long-term peaceful coexistence, and joint crusade against too. Only in the
instigation of Western powers, the two peoples due to conflict of interest against a
hundred years to form intricate "knot" to become old and
contemporary interactions of different civilizations, large and difficult problem. This
is the tragedy of civilization.
     Palestinian Arabs and Jews is a region with the Department of the two peoples of
different civilizations. The beginning of the twentieth century the first year, history
has recorded their new chapter in the bloody conflict. September 2000 the conflict
began, more than a year later, still do not see signs of reconciliation. Ordinary Arabs
and Jews, after suffering, both spiritual wounds caused by the difficult to bridge.
Blockade, poverty, death, the Palestinian Arab people miserable. Jewish people in
Palestine is not easy, bombs, shootings, terrorism, so that they undergo mental and
psychological suffering. This is an unprecedented tragedy of the Middle East for
centuries, is a serious Palestinian-Israeli peace process back. The founding of Israel
half a century, "Peace" (Hebrew SHALOM) though is the
common greeting, but they have never enjoyed peace. Palestinian statehood could not
face a strong Israel, peace is so elusive. The ordinary people of two nations will never
bloodshed extinction of human life as "civilization", they think
the two peoples, peace and tranquility in the Palestinian areas, and the current conflict
is mainly a product of political struggle.
     Palestinian-Israeli conflict is the way to reconciliation "blood
door." Although conflict is a serious exchanges of human civilization
illness, but also show people break free from the troubles and difficulties in the efforts
of the loss. The idea that religious conflicts can not be negotiated, not reconciliation,
is incompatible with the multiple contacts between civil law and civilized coexistence.
Secular and religious conflict, reconciliation is always accompanied with a common
interaction in the process. Contact history of human civilization shows that no conflict
will be no reconciliation and no reconciliation is difficult to resolve the conflict. The
car is running conflict has its inertia brake reconciliation takes time. Courage, wisdom
and reason is the way to the bridge of reconciliation. Palestinian-Israeli conflict
provides researchers with a broad conception of space exchanges among civilizations
case tracking study it can be obtain from the laws of conflict resolution in China.
                              Author: Northwestern University, the Middle East