EVOLUTION & SPECIATION VOCABULARY REVIEW • EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME • NATURAL SELECTION - INDIVIDUALS BETTER ADAPTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT ARE ABLE TO SURVIVE & REPRODUCE. – A.K.A. “SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST” NEW VOCABULARY • POPULATION – GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS OF SAME SPECIES THAT INTERBREED • GENE POOL – COMMON GROUP OF ALL GENES PRESENT IN A POPULATION Gene Pool Combined genetic info. of all members Allele frequency is # of times alleles occur Variation in Populations 2 processes can lead to this: Mutations change in DNA sequence Gene Shuffling – from sexual reproduction Genetic Drift changes populations……. • Random change in allele frequency causes an allele to become common • Founder Effect: a cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population • Gene Flow: genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations (reduces differences between populations) • Nonrandom mating: inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes) • Natural Selection: differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment Sexual selection • Sexual dimorphism: secondary sex characteristic distinction selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism • Sexual selection: Evolution of Populations Occurs when there is a change in relative frequency of alleles How natural selection works Resistance to antibacterial soap Generation 1: 1.00 not resistant 0.00 resistant How natural selection works Resistance to antibacterial soap Generation 1: 1.00 not resistant 0.00 resistant How natural selection works Resistance to antibacterial soap Generation 1: 1.00 not resistant 0.00 resistant Generation 2: 0.96 not resistant 0.04 resistant mutation! How natural selection works Resistance to antibacterial soap Generation 1: 1.00 not resistant 0.00 resistant Generation 2: 0.96 not resistant 0.04 resistant Generation 3: 0.76 not resistant 0.24 resistant How natural selection works Resistance to antibacterial soap Generation 1: 1.00 not resistant 0.00 resistant Generation 2: 0.96 not resistant 0.04 resistant Generation 3: 0.76 not resistant 0.24 resistant Generation 4: 0.12 not resistant 0.88 resistant Phenotype Expression • Depends on how many genes control that trait Single-Gene vs. Polygenic Traits Single-Gene: 2 Distinct Phenotypes (EG: tongue rolling) Polygenic: Many Phenotypes Allele Frequencies Natural Selection Genetic Drift Single Gene Traits Polygenic Traits Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection Disruptive Selection Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits • Shifts to middle range • Shifts to 2 extremes • Shifts to 1 extreme Conditions needed for Genetic Equilibrium SPECIATION • THE FORMATION OF NEW SPECIES • AS NEW SPECIES EVOVLVE, POPULATIONS BECOME REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED • REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION – MEMEBERS OF 2 POPULATIONS CANNOT INTERBREED & PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING. 3 ISOLATING MECHANISMS…….. • BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION- CAPABLE OF BREEDING BUT HAVE DIFFERENCES IN COURTSHIP RITUALS (EX. MEADOWLARKS) • GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION – SEPARATED BY GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS LIKE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, OR BODIES OF WATER (EX. SQUIRREL) • TEMPORAL ISOLATION – 2 OR MORE SPECIES REPRODUCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES. Table 23.1a Tigon Result of male tiger and female lion mating incaptivity. Offspring are infertile. Separated both geographically and ecologically. Liger Result of male lion and female tiger mating in captivity. Offspring are infertile. Table 23.1b Fig. 23.6 Four species of leopard frogs: differ in their mating calls. Hybrids are inviable. These squirrels live on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon. This is an example of allopatric speciation. Hawaiian Honeycreepers An example of adaptive radiation – these species all diverged from a common ancestor (founder species) FOUNDER SPECIES SPECIATION IN DARWIN’S FINCHES • SPECIAITON IN THE GALAPAGOS FINCHES OCCURRED BY: - FOUNDING OF A NEW POPULATION, - GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION which led to - REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION and CHANGES IN THE NEW POPULATION’S GENE POOL due to COMPETITION. Evidence of Evolution 1. Fossil Record 2. Geographic Distribution of Living Species 3. Homologous Body structures 4. Similarities in Embryology Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record provides evidence that living things have evolved Fossils show the history of life on earth and how different groups of organisms have changed over time Marsupial Mammals Convergent Evolution and Analogous Structures Placental mammals Sugar Glider Flying Squirrel Mammalia Rat like common ancestor Big Question!!! How did life arise on the big blue planet?? Scientists attempt to answer this question scientifically. Relative Dating versus Absolute Dating Relative Dating • Can determine a fossil’s relative age • Performed by estimating fossil age compared with that of other fossils • Drawbacks – provides no info about age in years Absolute dating • Can determine the absolute age in numbers • Is performed by radioactive dating – based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes remain • Drawbacks - part of the fossil is destroyed during the test Carbon-14 Dating Fossil Formation Big Bang Theory A cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions created the universe 10-20 billion years ago Evidence it explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from us at great speeds Cosmic radiation from the explosion can be observed The Big Bang theory probably will never be proven; consequentially, leaving a number of tough, unanswered questions. What was early earth like? Earth was Hot!! Little or no oxygen Gasses in atmosphere: Hydrogen cyanide (poison to you!) Hydrogen sulfide Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Nitrogen So how did the earth get oxygen? Some of that oxygen was generated by photosynthetic cyanobacteria Some came from the chemical separation of water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen drove some life forms to extinction Others evolved ways of using oxygen for respiration How did life begin? Miller and Urey’s Experiment Passed sparks through a mixture of hydrogen methane ammonia and water This produced amino acids – the building blocks of life Miller’s experiment suggests that lightning could have produced amino acids How can simple amino acids result in life? There are 3 theories 1. Formation of microspheres Large organic molecules can sometimes form tiny proteinoid microspheres Store and release energy, selectively permeable membranes, may have acquired more characteristics of living cells nd 2 Hypothesis for Life Evolution of RNA to DNA • RNA was assembled from simple organic molecules in a primordial soup • RNA was able to replicate itself and eventually form DNA • Not scientifically proven to be possible rd 3 Theory of Life Endosymbiotic theory eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic organisms Ancient prokaryotes entered primitive eukaryotic cells and remained there as organelles
"Speciation - PowerPoint"