Lesotho FSMS 2nd quarter.pub by pengxiang

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									                                  Lesotho Food Security
This bulletin is being piloted
to summarise the various
issues related to food security
in Lesotho in order to present


                                  Monitoring System
a concise update on a
quarterly basis. Information
comes from Government,
UN , NGO and WB/IMF


                                  Quarterly Bulletin
reports. Participating
agencies’ logos are on the
back page.


                                  2nd Quarter 2010                                     May 2010
Updates
• The Disaster Management
  Authority (DMA) sup-
  ported by WFP conducted
  a Community and House-          Summary for 2nd Quarter 2010
  hold Surveillance (CHS) in
  March 2010. Summary of          •   In April 2010, the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the Central Bank of Lesotho
  results in this Bulletin.           convened. The Committee discussed economic and financial developments with the goal of
• The Bureau of Statistics
  (BoS) released it second            formulating and monitoring implementation of monetary policy of achieving price stability.
  quarterly Bulletin on the       •   Increasing unemployment levels as a result of financial distress faced by some textile
  Continuous Multi-purpose            firms. In February 2010, one textile firm closed business causing loss of 2,700 jobs.
  Household Survey. The
  main objective is to pro-       •   Lesotho Meteorological Services (LESMET) has indicated that during winter season, below
  vide a permanent platform           normal to normal rainfall is expected. However, the temperatures are expected to
  for collection of data rele-        range from normal to above normal.
  vant for computing social
                                  •   Since January this year, fuel prices have been increasing gradually. Between January and
  economic indicators.
• The Food and Nutrition              April, petrol prices increased by 10 percent; while diesel and paraffin increased by 6 percent.
  Coordinating Office             •   March 2010 CHS results show that by livelihood zone, the Southern Lowlands had the highest
  (FNCO) and WFP in part-             percentage of households with poor consumption at 11% followed by Mountains and Peri-
  nership with Ministry of
  Health and Social Welfare           Urban at 4% each.
  (Family Health Division),       •   In addition, households in the Northern Lowlands had the highest monthly per capita
  Ministry of Agriculture and         expenditure (M 227), followed by, the Senqu River Valley (M 163), and Peri-Urban (M125).
  Food Security (Nutrition
  Extension Division), Na-        •    The Oct-Dec 2009 NNSS Bulletin found the overall prevalence of underweight
  tional University of Lesotho        ranged from 10.7% to 12.6 percent. The highest prevalence of underweight was in Decem-
  (Nutrition Department),             ber in Qacha’s Nek (24.0%) while the lowest prevalence was in October in Maseru (3.3%).
  and UNICEF, have been
  undertaken a food con-
                                  •   A joint proposal of the United Nations and the government of Lesotho to tackle malnutri-
  sumption study in the               tion was prepared. The Lesotho Integrated Action Against Malnutrition aims to address im-
  Mountain Livelihood zone.           mediate, underlying and basic causes of malnutrition in an integrated manner.
  Summary of results are
  presented in this Bulletin.



Inside this issue:                Update on Policy
                                  •   Timothy Thahane, the Minister of Finance, presented the annual budget speech on February
Economic                              12th, noting a dramatic decline in domestic revenue as a result of decreased SACU payments. As
                          2           a result, the government plans to cut recurrent expenditure.
Conditions
                                  •   In February 2010, the African Development Bank and Lesotho signed a protocol agreement
Agricultural Pro-                     on the Lesotho Poverty Reduction Support programme which aims at promoting transparency
                          2           and accountability in management and prudent use of public resources. The fiscal policy focus is
duction
                                      to protect the poorest and increase overall revenues.
Food                              •    Consultations on the World Bank Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) were held in
                          3
consumption                           March 2010. The CAS provides a framework for World Bank Group support to Lesotho for the
                                      five years 2010–14. The CAS comes at a difficult time as Lesotho confronts macroeconomic and
Markets and                           fiscal challenges arising from the global economic crisis and a projected sharp decline in fiscal
                          3
Prices                                receipts. The crisis highlighted the country's economic vulnerabilities and its slow progress in
                                      building the foundations for economic competitiveness and export diversification.
Livelihoods               3       •   On April 6, 2010, the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the Central Bank of Lesotho
                                      convened. The Committee discussed economic and financial developments with the goal of for-
                                      mulating and monitoring implementation of monetary policy of achieving price stability.
Lesotho - Key                     •   UNDP is organizing a consultancy is to assess the impact of the current global economic crisis
                          4
Facts                                 on Lesotho’s economy with particular focus on its implications for the achievement of MDGs. It
                                      will include an analysis of the impact of dwindling revenues on programmatic interventions for
Health and                            the poor and vulnerable groups in order to propose ways of mitigating the impact. The analysis
                          4
Nutrition                             will be grounded in the overarching principles of human rights, gender, equity and Vision 2020.
Page 2                                       Lesotho Food Security Monitoring System Quarterly Bulletin



Projected % Change             Economic Conditions
                               Annual inflation rate registered 4.2%
               2010 2011       in December 2009, the lowest infla-                          Consumer Inflation Rate
                               tion rate since December 2005. The
                                                                       12.0%                                                10.7%
                               low inflation rate in recent months            10.0%
                               was driven by slowing food price        10.0%
                                                                                                                     8.0%           8.5%
Real GDP         3       2.8   inflation which settled at 3.2% in       8.0%
                                                                                      6.1%
                               December from a high of 18.5% in                              5.3%            5.0%
                                                                        6.0%                        4.7%
                               January 2008. The low domestic
Consumer                       inflation is in line with trends in the  4.0%
                5.9      5.7   region where CMA member coun-
Prices                                                                  2.0%
                               tries have seen falling inflation rates
                                                                        0.0%
                               in recent months. South Africa’s
Source: World Economic Out-    Inflation rate reached 6.3% in De-             2003    2004   2005   2006     2007    2008   2009   2010
look, April 2010               cember 2009. (Central Bank of Leso-
                               tho, February 2010). As indicated in
                               the chart, consumer inflation dropped in 2010 to nearly the 2008 levels but is till much higher than previous
                               years.
    “The global
                               Employment in the textiles and clothing firms has been volatile in the past three years, but overall showing a
  economic crisis              negative linear trend and approximately 4,560 jobs lost. Employment in 2009 closed the year at its lowest since
                               2005 at 38,437. In February 2010 one big textile and clothing firm closed its operations resulting in a further
    affected the               2,700 job losses. (Central Bank of Lesotho, Economic Review, January 2010)
      domestic
manufacturing sub-
 sector adversely.             Agricultural Production
   Several firms
                               •    The chart below shows that production of maize has been decreasing since 2004/05 season;
  recently ceased                   however, the 2009/10 production appears to be an increase over the past 5 seasons (BoS,
 their operations                   2009).
                               •    Information from the BoS indicates 122,808 ha of land had been planted to crops by end of
 and employment                     December 2009. This represents a decrease of 18,778 ha (13%) over the previous season.
                                    However, yield per hectare for maize was 90% higher than last season. Overall, there was a
reached its lowest
                                    72% increase in maize production, 177% increase in sorghum and 117% increase in wheat
     levels since                   production.
                               •    Government has instituted a 30-50% subsidy on seed and fertiliser, while FAO availed a range
      2005…..”                      of inputs for 22,551 vulnerable farming households.
CBL Economic Review,           •    LESMET has indicated that during winter season, below normal to normal rainfall is expected.
 No 114, Jan 2010                   However, the temperatures are expected to range from normal to above normal.
                               •    Winter crops (wheat and peas) are likely to benefit from occasional passage of cold fronts that
                                    will result in enough soil moisture supply to sustain agriculture.


   “The findings                                                    Trends in Maize Production: 2003-2010
  from the crop                    120,000

    assessment
                                   100,000
undertaken by the
                                    80,000
     Bureau of
  Statistics were                   60,000
                                                                           100,723




                                                                                                                                  98,035
                                               85,032




 released in June
                                                           80,998




                                                                                      76,908




                                    40,000
                                                                                                60,312



                                                                                                          59,651



                                                                                                                      57,126




 showing nearly
                                    20,000
 72% increase in
maize production                        0

 over last year.”                             2002/03    2003/04         2004/05     2005/06   2006/07   2007/08    2008/09     2009/10
  2nd Quarter 2010                                                                                                                Page 3


Food Consumption
Findings from the March 2010 CHS are presented in the
chart on the right. Mohale’s Hoek had the highest per-                         poor           borderline           acceptable
centage of households with poor consumption at 10%,            100%
followed by Maseru (7%) and Quthing and Thaba-Tseka at 4
percent. Households in Leribe were the most likely to
                                                                80%
have acceptable consumption (98%), followed by those in                                       47%
Mafeteng (86%), Mokhotlong (83%) and Berea (80%).                       70%                                  69%
                                                                60%                   80%                           78%            76%
                                                                                                     86%                    83%
By livelihood zone, the Southern Lowlands had the highest                      98%
percentage of households with poor consumption at 11%           40%
followed by Mountains and Peri-Urban at 4% each. North-
ern Lowlands and Foot-Hills had the lowest proportion of        20%
households with poor consumption at 1 percent.
                                                                 0%
By analysing the type of the food consumed in the past 7
days, cereal was found to be the mostly likely to be con-             BB      LER    BER     MAS    MAF    MH    QUT       MKN      TT
sumed on daily basis by 85% of the households, followed
by oil (68%), fruit (65%), vegetables (58%), sugar (32%),
and beans (3%). (March 2010 CHS). The high consumption of fruits can be attributed to the peach season in March.




Markets and prices
WFP monitors prices of basic food stuffs in rural and town shops on monthly basis . When analyzing price changes of 12.5kg maize meal
between January and May 2010, it is noted that prices fluctuated slightly but were fairly stable. The cost of 12.5kg maize meal ranged from
M27-38 in the north (depending on the brand) to M42-70 in other districts. In May, prices increased slightly from the previous month. On
                                                                                  average, urban prices increased by 2 percent; while rural
                         Petrol            Diesel           Parrafin              prices increased by only 1 percent. However, on an an-
                                                                                  nual basis, a decrease of 7 percent in rural shops and 4
   14.0
                                                                                  percent in town shops from last May 2009 was noted.
   12.0                                                                           Between May 2009 and February 2010, there was 5 per-
   10.0                                                                           cent drop in wholesale prices. (WFP Price monitoring).
   8.0
   6.0                                                                            Between June 2009 and June 2010, petrol prices in-
                                                                                  creased by 4 percent; diesel by 9 percent; and paraffin
   4.0
                                                                                  increased by 8 percent. When June prices are compared
   2.0
                                                                                  to January this year, there is an increase of 7 percent in
   0.0                                                                            the price of petrol; 8 percent in diesel prices and 7 per-
           Jul




           Jul
         Mar
          Apr




         Mar
          Apr




         Mar
          Apr




                                                                                  cent in paraffin prices. However, between May and June
         May




         Nov
         Dec




         May




         Nov
         Dec




         May
         Aug




         Aug
         Sept
         Oct




         Sept
         Oct
          Jan
          Feb




          Jun




          Jan
          Feb




          Jun




          Jan
          Feb




          Jun




                                                                                  there is a drop of 4 percent in petrol, 2 percent in diesel
                   2008                         2009                  2010
                                                                                  and 3 percent in paraffin.



Livelihoods
The March 2010 Community and Household Surveillance (CHS) covered nine districts and collected information on main livelihood sources.
Reliance on casual labour as a main source was most common in Leribe and Quthing by 48% of the households, while Mafeteng and Mohale’s Hoek
were the least likely (13%) to rely on casual labour. The Northern
Lowlands livelihood zones had the highest proportion of households
relying on causal labour (40%).
Households in Butha-Buthe district were the most likely to rely on
food and cash crop production/sales as a main livelihood activity
(47%), followed by households in Mokhotlong (32%), while households
in Quthing were the least likely (3%). By livelihood zone the Southern
Lowlands had the highest percentage of households relying on crop
production as a main livelihood activity (40%), followed by the Moun-
tains and Northern Lowlands (23%) while Peri-Urban (9%) livelihood zone
had the least.
Households in Leribe had the highest total monthly per capita expendi-
ture (M 240), while Maseru had the lowest at M 70. By livelihood
zone, households in the Northern Lowlands had the highest monthly
per capita expenditure (M 227), followed by, the Senqu River Valley (M
163), and Peri-Urban (M 125). Mountains (M 145), Foothills (M 121),
while households in the Southern Lowlands (M 74), had the lowest.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     LESOTHO—Key Facts
     THIS BULLETIN IS BEING PILOTE D T O SUM MARISE THE VARIOUS ISSUES RE LATE D T O FO OD SECU RITY IN LES OTHO IN ORDE R T O PRES ENT A CON CISE U PDATE ON A QU ARTE RLY B ASIS. INFO RM ATION COM ES F ROM GOVE RNMENT , UN , NGO AN D WB/IMF RE PO RTS. PARTICIPATING AGEN CIES’ L OGOS ARE ON THE BACK PAGE.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2008

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Population, total (millions)                 2.02

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Population growth (annual %)                  0.5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GDP (current US$) (billions)                  1.6
    Disaster Management
          Authority                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         GNI per capita, Atlas method (current
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1,080
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            US$)
 Maseru Roller Mills Building
Plot 20/22 Moshoeshoe Road                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  External debt stocks (% GNI)                 33.7
  Private Bag, A453, Maseru
         100 Lesotho                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Surface area (sq. km) (thousands)            30.4
     Tel: +266 28323135
              or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Agricultural land (% of land area)*          76.9
  World Food Programme
 P.O. Box 301, Maseru 100,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Life expectancy at birth, total (years)*      43
           Lesotho
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000)*          84
   Phone +266 22323989
    Fax: +266 22 310 239                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age (%
   Wahito.Kabaire@wfp.org                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            U5)*

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prevalence HIV, total (% pop aged 15-49)*    23.2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            School enrolment, primary (% net)*           72.4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Source: World Development Indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            *Most recent data available, 2001-2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Health and Nutrition

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • HIV and AIDS have devastated sub-Saharan Africa. Lesotho has the third highest prevalence rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (23.2%) in the world after Swaziland and Botswana, and it is estimated that of a total population of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2.02 million, approximately 2,100 Basotho die from AIDS every month. Furthermore, more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       180,000 children have been orphaned and made highly vulnerable by HIV and AIDS (LSGPR, 2008-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2012) In 2000, His Majesty King Letsie III declared HIV and AIDS a national disaster, highlighting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the seriousness of the epidemic and the government’s commitment to dealing with the impacts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Malnutrition can occur even when access to food and healthcare is sufficient and the environ-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ment is reasonably healthy. The social context and care environments within the household and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the community also directly influence nutrition. Factors influencing nutritional status include feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       practices, maternal hygiene, morbidity and HIV and AIDS.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Nationally, for children 6-59 months 2.3% are wasted or suffering from acute malnutrition and 14%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       underweight as found in the November 2007 National Nutrition Survey. By district, the highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       prevalence is in Mafeteng (3.8%) while the lowest prevalence is in Berea (1.1%) (NNS, 2007).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Stunting or chronic malnutrition was found to be around 42 percent stunting from the 2007 Na-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tional Nutrition Survey. In addition, Global stunting prevalence is above 40% in the mountain dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tricts and Berea with the highest global stunting found in Thaba Tseka at 54.9 percent (NNS, 2007).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • The Oct-Dec 2009 NNSS Bulletin found the overall prevalence of underweight ranged from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       10.7% to 12.6 percent. The highest prevalence of underweight was in December in Qacha’s Nek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (24.0%) while the lowest prevalence was in October in Maseru (3.3%). Maseru had the lowest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       prevalence of underweight (below 5%) throughout the reporting period while Qacha’s Nek had the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       highest prevalence which averaged above 20% for the reporting period. Since 2007, Qacha’s Nek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       has consistently recorded the highest underweight prevalence.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • The overall prevalence of low birth weight ranged from 11.0% to 12.5% with the highest preva-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       lence found in Qacha’s Nek (18.3%) during the month of December. This is considered high accord-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ing WHO thresholds for low birth weight.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • There were 84 overall admissions due to severe malnutrition from October to December. Of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       these cases admitted, 25 resulted in deaths. There has been a decrease in the number of admis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sions as compared to the last reporting period, where there were 108 admissions for severe mal-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       nutrition. The month of December had the highest admissions (30 cases) and November had the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       highest number of deaths; a total of 11 out of 25 admitted cases. Mohale’s Hoek reported the high-
The Spanish Government is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              est admissions in this reporting period while Maseru reported highest number of deaths; 13 deaths
providing financial support for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        out of 20 cases admitted which is likely due to the fact that it is a referral hospital.
the strengthening of Food Secu-
rity Monitoring Systems in
Southern Africa.

								
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