Marketing rare cases (2) 11 The success of change In 1910, Penney company renamed J · C · Penney Company. At this time, his chain of stores has grown to have 26 retail stores located in 6 western states. 30 years later, the company&#39;s store did give two grown to nearly 1,500. Although Penney Company has made tremendous development in the central region in the United States firmly established itself, but to the 50&#39;s, the company pursues &quot;Cash on Delivery, hand delivery&quot; business sense challenged. Thus, in September 1958, the company began the trial Penney credit card. To 1962, all Penney stores offer a credit card. By 1964, operating results clearly demonstrated: 28% of Penney Company&#39;s sales are paid for by credit card. In 1964, operating from more than 500 million balance of payments account of the revenue reached 600 million U.S. dollars. By 1966, credit card sales reached 35% of total sales. By 1973, more than the total sales of 38%. To 1967, the Penney company has 12 million account with. Question 3: management of change Penney thought that the importance of management ability to adapt, change in the management of your company&#39;s stage and how to adapt to the current situation? ? ?12 family management of hazards In 1976, Wang&#39;s new generation of word processors come out, it brings to Wang profitable: the company&#39;s sales from 75.8 million U.S. dollars in 1975 to 320 million U.S. dollars in 1982, the company earnings per share of stock profit of 16 cents from 1971 to 1982 and 1.17 U.S. dollars, an increase of nearly 8 times. In 1978, Wang the company&#39;s product line has emerged a &quot;blockbuster&quot; ─ ─ VS mini computer. When VS 1979, a comprehensive computer market, it has become Wang&#39;s third hot item. In later years 2200 machine, VS machines and word processors as Wang has brought billions of dollars of property. In 1970, Wang Laboratories Inc. in the U.S. computer industry simply unknown, but in 1981, Wang has sat the 11th number one. Wang was the hero of the Kingdom of the computer, he created brilliant Wang companies have been in several times, his ultimate failure in large part of its &quot;family values&quot; misleading results. Wang Laboratories has three days of R &amp; D Director: test Blau, Sgall and test Marco. Wang&#39;s strategy is to let the three of them compete with each other to promote the company&#39;s development. Wang would not allow them to show any open hostility, he always separate them so that they each responsible for a project, Wang select from these projects as the best new products to market. However, Wang&#39;s son, King of operating companies, the situation has changed. Wang out hope that the company&#39;s products can be serialized Although this is a good idea, but who in the choice program as the future development of products based on their minds, and continue to charge the three accused despite the company&#39;s interest. This gave rise to discord among the top companies and ultimately lead to stagnation in product development, as well as the resignation of top executives. Since then, Wang led the company&#39;s decline. Question 4: the management of domestic private enterprises are often family-management problems exist, what do you think the company developed to a certain scale of management issues? ? 12 Kangpuxisi staff management Kangpuxisi the United States, a small computer company, mainly engaged in software development, the company employs about 24 people. Management staff very professional in management is also a unique way. The company&#39;s 9 o&#39;clock in the morning to work off work at 5 o&#39;clock. However, little work on the strict monitoring mechanism, there is no record of employees who leave the company to reach the company and the time, if the employee was late, it will not be criticized. On the contrary, people think the company should do so. But the staff is very conscientious, they will automatically make up for other reasons the loss of working time, even if no one checks, will be the case. In fact, the company&#39;s actual working hours of staff time than the company provides the earliest and more employees on from 7:30 in the morning and arrived one after another, managers will generally arrive as early as 8 o&#39;clock. Work, many employees will work until 7 o&#39;clock or even later, this way, the natural extension of working time on a lot. If a staff in working hours is not yet complete, he will automatically stay the job done, even on weekends to the company to complete a piece of work. Kangpuxisi company as a whole is full of confidence and friendly atmosphere, managers trust employees, employees have the same confidence in management. Good atmosphere in this company&#39;s business has been constant development. Question 3: Kangpuxisi company&#39;s loose management mechanism for the employees providing excellent working environment, employees are willing to work for the company, what kind of mechanism do you think that employees can work? ? New image &quot;of the new strategy ?&quot;New Image&quot; is a catering company, the company totally dependent on a particular smart manager&#39;s ability. At that time, the company&#39;s office environment is limited, as staff are young and in awe of the manager, so everything should be the manager decided to form a habit. Because managers can quickly deal with these issues, he was willing to decide these issues. However, cumulative work stress overwhelmed him, the result the manager and staff quality deteriorated. In this case, the &quot;new image&quot; to hire the management consulting firm proposes to improve the office environment, first of all managers and employees of the office will artificially increase the distance; Second, Yue Fu managers, led him to believe and to train employees of the company business of Yi Xie responsibility of different departments, and some of these areas transferred to those responsible for decision-making staff. The work is carried out step by step, with each step measures have been implemented, managers find out that they were able to transfer more responsibility. The right to transfer this measure produced significant results, the company formed a highly professional atmosphere. People play in the daily affairs of their own initiative, while continuing to be major issues in decision-making to the manager. Staff turnover rate greatly reduced, the quality of work improved. In addition, the staff more confident in their ability to act. The manager, the most direct effect is, he can free up more time to carry out other projects, managers feel they have a can rely to a large extent self-management team. ?Question 4: How do you train your staff from? ? 13, AVON changes Well-known U.S. companies AVON Cosmetics was founded in 1886, many women are still mainly rely on salespeople to direct their own cosmetics. Estimated 110-year history the company has 40 million women worked in the company&#39;s salesman, a salesman most of these part-time and part-time staff. The annual sales of 3.5 billion years of large companies spend in advertising in 1990 only 4.6 million U.S. dollars. The retailers rely on supermarkets or distribution of cosmetics company, a lot of advertising expenditure each year Zexu. Such as the 1992 P &amp; G&#39;s advertising costs up to 2.149 billion U.S. dollars. AVON the company&#39;s individual sales law that is the key both manufacturers and consumers to meet directly. In 70 years, more and more women are engaged in a variety of work, and thus more difficult to sell door direct sellers. So AVON annual sales of 3.5 billion U.S. dollars from the top down to 1.36 billion U.S. dollars in 1992, the profit rate of 3.6% annual decline. 90 years later, AVON aware of the traditional direct marketing strategy problems. Therefore decided to retain the traditional direct sales strategy, while distribution through a large number of retail stores, a lot of advertising and marketing activities are gradually increased. AVON change in marketing strategy to reverse the adverse situation for the company has laid a good foundation. ?Question: AVON company uses a large number of salesmen to carry out direct sales of informal, suitable for market demand in the past, but now outdated, and your company&#39;s marketing strategy for how to adapt to changing situations? ? 14, Levi companies how to maintain market leadership Jeans maker Levi Strauss jeans company long-term resident in the U.S. manufacturing sector monopoly. In the 50&#39;s to 70&#39;s, with the increasing demand of young people, Levi Strauss is almost no need for market development and product development plans, annual sales of jeans are still 10 to 15% growth rate. However, since the 80 changes in the market: the new-born children rarely wear the jeans; originally jeans main consumers cut back on buying jeans. Levi Strauss and a company had to fight against shrinking market. First, faced with the decay of the market, Levi Strauss company began a significant increase in advertising sales and retail marketing efforts, select well-known U.S. retailers Sears and JCPenney company to sell jeans, but these efforts failed. In 1984, the company&#39;s profit fell 79% over the previous year, the company had cut 5,000 jobs. For such a serious situation, Levi Strauss&#39;s new office of veterans began to develop unprecedented market development and product development plans. The plan is the core of the following three points: (1) Investment 3.8 million U.S. dollars to re-design and production of traditional tight blue jeans - 501 series; (2) 1.2 million U.S. dollars investment in development &quot;for women only&quot; women&#39;s jeans; (3) actively develop foreign markets. The program of product development and market development as targeted realistic, the company quickly out of the predicament. Since 1985, the company increased sales significantly. By 1993, sales increased by 31%, profits increased by 5 times. Issues: the power of marketing strategy embodied in this case is very full, your company&#39;s marketing strategy should be how to adjust to get more development potential? ? 16, Wan Rong&#39;s target market Wan Rong Industry Stock Company is located in Toyota City near Nagoya, Japan suburbs. Established in 1951, when the registered capital of 500,000 yen, with a total of four individuals, including the boss. The company started mainly processing all kinds of machinery parts, and because of quality products and famous. However, many small company&#39;s customers, the company has always been at the stage of slow development, sales performance was not significant, After 60 years, a chance that a screw products company has been selected by Toyota Motor, and large orders, the company thus obtain the first large order, and received more profitable. This matter to the company&#39;s leaders with great inspiration, so the company decided to form the company&#39;s production process by a variety of mechanical parts into a single screw in the development and production to the main mode of operation, specifically designed for the Toyota Motor , screws and bolts of production, then the company&#39;s screws, bolts Toyota products become major parts. With the rapid rise of Toyota Motor Corporation, the company&#39;s production scale and R &amp; D capabilities continue to increase. By 1991, Pills-rong industry shares the company&#39;s registered capital reached 30 million yen, annual sales totaled more than 6.1 billion yen, the total number of development staff to 172. Question: Your company&#39;s target market is right? The feasibility of any further refinement? ? ?17, Pepsi&#39;s positive marketing strategy There are two major U.S. cola industry giants: Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Coca-Cola in 1893, the U.S. Patent Office registered trademark. Before the 50s of this century, Coca-Cola and Pepsi sales ratio of 5:1, ahead of Pepsi Cola. 50&#39;s, the Pepsi-Cola&#39;s efforts, the two sides of the sales ratio is 5:2. Into the 60&#39;s, the Pepsi-Cola developed a new aggressive marketing program, launched a fierce attack on the Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola plans to target is very clear, about to fight over young man, when the slogan &quot;Pepsi&quot; is &quot;to think the young people &quot;drinks. Coca-Cola in the &quot;Pepsi generation,&quot; fierce attack, the sales plummeted to 70 years, both sales ratio reached 2:1, while Coca-Cola is still leading the sales gap between the two sides had been very small. Since 1985, Pepsi has in Hong Kong, the United States, Canada, UK, Japan, South Korea launched &quot;free for the crossing of consumer taste Pepsi and Coca-Cola&quot; campaign, in 240 000 sample persons in possession of 63 selected Pepsi %. While Coca-Cola and Pepsi battle is still going on, but the market sales of view, Pepsi&#39;s aggressive marketing strategy is undoubtedly a great success. ?Question: Your company&#39;s marketing strategy formulation process in practice, how to get results? ? 18, 米勒布鲁宁 beer positioning U.S. 米勒布鲁宁 is a long history of beer producers. The company produces the beer to manual workers as the original object. Highlight the company&#39;s beer drinking Bruening, the &quot;energetic&quot; effect. 70 years into the future, the company&#39;s beer sales declining, the company decided to hire market research companies to help companies find reasons for decline in sales, survey results show that, more and more Americans worry that the huge drink Pijiu will Zaocheng obesity and Fei Pang is led the United States the incidence of heart disease causes high. Understand the reasons, the 米勒布鲁宁 company decided to develop new products to meet consumer needs. Soon, the company introduced to the market low sugar, low calorie light beer. At the same time to switch to 7 ounces of canned beer bottles replace 12 ounces of beer packaging.米勒 布鲁宁 new products by the market welcomed the launch of this product not only changed the company&#39;s market position, the company also brought significant changes in consumer groups, more progressive high-level people like to drink Blue Ning beer. Over the next five years, an increase of 21% market share, sales volume increased by 5 times. Now, 米勒布鲁宁 has become the second largest beer company. Question: 米勒布鲁宁 adaptation strategies in a timely manner changes in the market, which has enjoyed rapid growth. Your company to meet the customer what extent the market? ? DuPont &quot;may be issued Farm&quot; failure The spring of 1963, DuPont developed a new chemical material &quot;can be sent Farm.&quot; This substitute has a breathable leather, very flexible, and lightweight, easy to wear, cheap and easy to manufacture. Logically it should be smooth sailing in the market, develop, and bring huge economic benefits for DuPont, as a few years ago, &quot;nylon&quot; as. However, the fact &quot;can be made Farm&quot; has not brought substantial profits to DuPont, on the contrary, gave an enormous loss of DuPont, DuPont eventually forced the termination of the &quot;may issue Farm&quot; sales. The reason is that DuPont &quot;can issued Farm&quot; campaign, the missing part of the market response and preparedness, but optimistic that as long as the market, and profits will keep coming, but ignore rivals fight back. &quot;May issue Farm&quot; to market, on the leather industry has caused tremendous pressure, therefore, leather manufacturers have developed more soft leather, this leather is very popular for casual, &quot;can be sent Farm&quot; by the impact of the good characteristics, In addition, Japan also developed and sold to the U.S. market a lot more high-quality and cheap chemical materials, will &quot;be issued Farm,&quot; the price advantage is also discouraged. In the face of this situation, there is no corresponding market DuPont clear strategy to promote the &quot;may issue Farm.&quot; Question: tight marketing programs for even the rich and powerful, performance-leading products is still very important in protecting your company&#39;s marketing programs thoughtful it? ? Ford&#39;s mistakes Now the auto industry giant General Motors is a household name, but he was just the beginning of this century, a small company, when the boss is a Ford automobile industry, popular Ford Model T production, the operator is declared: we The car is always a black T-Model. We only produce a black sedan. GM at this time to seriously analyze the market and the market for a scientific classification, design and production of different types of cars, including the Cadillac luxury, mid-range style of Buick, Chevrolet low popularity continues after transition So far sales are not bad. Although Ford make every effort to develop new cars, and to some extent, reversing a competitive disadvantage, but have not yet giant of the auto industry GM position to wrest from the United States. As we all know, the target market directly on the division of product policy formulation, on the right target market and scientific classification, is based on an objective and impartial market assessment of the premise. Correct understanding of the market, to the formulation of marketing policies for the future and lay a solid foundation. GM, because the correct analysis of the market determine the product differentiation strategy, which occupied the automotive market. And Ford as it keep outdated marketing strategies, developing the wrong product strategy, and will hand over good country people. ?Question: Your company&#39;s consumer products group is who? ? The rise of Yanjing Beer Beijing&#39;s Yanjing Beer is the people have an absolute monopoly in the table a brand, in the early days, it is just one of Beijing Shunyi County, township enterprises. How to stand firm, market, Yanjing Beer has never walked a path taken by other companies. Plant when the white king in Beijing beer brand beer and a long history of Beijing&#39;s five-star beer, and that the two products are the main channels through national distribution, and in short supply in the market. Yanjing Beer actively explore and develop their own distribution channels. Started from the self-employed distributors, which was a very despised by the beer industry and a risk measure, but it is these individuals wholesale large Qingqi the Yanjing Beer&#39;s good country. Quickly occupied the Beijing market, it is this solid foundation, through the development, Yanjing Beer became the first Chinese beer brands, has top ranks. The choice of distribution channels, product marketing process of restricting a big problem, how to reduce intermediate links and effective product with the fastest, best, most concise way onto the market has been a business concern, Yanjing Beer the courage to practice and innovation, and open up new pathways, and actively seek, strive to cultivate, for themselves and for a typical set an industry, developed to become an important force in the national industry. Question: How do you make your company&#39;s products into millions of households? ? ?Boise pain bitter taste out of control 1956, 36-year-old general manager Hansberg office 博 伊 斯 卡 斯 Cade. Diversification in the 60&#39;s often seen as the only way to grow a company strong. Hansberg acquisition, Boise company has owned the entertainment, real estate, trailer house, charter and tourism industry, business, combined with the original wood products business, Boise is like a hodgepodge, and Hans Berg has identified solution to this: on the outside, we may look like a joint of large companies. However, the fact is not the case. We are a bold vision and courage of the company, as long as we work with companies in the field experienced a certain relationship. However Hansberg paid for their noble price for the expansion, resulting in the company&#39;s debt ratio increased. Soon, Boise Indianapolis company has acquired U.S. real estate company developing lakeside resort, to enter the entertainment industry, real estate development, growth potential from the point of view, engaging in recreational land development does not seem to have problems. But the unexpected development of the situation. Boise company pursues relax control and management strategies to maximize the separation of powers, so that real estate companies to manage their own. The real estate companies to quickly complete the sales task and not care about consumer satisfaction, to the company and its subsidiaries brought many of the lawsuits. Boise had to cost 60 million U.S. dollars in order to solve these problems, addition, because ecologists against Boise opened in the seaside community, the newspaper front-page news there have been a lot of adverse publicity on the company, although Boise company spent a lot of effort in order to sell the public to accept their way and their concern for the ecological environment, but because real estate developers, extort money and ransacked the consumer environment is difficult to change the bad image. To 1971, the company&#39;s profits plummeted in October 1972, Hansberg the three small timber mill in 1957 to build a huge group of talent forced out of the company&#39;s management. ?Question: Boise negative control of the company&#39;s rapid decline caused by a large group, you learn what you can get inspiration? ? Nestle awakened Nestle was founded in the mid-nineteenth century. In the thirties of this century, the creator of the popular Nestle instant coffee in the world. But by the early eighties, as the company&#39;s infant formula marketing does not meet the WHO criteria, as well as scandal in the world, resulting in the movement against Nestle food. Nestle Foods has been difficult in Europe, based on chocolate and confectionery market. In this form, Han Mu Mao He served as general manager of Nestle, he boldly proposed a series of pumped management decisions, these measures as a cardiac stimulant to restore the vitality of Nestle. He will be in developing countries as the best market, with huge amounts of money each year to buy raw materials for developing countries. At the same time each year allocated substantial funding to help them improve the quality of agricultural products, and hire experts in these countries organize vocational training courses. Thus, in the Third World in this broad market, establishing a good image, at one stroke the head of the world food industry. Question: In the company&#39;s development process, often adverse factors, how your company off the hook? ? Grant&#39;s Tragedy 1968, Richard became the general manager of Grant&#39;s, to reach the peak of his career. Hundreds of millions of the company&#39;s annual sales increases. But it is at this time, Grant began a retail company in the history of the most ambitious expansion plans. From the data perspective, Grant is a successful company does business, attracting investors and the continuous development of lenders. But in fact, the company&#39;s earnings in 1969 but later with the rise in sales in the lower. In 1973, the company&#39;s sales reached 1.8 billion U.S. dollars, but profit fell 78 percent, a serious deficit, the debt reached more than 600 million U.S. dollars. Many suppliers for fear the company unable to pay the purchase price and refuse the shipment, such a shaky enterprise, hard to get from the suppliers of goods needed for daily business, equal to the set of a rope around his neck. Grant ultimately spared the company, declared bankruptcy. Goal of an enterprise must not be complacent, not development, but if that goal as a swift end will be very dangerous. Grant development of the company as too fast, ignoring the company&#39;s own digestion and absorption which resulted in defeat, because the size of the expansion and would lose their control and restraint. Question: Do you think the company should follow a development process, what kind of way, on what basis? ? 科尔麦克基&#39;s mistakes A company&#39;s energy is limited, If you insist on going beyond the limits of the pursuit of &quot;large&quot; will fall into the mire. Since World War II, the U.S. demand for energy amazing.科尔麦克基 company conforms to this trend, in the development of energy hit for many &quot;firsts&quot;, including the first commercial offshore oil port. Despite the high profits of oil products, but the company still to such as: mining machinery manufacturing, forestry, chemical industry development in other areas, thus losing the standard-bearer of the status of offshore oil exploration. 50 years, the company added coal companies and nuclear power companies. 科尔麦克基 company in the fifties or sixties in the nuclear and chemical industry has some really beautiful, but neglected environmental protection and safety of workers, this contradiction to the seventies more and more acute. The government began investigating the company&#39;s labor and safety conditions, the company had to shut down nuclear power plants. At a time when companies are very critical of the department that is oil exploration, mining companies have emerged recession.科尔麦克基 company could only watch a little bit of their lost market share to fall into more serious difficulties. On the surface, the company&#39;s development seems the more extensive the scope of the more promising, but nothing can not be hurried, otherwise the results would be incompatible. As 科 尔 麦 克 基 blind pursuit of the company &quot;large&quot;, they have been neglected environmental protection, exposing the company&#39;s negligence when carrying out nuclear energy production, rash, leading to the company&#39;s credibility is seriously damaged. This can not but say that they left us a lesson. ?Question: Does your company for diversification? ? ?Swatch watches the distinctive strategy So far since the advent of the Swatch watch, a highly successful sales. However, even more relish its market position and unique marketing tools. Swatch watches to customers located in the young, energetic and fashion trends of the people, to highlight the value of high-grade, in the pursuit of product design, unique style, beautiful colors and high quality. In order to heighten the purposes of this positioning, the Swatch company launched every year limit on the number of models have watches, but the Swatch companies that commit to far greater than the volume of orders in production quantities, we can only use the draw method to decide who should be so lucky become buyers. If someone wants to get past the production style, then only to the famous Christie&#39;s auction bidding go up. Fashion street in Milan, visitors can enter the Swatch store is to be determined by lot. What is more, had many contacts with companies like Swatch watches, Swatch attach their own mark, so far, only Coca-Cola to reach this aspiration. With the strengthening of competition, whether it is product positioning or marketing tools, all in contrast brands and strengthen efforts to increase value and pursuing the best results. Swatch watches the different style of high-grade and the pursuit of market positioning, marketing means, then backed up in an extraordinary way, played a finishing point. Possessed a good taste of Swatch watches, fashion style, dedication to consumers around the world before. Question: your time in product marketing, is how to introduce or performance value to their products? The advent of the new Coke In 1985, Coca-Cola in the fierce market competition, decided to &quot;New Coke&quot; to replace the traditional Coke and stop the production and sale of traditional cola. April of that year the official listing of New Coke, the market response was very good. Listed in the four hours after the new Coke, Coca-Cola received 650 protest calls to the mid-May, Coca-Cola received phone calls every day to five thousand months. In the market, the new Coke Coca-Cola sales far below the expected value of the company, many of the traditional bottler Coca-Cola sales strong demand. Market research department also noted that 70 percent of Coca-Cola 100 are no longer buying Coca-Cola drinkers. Coca-Cola&#39;s decision-makers had to seriously consider the seriousness of the problem, decided to resume production of the traditional Coca-Cola. After this some turbulence, the Coca-Cola this incomparable value their brand. A nine-year history and has 90 widely spread product is no longer a simple commodity, it has developed a culture, a symbol, its value has been deeply rooted in the hearts of consumers. Question: When your company in promoting a new product, it is also been protected under the old brand&#39;s market performance? ? Yamaha strayed into competition Established in the late nineteenth century Japan Yamaha, after 70 years of struggle, has been instrumental in the absolute leading position in the industry. With the company&#39;s strength, began to seek to diversify direction. So Yamaha motorcycle course will look at the production of betting. Since the marketing of music made a very successful, Yamaha will use its successful experience in marketing products to the motorcycle. And to participate in a series of business competition has made outstanding achievements, Yamaha motorcycle in the world won a good reputation. When it achieved impressive results in the market when the company began to Honda - Motorcycle Industry challenge the King. Honda relies on the strength of its strong sales in the field of media and launched a counterattack to the Yamaha. Honda motorcycles of its products, automotive products and profit into account, the profit through the car after the price reduction to make up for the loss motorcycles, only the product of Yamaha motorcycles of Iranian society. On the other hand Honda accelerated the upgrading of products, attracting a large number of young consumers, which Yamaha is unthinkable. In contrast dwarfs, Yamaha motorcycle sharp decline in market share, business losses, thus a-half year war ended a motorcycle. Yamaha strength increased in the case, seeking to diversify the direction of development, and has made great achievements, its Yamaha motorcycle is quick, convenient, quality has won market reputation. However, in the absence of real understanding of competitor&#39;s case, rashly challenged the final results Yamaha Honda not bear a strong counterattack failed incurred. Question: When in product marketing, you had a comprehensive analysis of competitors? ? Adidas pain Most of this century, the Adidas sporting goods company has been the world&#39;s supreme Kingdom. To the late seventies, decided to external factors athletic footwear market increasingly more important, people become more concerned about their health and physical fitness, thousands of people start looking for ways to exercise. Thus, runners began to increase, and also the running of the magazine sales soared, so that the advertising market for sports shoes provided a new opportunity. In the rapid upsurge in the arrival of competition in the market, Adidas is content to rest on its laurels the company. The newly developed quick to seize on Nike, Adidas compete conservative weaknesses in the areas of media and marketing frequently offensive, account for most of the market. Until the nineties, Adidas began was prosperity, but to the position in Nike is difficult to retrieve. Adidas lost the throne, suffered heavy losses. Obviously, the Adidas company underestimated the demand, but also underestimated the competitive strength of Nike. Question: In the fierce market competition, how you should play to their strengths? ?