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SPECIFIC DEFENSES THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

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SPECIFIC DEFENSES  THE IMMUNE RESPONSE Powered By Docstoc
					SPECIFIC DEFENSES: THE IMMUNE RESPONSE.
Introduction: Innate Resistance.

IMMUNITY: Genetic or Acquired; Active or Passive.
• • • • NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE. ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE. NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE. ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE.

NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY
• Person contracts disease; manufactures antibodies. • Immunity is longterm. • E.G. Measles and Chicken pox.

ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY.
• Person is vaccinated. • Produces own antibodies. • Immunity lasts for months or years. • E.G. Polio, Pertussis.

NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY.
• Mother’s antibodies pass to infant(Colostrum). • Transplacental transfer. • Short-term or temporary.

ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY.
• Immune serums containing antibodies are injected. • Immunity is immediate, but shortterm. • Antiserum. • Serology.

TYPES OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY: SUMMARY.

IMMUNE SYSTEM: 3RD LINE OF DEFENSE.
• HUMORAL(ANTIBODY-MEDIATED). • CELL-MEDIATED.

LYMPHOCYTES:B.
• React and recognize small organismsbacteria and viruses. • Produce antibodies. • Produced in the bone marrow and matures in the bone marrow, and reside in the lymphoid organs, blood, and connective tissue. • Constitute the humoral immunity.

LYMPHOCYTES: T.
• React to body cells gone bad(cancers, infected cells, fungi, parasites, transplants). • Made in the bone marrow, but matures in the thymus. • After maturation, migrate to lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.

ANTIGENS.
• Either proteins or large polysaccharides. • Often components of invading microbes e.g capsules, fimbriae, cell walls, toxins, viral coats, pollen, egg white, blood cell surface molecules etc, transplanted tissues and organs. • Stimulate the production and maturation of 2 types of lymphocytes(T and B).

ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OR EPITOPES.
• Regions on the bacterial cell wall (antigen), antibodies recognize and interact with. • Nature of interaction depends on size, shape, and chemical nature of the epitope.

HAPTENS: E.G PENICILLIN.
• Molecules too small to stimulate antibody formation on their own. • But when combined with a larger carrier molecule(serum) fonction as antigen and stimulate response

HUMORAL(ANTIBODY)MEDIATED IMMUNITY.
• Involves production of antibodies. • B cells are key players. • Defends primarily against microbes circulating freely in the body’s fluids.

ANTIBODIES: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
• Proteins made in response


				
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posted:4/17/2008
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