Snatching Victory from the Jaws of Defeat The Bio-Oil Research by ssh14851

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 21

									Snatching Victory from
the Jaws of Defeat :
The Bio-Oil Research
Team at UNH
 Project Funded by
 NH Industrial Research Center
January 2002- Present
                                                     UNH TEAM:
                                                      Dr. Ihab Farag
                                                     Christopher Barrett
                                                     Caitlin LaClair

 Coatings, Composites & Green Chemistry Workshops and Poster Sessions,
 MUB Strafford Rm, UNH, Durham, NH , June 5, 2002
                            Bio-Oil:Promise
     Bleak
                            of the Future
   Horizons…
• Closing of the Berlin-   Uses Low Quality Excess
  Gorham paper mills       Wood
• Faltering wood chip      Produced by Fast Pyrolysis.
  electric plant           Dynamotive Yield 60-80 wt%
• Many left unemployed
                            Viscous dark oil (looks like
• Excess low grade         espresso coffee).
  wood in NH
                           HV = 7,500 Btu/lb (about half
                           of #2 fuel Oil HV).
            Why look to Bio-Oil Vs.
               Wood or Fuel?
• Environmental Considerations
  –   No SOx Emissions
  –   CO2 Neutral
  –   No HG or Dioxin emission
  –   50% lower NOx emissions than diesel fuel.
• Renewable and Locally Produced
• CO2 credit / Alternative fuel credit
• Storage and Transportation
• Additional Products (green chemicals)
• Northern NH Economy
  Why NH North Country?
• NH Forest-based
  industry employ more
  11,500 person, and         Coos County
  generate $3.9 B in goods
  and service.

• Wood, water, and labor     Carroll County
  are available.

• Opportunity to introduce
  Bio-Oil technology
     Partnering for
       Success
• Collaborate with
  stakeholders to
  investigate production
  of Bio-Oil in NH.
                           Goals of the UNH Bio-Oil Team
• UNH Bio-Oil, PSNH,
  NH DRED, US DOE,         • Study the economic, social
  BEDCO, IRC, ECS,           environmental, and technical
  SBDC, USDA Forest          aspects of Bio-Oil Production.
  Service, and UNH         • Research Markets for Bio-Oil.
  cooperative extension    • Educate local communities
                             about Bio-Oil.
Fast Pyrolysis Products
• Bio-Oil
  – Heating, power generation, green chemicals stock
  – Other end uses are being explored.

• Char
  – Energy Source
  – Charcoal briquettes

• Non-Condensable Gases
  – Recycled to provide heat for pyrolysis and drying.
            Pyrolysis Process Diagram
                          Recycled non-condensable gases


                                                           Quencher




                   Wood
                   Chip
                   Feed
Wood       Wood Chip
Grinding   Drying
                                        Char collector


                                                                Bio-Oil
                                    Pyrolysis
                                                                Storage
                                    Reactor
                                                                Unit
    Challenges of Fast Pyrolysis
         to Produce Bio-Oil
•   Drying of Bio-mass
•   Small particle size necessary
•   Reactor Scale-up
•   Secondary Cracking
•   Coaly matter separation
•   Liquid gathering
Bio-Oil: Other Incentives
• The HB 284-FN- Bill (NH Clean Power Act)
   –   75% lower S02 emissions;
   –   70% lower NOxemissions;
   –   75% lower Hg emissions;
   –   7% lower than 1990 C02 emissions
   –   By 2007.
• Environmental Action Programs (EAP)
   –   Rural Development
   –   Economic Recovery
   –   Forest Products Conservation
   –   Wood in Transportation
• Farm Bill 2002-The Forestry Title www.pinchot.org/pic/farmbill
   –   Forest Land Enhancement Programs (FLEP)
   –   Sustainable Forestry Outreach Initiative
   –   Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP)
   –   Environmental Action Programs (EAP)
        Bio-Oil Progress

• Independent Preliminary Economic
  Analysis by UNH
• Consistent with studies by Cole Hill and
  Associates.
• On-going Research of technical and
  environmental impacts and issues.
• Market Feasibility of Bio-Oil End Users
   Bio-Oil Markets on the Horizon
Cog RW                   Coal Dust               Paving Applications
Locomotives              Suppression              Exploring Bio-Oil as

• Research Feasibility    Dust Suppression        environmentally- friendly
  of Replacing Coal                                substitution in Paving
                           and Btu Enhancement
                                                   Applications.
                           for Coal Piles. .
    Areas Currently Being
        Researched
• Storage and longevity
• Low pH/ high acidity
• Immiscibility with non-aqueous
  liquids
• Combustion/Co-Firing
• Market Feasibility
       Composition & Properties
                                Concentrations wt%               Pine/Spruce
• Storage Stability                                          53 / 47 ww/bark
  Problems- viscosity           Water                                    23.4
  increases with time.          Methanol Insolvable Solids               24.9
                                & Lignin
                                Cellubiosan                               1.9
• Combustion
                                Glyoxal                                   1.9
  Problems Associated           Hydroxyacetaldehyde                      10.2
  with Aging- particulate       Levoglucosan                              6.3
  size increases because of
                                Formaldehyde                               3
  polymerization reactions in
  heated bio-oil causing        Formic Acid                               3.7
  equipment clogs or frequent   Acetic Acid                               4.2
  filter changes.               Acetol                                    4.8

                                                 From DynaMotive.com
Storage Effect on Bio-Oil Viscosity
Estimated Operational Cost of
       Bio-Oil Facility
                                           2%
          Utilities, production                 Utilities, other
                                      5%
         Maintenance             6%
Supplies & Services          6%

     Property Taxes         4%



                       16%
                                                                    61%
                  Payroll
                                                                   Purchasing Wood
        NH Fuel Cost Comparison
                                                                                                   Cole-Hill
  Fuel Type              Oil    Kerosene Propane Natural Electric Wood                             Bio-Oil
                                                 Gas
  Cost per Unit          $1.116  $1.468 $1.414 $0.700 $0.104          $185                           $0.40
                               per gal     per gal    per gal per therm    per kWh      per cord     per gal
  BTU per Unit           138,000         134,000     91,000 100,000         3412 24,000,000 70,503
                               per gal     per gal    per gal per therm    per kWh      per cord     per gal
  Heating System                80%         80%        80%       80%        100%          60%         80%
  Efficiency
  Cost per 100,000 BTU     $1.01          $1.37      $1.94      $0.87      $3.06        $1.28        $0.71

Fuel Type Bio-Oil
Moisture Content of Wood                 25%     35%    55%    25%      35%   55%
Plant Size                          50 tpd   50 tpd 50 tpd 400 tpd 400 tpd 400 tpd
Base Cost per Unit                   $ 0.55 $ 0.67 $ 1.06 $ 0.50 $ 0.61 $ 0.98
                                          per gal     per gal    per gal      per gal      per gal      per gal
BTU per Unit                             70,503
                                          per gal
Heating System Efficiency                 80%
Cost per 100,000 BTU                     $0.98       $1.19      $1.88        $0.89       $1.08         $1.74
    The values for Cole Hill Associates analysis was done in conjuncture with
    DynaMotive and is a base price.
                    Size of Plant vs. Production
                        cost per gal Bio-Oil
        1.10

        1.00
                                      55% moisture
        0.90                          content

        0.80
$/gal




        0.70                          35% moisture
                                      content
        0.60

        0.50                         25% moisture
                                     content
        0.40
               50     100   150       200        250       300   350   400
                                  Tons Per Day Woodchips
Future Bio-Oil Considerations
•   Chemical feed stock
•   Mixture with diesel
•   Retrofitting of fuel burning equipment
•   Emulsion of Bio-Oil and Fuel Oil
•   “Greener” pavings
•   Replacing Creosotes in utility poles
•   Industrial Boilers and Kiln Market
         Acknowledgements
•   Henry Mullaney, IRC
•   Ron Tetu, PSNH
•   Dennis Cote, BEDCO
•   Arthur Greenberg, CEPS
•   Craig Wright, DES
•   Michelle Andy, DES
•   Gerald Stewart, Cole Hill Associates
                     References
• http://www.dynamotive.com
• SciTechLibrary.com. The Review of Modern Tehcnologies of
  the Production of Liquid Fuel from Biomass using Fast
  Pyrolysis. June 12, 2000.
• Bridgewater, Prof. Tony. A Guide to Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass
  for Fuels and Chemicals. PyNe Guide 1. March 1999.
• Cost Analysis Assumptions based also based on Patent
  5,853,548
• NH Department of Resources and Economic Development.
  Identifying and Implementing Alternatives to Sustain the Wood-
  Fired Electricity Generating Industry in New Hampshire. January
  2002
• J.P. Diebold. A Review of the Chemical and Physical
  Mechanisms of the Storage Stability of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils.
  Thermalchemie, Inc. Lakewood, Colorado. January 2000.
• http://www.pinchot.org/pic/farmbill/
UNH Bio-Oil Team Contacts
Ihab Farag, UNH ph: 1-603-862-2313
  ihab.farag@unh.edu

Christopher Barrett ph: 1-603-862-4395
 cbarrett@cisunix.unh.edu

Caitlin LaClair ph: 1-603-862-4395
 claclair@cisunix.unh.edu
Chemical Engineering Dept, University of New Hampshire
255 Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH 03824-3591, USA, fax: 603-862-3747

								
To top