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					German 9th
Education
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German education system
Germany's education system for 12 to 13 years of compulsory education,
generally the first stage of secondary education, in fact, the education system varies
by state. Pre-school education depends on the wishes of parents, children can be sent
to the nursery, a purely non-compulsory. Apart from a few state primary school for six
years (such as Berlin), the remaining four years. In secondary education, mainly in
Germany adopted the system as "a 3" to secondary schools in
the promotion period, there is a two-year orientation stage (Orientierungsstufe), the
teacher can take the recommendations and the students and parents will determine
future schools. There are three secondary schools to choose from, followed by main
school (Hauptschule), secondary real subjects (Realschule), and grammar high school
(Gymnasium).
Academic degree of good grammar is usually high school students, for about nine
years, is the only route into higher education, university students as the main exit of
the government leadership, most of the social elite from this. 1972 joint resolution
signed by Minister of Culture and Education "on the second phase of the
restructuring of secondary grammar school senior Department of
Agreement" (Vereinbarung zur Neugestaltung der gymnasialen Oberstufe
in der Sekundarstufe II) for the high school grammar laid a sound framework, which
reads as follows: 1. Grammar High School Senior Division (Gymnasiale Oberstufe)
shall be from 11 to 12 or 13 school level, schools can design their own elective form
of "import stage" to senior high school diploma (Abitur) and
university entrance for the ultimate purpose of the examination between states
Diploma qualification must be mutually recognized. 2. Grammar high school senior
Department of the nature of a university matriculation. The required and elective
courses are divided into basic courses in all (Grundkurs) and expertise courses
(Leistungskurs) categories, required courses are divided into language - literature -
arts, social sciences, mathematics and technology, religion, sports and other fields.
Elective courses are usually the University shall be the basis of all science domains,
or introductory course curriculum. The expertise of the students for more than two
compulsory courses, one of which must be a language, math or science. In total, four
senior high school subjects, the two specialty courses required is one of the two, the
other two for the basic course. In addition, elective courses for the expansion of the
scope and depth, also joined the psychology, law, sociology, economics, information
science and other courses.
Students with good academic degree views into the real subjects are often high school,
learning takes about five or six years. Secondary schools to foster the business sector,
government agencies, mainly the practical talents. Their courses in modern subjects,
the main features of modern languages, with particular emphasis on socio-economic
development with the needs of subjects, including compulsory part can be categorized
as the following five categories: 1. Foreign language (usually English) 2. Mathematics
- Natural Sciences: Mathematics, physical, chemical and biological. 3. Social and
economic: History, Economics and Geography. 4. Home Economics and Social
Sciences 5. Music. To the seventh grade have elective subjects such as nature,
technology, art and second language (often French). Students can choose a
compulsory subject in two to three to take final examinations; graduates continue to
receive full-time system is mostly high-level vocational education or higher education
in science and technology category, small to accept the so-called dual vocational
training.
Students with poor academic level of the main five-year secondary school, students
learn the course content is relatively simple, Religious Studies courses, German,
geography, history, music, art, technology, economics, English, Mathematics, Physics
and Chemistry , biology and physical education, many graduates continue to enter the
dual vocational education system (Duales Ausbildungssystem) completion of
apprenticeship, and to engage in crafts, manufacturing. In addition, there are some
states in the comprehensive high school (Gesamtschule), school year 3-7 years
depending on the form may be, is the third secondary school reform, the traditional
flow of product; goal of providing equal educational opportunities for all students
with appropriate learning environment so that the individual's unique
aptitude, ability to fully develop, to avoid premature differentiation and decided to
give the students a variety of course choices.
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University of Heidelberg
German higher education based on the 1976 "Federal Higher Education
Standards" (Bundeshochschulrahmengesetz, HRG) to relax the
identification of the scope of higher education institutions, all with (Hochschule) in
the name of the schools are summarized as universities, higher education is also a vast
amount of population rapidly expanding demand for expansion. The current
(2000/2001) The German higher education population of about 1.72 million,
accounting for 19-26 year olds, 33% distributed in the four universities, 90
universities, six of Education, 16 seminaries, this four institutions with university
status is a real institution of higher education. There are also 46 Arts, 146 colleges and
universities and 30 specialized expertise in public administration colleges and
universities. Equivalent of these institutions between our College and Technical
Institute, and University as a Bachelor's degree (Diplom, Magister), but the
degree conferred by the same name than the University's academic status is
low, the university had no degree in Germany, the Institute is For PhD students are
designed to provide only a doctorate degree is in line with other EU countries was set
up. The summer semester of 2007 the German National Education started to collect
500 euros per semester tuition fee, in addition to the central allocation by a small
number of ZVS-called numerus clausus restrictions on subjects with learning outside
the location, no entrance exam but by way of admission. University of audit standards
and applications for senior high school diploma based on the results, that is, the sum
score of three parts: 1. Foundation program in 22 subjects, a minimum of 110 points;
2. Expertise in curriculum eight subjects, the minimum 70 points; 3. Graduation
Examination , minimum 100 points in four subjects, which means the minimum
university entrance qualification threshold for the score 280 points. In addition,
students must be at least 15 calculation results in a basic course, the four calculated
results of the expertise of the two courses and examinations at least 4 or more subjects
the first and so on. The German government on the level of low-income families in
their children's living expenses during the grant universities, half a loan.
1% of the students were not required to repay the scholarship. After World War II,
from 1950 until 1991, the number of young people entering university in Germany
grew by 10 times, up to 160 million (124 million actual enrollment) [18].
Germany's most popular middle class, good social welfare system for the
people of the world level is relatively higher medical services, unemployment
insurance and other social needs.

				
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posted:8/26/2010
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