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C++ Complete ease reference with ease examples part_1_


C complete and easy reference with easy examples. If u learn this u r finished with C

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									         Object Oriented Programming


                   K. John Singh MS., M.Tech., (Ph.D).,
                       Assistant Professor (Senior)
            School of Information Technology and Engineering
                              VIT University

1   VIT - SITE                                                 8/26/2010
    1. System software
    2. Application software

         System software: Directly interacts with the computer
         system. Operating system, compiler, interpreter are
         examples for this.
         Application software: All the programs written by a user
         with the help of any software is called as application

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Introduction to Programming Languages
     The shift in programming language is categorized as
    1. Monolithic Programming
    2. Procedural Programming
    3. Structural Programming
    4. Object Oriented Programming

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Monolithic Programming

     This programming consists only global data and sequential


     Assembly language and BASIC

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    Procedural Oriented Programming
 Mainly comprises of algorithms.


The important features of Procedural Programming are
 Emphasis is on doing things (algorithms)
 Large programs are divided into smaller programs known as
   Most of the functions share global data
   Data move openly around the system from function to function
   Functions transform data from one form to another
   Employs top-down approach in program design
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                     Structured programming
     Pascal and C
     Structured programming is based upon the algorithm rather than
     Programs are divided into individual modules that perform
      different task.
     Introduction of user defined data types

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                    Object Oriented Programming

     C++, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Java, C# etc.
     Object      oriented programming is a programming
      methodology that associates data structures with a set of
      operators, which act upon it.
     Depending on the object features supported, the languages are
      classified into two categories:
          Object-Based Programming Languages
          Object-Oriented Programming Languages

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     Object-based programming languages support encapsulation
      and object identity without supporting inheritance, polymorphism
      and message communications.
     Example ADA.
      Object – Based language = Encapsulation + Object Identity
     Object-Oriented Programming Language incorporate all the
      features of object-based programming languages along with
      inheritance and polymorphism.
      Object-oriented programming language = Object Based
      Language + Polymorphism +Inheritance

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Features of Object-Oriented Programming
     Improvement of over the structured programming languages.
     Emphasis on data rather than algorithm
     Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
     Objects may communicate with each other through functions
     New data and functions can be easily added whenever
     Follows bottom –up approach in program design

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 Basic concepts of object oriented programming
      Objects
      Classes
      Data Abstraction : the act of representing essential features
       without including the background details or explanations.
      Encapsulation
      Inheritance
      Polymorphism
      Message Passing : It is the process of invoking an operation
       on an object.
            Ex: ob.add(50);

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                       Advantages of OOP
      Through inheritance we can eliminate redundant
       (Unnecessary) code and extend the use of existing classes.
      The principle of data hiding helps for security.
      It is possible to have multiple objects.
      It is easy to partition the work in a project based on objects.
      Object-oriented systems can be easily upgraded from small to
       large systems.
      Message passing techniques for communication between
      Code reuse is possible.

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                      Applications of OOP
      Real time systems
      Simulation and modeling
      Object oriented databases
      Hypertext and hypermedia
      AI and expert systems
      Neural networks and parallel programming
      Office automation systems
      CIM / CAM / CAD systems

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