Democracy leads to social harmony

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					Democracy leads to social harmony
?1. Democracy is the sovereignty of the people of the polity, the status of democracy
to ensure that the masters of the people, forcing the government fears the people.
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Democracy claims: the people are masters of the country, the government is the
servant of the people employed to spend money. Government and its officials is a not
trusted, unreliable servants. Therefore, the limitations and constraints to be at any
time hold on the guard, otherwise it will master. Servant on the fear of the owner, the
Government on the fear of people. Only the government fears the people, the
government will serve the people wholeheartedly; only the government fears the
people, it was not kept people's eyes, cover their mouths of the people, the
people be free to criticize the officials would not Qishangmanxia to fool the people;
only the government fears the people, it was not around to spend money on play
generous and spend the people's money will be careful; only the
government fears the people, it was not for things like the image of the project, a
waste of people's money, it just can not take people's money eat,
drink, carelessness, it was not engaged in corruption, not by it to the anti-corruption.
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When the officials are the people, he is a grandson; only people to lecture the
Government, not the government to educate people. Nixon, President
Clinton's two big, not to mention the people before the son, grandson, not
even if, at every turn by Congress, the courts, "arraignment."
Nixon tell the lie, Clinton to find a lover, in China, what of it? Mistresses, mistress to
cadres in the Chinese common; can Americans is Buyiburao with Lai Niu's
something that even the details have been ferreted out of the prosecutor. The reason is
simple, you have to find a nanny looking for an honest part, and every day and you lie,
to buy food spent 10 yuan, 15 yuan spent, she said, every day at their homes for lovers,
not to do it to work every day clamored to get a raise , you will fire her.
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In the U.S., lower-level officials did not greet the arrival of superior officers, superior
officers to arrange accommodation, accompanied by a check, said. Is the President, to
the mayor does not come forward. "I am in the United States when the
assistant mayor," a book that: One day, he (the author of the book) read the
news, that U.S. Vice President Al Gore to New Haven City. But the mayor
JohnDestefano ignored. He was surprised and asked the mayor: "Gore
years, why do not you come out?" Do not want to be more surprised the
mayor asked him: "Why should I come out?" The public is not
difficult to see the mayor. First person to apply, as long as the mayor of the time, the
public can enter the mayor's office about the situation. Also, public service
activities are particularly interested in joining the Mayor, such as the rich and the poor
school district school district engaged in social activities such a thing, the Mayor is
very enthusiastic, but also a conversation, but also a group photo.
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In China, leading to a higher level, local officials are not only followed,
Qianhuhouyong, or even go to meet the boundary of driving, a police clear the way,
where clearance to go where. In short, the arrival of higher-level leadership is
subordinate officials, big things, to put down all the work, or even tens of days to
prepare reports in advance of receiving program materials and to allow time and
energy, all the activities around the superiors to carry out . The official newspaper
often said: the leading cadres are "servants of the people." At
the time, people see more of that all subordinate officers and related higher-level
cadres have become servants. Police to clear the way people are sidelined, and
understand what circumstances? When a person long enjoyed higher salaries than
others, and gradually accustomed to, have the privilege of consciousness. Therefore,
the "official car" salute be given priority in, supplemented by
police cars to clear the way so that people privilege car cultivate awareness of the
process.
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Lung Ying-tai said: "The public participation in government
decision-making, so the transformation of the city dominated by the wishes of the
people. If we say that the low efficiency of democratic government, yes, it is because
the Government must stop to listen to people talk, time-consuming. But You have to
take the time to listen to a government talking to you, or are not playing a greeting
from your body can quickly run over the government? "
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Demolition of the Chinese government-led process, you do not move, easy to handle,
bulldozers come to tear down the house, treating the house all buried inside. Hebei, a
city demolition, damaging the interests of the people, the demolition Affairs Office
said: "You only come when the Japanese devils, playing two of you mouth,
do not hit you shot, you will recognize a bargain!" The U.S. government
can not This much power, the most extreme way is to nail users to court, it may not be
in favor of efficiency really low Yeah. Americans do not pursue the
Government's high-efficiency, efficient government they fear it easier
arbitrary.
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2. Democracy, legitimacy, people will take the initiative to support and form the
stability of Spontaneous Order.
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Two thousand years ago, Aristotle deep hole saw, a long-term stability if the regime to
exist, we must make the people of all levels can participate, so take the initiative to
maintain its existence and continuity. Pericles in Athens described the superiority of
democracy, the proud claim that this is a way for the Athens citizens to feel free and
comfortable form of government, so generously sacrificed their lives deserve to be
rich and poor at defending. All form of government so far, only the most democratic
form of government the principles of justice. It is not the right to manage the National
Chengchi University on a person or a small group of hand, but operating in the
absolute majority of the hands of the people, can promote people to successfully
pursue their goals, and thus a people's initiative to protect the object,
should the no maintenance, people will worry that this is clearly the most beneficial to
their own form of government would be in danger of overturning. Hayek believes that
liberal democracy is the order of Spontaneous order, its stability does not depend on
the pressure created by man, but homeostasis is the people totally voluntary. As the
interests of the people can get a better idea of time, contradictions and conflicts in
peace, be reconciled in an open game, also do not need the government to
"stable"            in     the     name      to    be      maintenance.
"Stability" are not used as a pretext to suppress human rights.
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Rand believes that the only legitimate form of government is the recognition of moral
independence is an inalienable individual right of the political system, it is based on
rational, voluntary consent and not in above violence. The ideal form of government
recognition of your life your own, not belonging to your country, your class, your
party, your neighbors; you identify your life purpose, rather than national or political
party to determine the purpose of your life. Any dictatorship form of government for
the aspirations and means are unjust. Rand believes that even if the government did
not first use of violence, moral rights. Government's duty is only to protect
the rights of the people, rather than violations of the rights of the people, without
which nothing. Therefore, the law should not be limited to any voluntary civil,
peaceful activities should not interfere with people's production and trade
should not be deprived of the legitimate property should not be deprived of their
liberty, except in punishment for a crime.
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Why are based on rational, voluntary consent is a form of government based on
justice? Because in this system, the relationship between people and the perpetrators
not the victims, not masters and slaves (higher and lower levels), but get through the
free exchange of mutually beneficial trade persons (traders). In this system, no one
can use force to plunder any interest from others, no one can use force against others.
The Government is to protect the rights of people the police, it is only the first use of
force in dealing with those criminals or foreign invaders who only when the use of
force. Philosophical foundation of democracy is the recognition that everyone has the
right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That each person has the right to own
and live. Each individual is an end in itself, rather than someone else means to an end.
He should live their lives, not sacrifice themselves for others, nor sacrifice others to
himself. To pursue their rational interests and well-being of the highest moral goal
each. No one should make their own destiny in the hands of their neighbors or the
leadership.
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Why rely on violence to maintain the political system is unjust? Since pursued
nationalist regime and not just by force to maintain long-term stability. It is in
everyday life by spiritual weapons to enslave people. The spirit of the weapon is in
the public interests above personal interests doctrine. Moral absolutism is based: not
for their own individual right to life, service to others is the sole reason for their
survival, self-sacrifice is the highest moral obligation. State of human life, a social,
political parties, are collective, in a word is not his own. Dictionary despotism only
one word: obedience. Individual to the collective (national, class, political parties,
leaders, units, supervisors) of absolute obedience. Individual but can be arbitrary in
the public interest sacrificed. In this country, "Government is not the police,
but a legal protection of criminals. He can in any way, for any purpose, against
unarmed, defenseless victims of the use of force."
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3. Democracy to protect human rights justice
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Liberal democracy is not to maintain stability but to protect the human rights industry.
Maintaining stability is the Government's ultimate aim is neither, nor
immediate purposes. Government's sole mission is to protect human rights,
so that as many people feel comfortable. President Kennedy in the promotion of
African-American Civil Rights Movement, said: to promote the civil rights movement
not to economic development, not for social stability, but to moral. Similar to this,
China needs democracy, the reasons not to curb corruption, not to talented people, not
for economic development, but to safeguard the basic human rights, ensuring social
justice relative.
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Operating mechanism is a democratic society: human rights → public →
Government → human rights. Democracy is the protection of human rights. The
purpose of democracy is to prevent bad, incompetent officials, the human rights of
citizens, interests cause excessive damage. May 31, 1988, U.S. President Ronald
Reagan in a speech to the Moscow State University "Democracy is not so
much a system of government, as it is a government limited, unintrusive of the
system." Competitive democratic system in the distribution of political
power constitutes the balance of power level so that national policy to give equal
consideration of interests. The reasonable demands of stakeholders would be taken
seriously, because of conflict of interest caused by lack of protection from the roots
was avoidance. In an autocratic society, the interests of disadvantaged groups are
vulnerable to damage. In China, the biggest damage the interests of farmers. Farmers
do not have their own political representatives, farmers have not negotiated to
safeguard their interests may be. Compared to democracy and authoritarian systems,
basic human rights may get more protection.
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Free form of government is not the outcome of some exclusive form of government,
but to enhance opportunities for everyone, as everyone can self-promote. Free form of
government in the people not only have the right to full political independence, but
has called "negative freedom" rights, to provide everyone a safe
space for the development of individual freedom for the individual the greatest degree
of creative play . In accordance with Maslow's theory, the authoritarian
regime of individual citizens because of repressed desire and self-realization that is
offensive, the free form of government for everyone due to better provide
opportunities for self, gaining recognition, it is the most stable form of government.
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The relative democracy to ensure social justice. In a democratic society, with different
interest groups through public debate, consultation, negotiation mechanisms to
coordinate the interests and achieve a relatively fair. Each class with the proper way to
pursue their own interests, each class equal game, a strong national policy sectors is
not controlled by individual, not only to promote long-term interests of a particular
group, nor long-term deprivation of a particular group. Therefore, a free society
people do not use violence, through peaceful negotiations can expand their
opportunities and protect their own interests. Particularly in the areas of social wealth
redistribution, the candidates wants power, it must get more votes, but a large number
of votes as in the lower hold, therefore, its political program must be tilted to the
bottom right, has to take care of, otherwise difficult to power. Therefore, due to the
role of the votes, the free form of government in social welfare policy will help Junpin
Fu. The persistence of the free form of government, very poor and the wealthy will
become rare, the most conducive to social stability in the distribution of wealth there
was a "spindle-shaped" structure. Therefore, the free form of
government help to avoid the rich-poor divide, is conducive to creating the middle
class. The stronger the middle class, predominantly, the community more stable and
more secure.
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4. Peaceful transfer of power and the gradual improvement
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Another advantage of the free form of government is the government for the peaceful
transfer of power, instead of knives to injure the head with a few head. People in the
pursuit of self-interest, the preferred peaceful means of democracy. In pursuit of their
own to improve the situation can not be guaranteed, they will choose non-violent
democratic means. Long-term suppression of democratic rights to be the result of the
confrontation can only lead to people feeling even produced excesses and confusion.
A village, two families struggle of a village, township leaders competing to bribery.
Result, the two families fight, two people were killed and dozens wounded.
Authoritarian society, the struggle for power, often with death as a bet, whether to
maintain or subvert the authoritarian rule, both rated "shovel evil works
best" as the goal. Democracy as a peaceful, free and gentle way, winning
or losing a power struggle and change are the "spiritual" rather
than "physical nature" is a temporary rather than permanent.
Mature democratic peaceful change of government, unrest and violence will become
useless. Bad government, put it ousted to achieve a peaceful change, to allow the
peaceful citizens of evil against the government's legitimate political
channels. Therefore, the Liberal government would like to be a bad government is
immune. Because people will not give you the opportunity to take back their mandate.
On good government, to prevent the encroachment of popular sovereignty, and
regularly dissolved, re-examined, and only after that to reach the people on the review
of the requirements, before issue "qualification certificates."
Few years, the government automatically once rotation, forcing the government can
not simply pursue their own interests as the sole ruling party and the highest purpose
of providing a system for guarding against corruption safeguards. Government
peaceful rotation of power rests in the hands of the people, blocked the rule of the
strong character of power theft and robbery pipeline.
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Free form of government has been able to maintain the stability for a long time,
another important reason why the political system to leave room for continuous
improvement. Democracy lead to peace and harmony because the people in
democratic countries the right to criticize their government, including the criticism of
this system of government itself, have the right of association, the government is
responsible for its people; the same time, through the campaign to guide the
government regular rotation, so that the next the next government can not assume
political responsibility in the premise of the previous government to suspend
implementation of the policy of manifest error. Ability to maintain its democratic
legitimacy, while amendments to its flaws, so democracy can endure. This makes the
free form of government has a self-correcting mechanism. Free regime of self-renewal
capacity is created since this form of government from the advantages demonstrated
in the ancient Greek, Latin habitat on behalf of the authoritarian dream afraid of
innovation, democratic Athens keen on innovation, which is characterized by daring
ideas, and immediately pay Various implementation. Contemporary liberal
democracies have inherited the advantages. In the free form of government in both an
individual or legal entities, as long as its opposition to the status quo 要求 manner
not 伤害 others, for the price, the society will understand and respect, and an
institutional perspective are guaranteed. Thus, those who do not desire to harm others
but improved on the shortcomings of reality, they often can be fulfilled. Carl. Cohen
said, compared with the other system of government, democracy means more to
eliminate the use of violence to resolve disputes within the community need.
Expressed dissatisfaction with the dissenting minority and continue to pursue its goal
of channels is always smooth; no matter how dissatisfied minorities, need not swallow
the insult in silence, and need not resort to revolution to achieve their goals.
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5. Law and the Constitution to ensure social stability
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Democracy must be the rule of law polity. The rule of law means not only all the rules
to follow, the Government can not arbitrary violations of civil personal interest, but it
also means that national law is recognized by a high degree of goodness civil rules of
behavior, what is the law that every citizen has equal right to speak, means the
Government can not put the interests of their own caprice and arbitrary into the laws.
Obviously, such a law will help protect the interests of the people. Law prohibits the
institutional discrimination, and therefore conducive to achieving social justice.
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Free form of government has a stable constitution. Constant rotation of free
government, society and the state is very stable. This is because the stability of the
Constitution defines the rights of public power and civil boundaries, provided the
organ of state power generation and replacement methods, terms of reference and the
way the exercise of authority is a national real "president."
Heads of state administration in exchange for adding that to be a revolving door,
except the Constitution can not be easily replaced. As long as the Constitution, and the
power structure established by the Constitution remains unchanged, no matter who
presided over by the state government, state and society will not happen with the
disturbance. No law enacted on behalf of, any government policy and administrative
action, if in conflict with the Constitution, immediately automatically void, not
binding on the citizens; therefore damage to the people, the Government must be full
compensation for persons responsible will be punished. Those in power must swear
allegiance to the Constitution, no right to their own likes and dislikes according to the
Constitution be changed easily. Even the supreme ruler, can not violate the
Constitution their own way. The constitution is the core of a free and democratic
political system is to avoid people to demagogues manipulating the fundamental
guarantee a stable liberal democracy in the "Key Stand."
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6. A high degree of stability of the democratic regime, which has been proved by the
world's modern history
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In Northern Europe, Sweden, Denmark and other countries since the establishment of
a modern democratic system has been 300 years without war and social unrest. Britain
since the glorious revolution, no country has been war and social unrest. United States
of America is a loose federal, state promotes pluralism and liberalism, but in 200
years of history, in addition to a policy caused by slavery, "Civil
War", there is no civil war occurred, and no bloody power struggle. While
democracy may also occur on the top leaders of the murder, but it is very casual, even
took place was not in the power struggle and cause social chaos. Democratic
government, the top leaders of the produce of any crisis (due to political scandal led to
dismissal or resignation of the leader died of natural causes, murder, etc.) they would
not be caused by political crises and social unrest, this is the biggest advantage of
democracy.
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India is recognized as a non-Western world in a few politically stable democratic
country. India's Nobel laureate AmartyaSen origin, said India's
independence in 1947, the country was in chaos. Government untested, political
factionalism, popular social violence. Half a century later, under a democratic system,
political differences can be resolved within the framework of the Constitution, regime
change through democratic procedures is also a smooth transition. That is democracy,
India became a unified whole. Through democracy, India has also successfully
resolved the contradiction between language and religion. Political leadership of the
violent conflict and the coup did not happen, which in similar economic and social
development level of the same countries, like South Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin
America and Africa, countries such as frequent coups and social unrest than simply a
miracle. India's parliamentary democracy to the legitimate political forces
into the track of the political struggle in order to avoid a violent revolution, military
coup took place. This fully demonstrates the harmonious society features democracy.
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7. Non-democratic system, the transition to democracy in the process of violence,
more peaceful transition
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It was the Latin American countries, Southeast Asian countries and the Republic of
China at the beginning of the chaos to say the chaos of democracy, this is an ulterior
motive. As we all know, authoritarian state prone to unrest, from dictatorship to
democracy in countries prone to unrest. After the collapse of the authoritarian regime,
democracy and the rule of law did not order the establishment of various forces is
intense. The road from dictatorship to democracy is hard. This is most obvious in the
French history, the democratic revolution of 1789 until the late 19th century only to
consolidate the results down. Mexico's independence, from 1824 to 1848,
there were 250 coups and rebellions, the replacement of 31 presidents. These are
authoritarian transition to democracy unrest. Instability in developing countries to
promote democracy is not democracy itself, but from dictatorship to democracy will
have to pay the price. Although the road towards democracy and the costs and
frustrations of blood, but can not stop the indomitable human beings to choose
democracy. Because not pay these costs, we can not harvest stirrings of democracy.
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Commentators often anti-democratic authoritarian countries have made some of the
economic success of the right to rule is necessary to Hemingway and benefits. But
they have seriously neglected the authoritarian rule of the social chaos and disaster.
Whether in Latin America or Southeast Asia, authoritarian rule, has continually
outbreaks of social conflict and bloodshed, violence, social and extremely unstable.
South Korea's modern history is proof. From the last century
50's to the 80's, South Korea into the post-independence period
of authoritarian rule. Over the past 30 years, the Korean revolution, insurrection,
coups, political assassinations and street protests, violence and bloodshed continue.
Although Park Chung-hee era have had rapid economic development, but people pay
a heavy price, even the ruler himself not a good end. Until 1987, Roh Tae-woo
political reform, the implementation of direct presidential elections, South Korea
before the end of the power by coups and authoritarian rule of the murder made
history. 1997, Kim Dae-jung was elected president, the ruling party in South Korea to
achieve a peaceful transfer of power to the opposition government. Now signs that
South Korea's democratic system has matured. Proved to be a real
democracy has brought South Korea's social stability, but also to bring
security to political leaders. Democratization in South Korea since 1997, Korean
society has experienced a series of serious crisis, the 1997 financial crisis, President
Roh Moo-hyun took office in 2004 soon after and moved the capital by storm of
impeachment, have not made any social unrest in South Korea . Can be said that
South Korea's democracy has been consolidated, violence and murder have
no market, intense social contradictions and conflicts can be legal under the
Constitution and digestion.
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To the modern, non-democracy transition to democracy has also abandoned the
violent and bloody, and significantly shorten the transition period. Like so many
former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries to establish democracy are no
serious violence and bloodshed; there are many Latin American countries in the 1990s
to complete the democratic transition, have successfully carried out from the military
regime to a peaceful transfer of democratic government. Democratization in Southeast
Asia is also largely a peaceful process, including South Korea, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. Can be seen in contemporary society, democracy,
human history, but found the only method of peaceful change.
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8. Democracy will ultimately lead to world peace
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Democracies rarely fight each other. Which was caused: ① the mechanism of
restriction: public opinion or national Zhengzhijigou supervision and Pingheng right
Zhengfujuece the constraints Zuoyong; ② Minzhubiaozhun and Wenhua factors:
Min Zhu countries Youzhao mutual respect, cooperation and compromise, the
common characteristics of This "ethos" among democratic
countries will not make war or threat of war as a means to solve problems. The
democratic and non-democratic countries the lack of these standards and limitations.
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Kant's "perpetual peace" will be the first permanent
peace terms as "citizens of each country should be a republican
system", that "right from the concept of republican addition to
the pure sources of the origin of the purity of , but also with the consequences of our
aspires, that is, the prospects for lasting peace. "because in this system, the
war a" need for the citizens of a country agrees, "but citizens
will still be prudent balance. But if not republican form of government,
"War is the world's most easy thing," the leaders of
member countries, but the country is not the owner, they "can be treated
like a safari, as trivial reasons due to the war decision "; not feel the cost of
war, but also will not lose any privileges. At the same time, Kant believed that liberal
countries are more inclined to abide by international law and respect for the rights of
others. "As the culture matured and more consistent principles of the
people, will promote mutual understanding between people and to achieve
peace."
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posted:8/26/2010
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