ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS FOR STATEWIDE VIRTUAL SCHOOLS by rjj75795

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            ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS FOR STATEWIDE COMPREHENSIVE1 VIRTUAL SCHOOLS
According to Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning:
 12 states have state-led online education programs and significant state policies that govern district-level online programs or
   cyberschools.
 12 states have state-led programs but no significant state-level policies that govern district-level online programs or
   cyberschools.
 14 states have significant state-level policies that govern district-level online programs or cyberschools but no state-led
   programs.
 12 states have neither a state-led program nor state policies.

OPTION                        DESCRIPTION                                                                                        POSSIBLE UNDER
                                                                                                                                 CURRENT LAW?
#1: Comprehensive State-Led       program
 Operates under the             Most programs are supplemental, not comprehensive                                              No
    State Board; or              Most serve high school students
 Other state                    Most work with local schools who grant credit and award diplomas.
    entity/board; or             Examples include Florida Virtual School, Illinois Virtual High School,
 State Dept. of Ed               Michigan Virtual School, and Idaho Digital Learning Academy.
                                 May be state-run or operated through a Non-Governmental Organization
                                 May be fee driven, funded through separate appropriation, or combination
                                 Benefits: economies of scale; reduction in duplicative resources and
                                  expense; ability to take advantage of agency offices and services.
                                 Disadvantages: restrictions such as state procurement policies; need to vet
                                  decisions through potentially lengthy procedure;
                                 Accountability measures vary but often include accreditation of courses
                                  and outside evaluation. Washington programs must be accredited by the
                                  state and submit an annual report. Pennsylvania cyber schools are
                                  authorized by their department of education, and has created a cyber
                                  charter review entity.
                                 Funding for both state-led and state initiatives are typically funded by
                                  state appropriations that are independent of the number of course
                                  registrations and often charge course fees.
                                 Teachers are employed by state on full or part-time basis. Florida has over
                                  300 full-time and 175 part-time teachers.
                                 California has a state-led program, the University of California College

       1Some states do not have comprehensive, solely online schools, including Alabama, Kentucky, Louisiana, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia,
       Maryland, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Nebraska, Hawaii.
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                                  Prep that offers AP courses and has a focus of preparing students for
                                  college.
                                 States with some sort of state-led governance include Alabama, Arkansas,
                                  California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky,
                                  Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, Utah, Virginia, West
                                  Virginia, Wisconsin
#2: State-Led Initiatives
State Agency Operated            State-led initiatives vary, but generally provide courses, resources, and   Yes
                                  services to districts rather than students directly.
                                 Generally do not use a single source for the courses. May license or
                                  develop programs, or both.
                                 Many are supplementary only.
                                 May provide teachers, part-time or full-time.
                                 Generally do not award diplomas.
                                 Examples include the Oregon Virtual School District and Alabama’s
                                  ACCESS program.
                                 Alabama ACCESS program provides access to instruction and coursework
                                  by providing approved Internet-based courses and the technical
                                  infrastructure to deliver courses via the internet.
                                 South Dakota, in 2006, created a state-led virtual high school program
                                  using a consortium of approved statewide distance education providers.
                                  The school will not grant diplomas or credit, is fee-based, with rules
                                  proposed by an advisory counsel, overseen by dept. of education.
#3: Cross-State Initiatives
                              Some New England states have joined together to use Virtual High School,       Maybe; would depend
                               a collaborative of nearly 400 high schools in 29 states and 20 countries.      on the model used.
                               The VHS cooperative operates by having each member school agree to             Would need to comply
                               release one of its teachers for one period a day to teach a VHS online         with Oregon law.
                               course. In exchange, the school is able to register its students in any VHS
                               course.
                           In Connecticut, the six ESDs have partnered to provide VHS membership
                               to schools at reduced rates and have grown VHS membership to nearly
                               25% of all CT schools.
                           Virtual High School is supplemental.
#4: District-sponsored charter school that may operate statewide
                           Washington has this governance structure, though it has “alternative              Yes; up to 50% of
                               schools” not “charter schools.” Programs must be accredited by the state,      nonresident students.
                               submit an annual report that provide enrollment data; each student must        May go above 50% level
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                               have a learning plan, and communication between teacher and student           with board waiver
                               must occur at least weekly.
                           Montana requires either the online teacher or local facilitator to be state
                               licensed and facilitators to have some distance learning training. It
                               requires distance-learning providers to register with the state and provide
                               program and course descriptions. Programs need to demonstrate that
                               students have “ongoing contact” with the online teacher, and programs
                               must verify teacher credentials to the state.
                           Pennsylvania has this structure, but has placed a moratorium on using it
                               further.
#5: District-sponsored charter school; may only draw students from own district and contiguous counties
                           California has this model; schools may operate statewide if run by the           Possible, but multiple
                               state board.                                                                  waivers would be
                                                                                                             involved, including
                                                                                                             waiver from open
                                                                                                             enrollment provision
                                                                                                             and 50% limit on out-of-
                                                                                                             district students.
#6: State Consortium programs
                           In New York, a consortium of more than 20 Board of Cooperative                   Yes, wouldn’t be a
                            Educational Services, individual school districts and education agencies         charter school, but an
                            have created Project Accelerate and AccelerateU which provides online            agreement among
                            courses, professional development and instructional support.                     districts.
                           University of North Carolina – Greensboro, established I-School
                            relationships with various high schools, creating agreements providing for
                            the granting of high school and college credit.
                           Oregon Online is a consortium of several districts providing online
                            courses.

								
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