EXHIBIT G ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS FOR STATEWIDE COMPREHENSIVE1 VIRTUAL SCHOOLS According to Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: 12 states have state-led online education programs and significant state policies that govern district-level online programs or cyberschools. 12 states have state-led programs but no significant state-level policies that govern district-level online programs or cyberschools. 14 states have significant state-level policies that govern district-level online programs or cyberschools but no state-led programs. 12 states have neither a state-led program nor state policies. OPTION DESCRIPTION POSSIBLE UNDER CURRENT LAW? #1: Comprehensive State-Led program Operates under the Most programs are supplemental, not comprehensive No State Board; or Most serve high school students Other state Most work with local schools who grant credit and award diplomas. entity/board; or Examples include Florida Virtual School, Illinois Virtual High School, State Dept. of Ed Michigan Virtual School, and Idaho Digital Learning Academy. May be state-run or operated through a Non-Governmental Organization May be fee driven, funded through separate appropriation, or combination Benefits: economies of scale; reduction in duplicative resources and expense; ability to take advantage of agency offices and services. Disadvantages: restrictions such as state procurement policies; need to vet decisions through potentially lengthy procedure; Accountability measures vary but often include accreditation of courses and outside evaluation. Washington programs must be accredited by the state and submit an annual report. Pennsylvania cyber schools are authorized by their department of education, and has created a cyber charter review entity. Funding for both state-led and state initiatives are typically funded by state appropriations that are independent of the number of course registrations and often charge course fees. Teachers are employed by state on full or part-time basis. Florida has over 300 full-time and 175 part-time teachers. California has a state-led program, the University of California College 1Some states do not have comprehensive, solely online schools, including Alabama, Kentucky, Louisiana, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Nebraska, Hawaii. EXHIBIT G Prep that offers AP courses and has a focus of preparing students for college. States with some sort of state-led governance include Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin #2: State-Led Initiatives State Agency Operated State-led initiatives vary, but generally provide courses, resources, and Yes services to districts rather than students directly. Generally do not use a single source for the courses. May license or develop programs, or both. Many are supplementary only. May provide teachers, part-time or full-time. Generally do not award diplomas. Examples include the Oregon Virtual School District and Alabama’s ACCESS program. Alabama ACCESS program provides access to instruction and coursework by providing approved Internet-based courses and the technical infrastructure to deliver courses via the internet. South Dakota, in 2006, created a state-led virtual high school program using a consortium of approved statewide distance education providers. The school will not grant diplomas or credit, is fee-based, with rules proposed by an advisory counsel, overseen by dept. of education. #3: Cross-State Initiatives Some New England states have joined together to use Virtual High School, Maybe; would depend a collaborative of nearly 400 high schools in 29 states and 20 countries. on the model used. The VHS cooperative operates by having each member school agree to Would need to comply release one of its teachers for one period a day to teach a VHS online with Oregon law. course. In exchange, the school is able to register its students in any VHS course. In Connecticut, the six ESDs have partnered to provide VHS membership to schools at reduced rates and have grown VHS membership to nearly 25% of all CT schools. Virtual High School is supplemental. #4: District-sponsored charter school that may operate statewide Washington has this governance structure, though it has “alternative Yes; up to 50% of schools” not “charter schools.” Programs must be accredited by the state, nonresident students. submit an annual report that provide enrollment data; each student must May go above 50% level EXHIBIT G have a learning plan, and communication between teacher and student with board waiver must occur at least weekly. Montana requires either the online teacher or local facilitator to be state licensed and facilitators to have some distance learning training. It requires distance-learning providers to register with the state and provide program and course descriptions. Programs need to demonstrate that students have “ongoing contact” with the online teacher, and programs must verify teacher credentials to the state. Pennsylvania has this structure, but has placed a moratorium on using it further. #5: District-sponsored charter school; may only draw students from own district and contiguous counties California has this model; schools may operate statewide if run by the Possible, but multiple state board. waivers would be involved, including waiver from open enrollment provision and 50% limit on out-of- district students. #6: State Consortium programs In New York, a consortium of more than 20 Board of Cooperative Yes, wouldn’t be a Educational Services, individual school districts and education agencies charter school, but an have created Project Accelerate and AccelerateU which provides online agreement among courses, professional development and instructional support. districts. University of North Carolina – Greensboro, established I-School relationships with various high schools, creating agreements providing for the granting of high school and college credit. Oregon Online is a consortium of several districts providing online courses.
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