Carefully crafted with sticky information: The ergonomics of innovation Effective communication is the key: to make communication simple, specific and unexpected. November 2007 ? Lenny T. Mendonca and Matt Miller ? Carefully conceived and communicated to affected employees, markets, and other stakeholders the ability of information seems like a mysterious talent that some people have this ability, some do not have. For example, Jack Welch (Jack Welch) has created hundreds of thousands of GE employees inspire creativity. However, many other leaders have been disappointing to discover that the important message one day be forgotten by the next day, or stakeholders do not know how to interpret the information. Why do some succeed and some creative ideas but fail? Stanford Business School professor of organizational behavior Qipuxisi in the last decade has been seeking the answer to this question. He studied what makes the belief (such as urban legends) in a variety of viewpoints want to fight stubborn survival of the social market, he also engaged in experiments to explore the upper hand view of how people, businesses and other organizations generated. Earlier this year, Heath in his brother Dan (he started a company specializing in the subject) together with the &quot;creative stick mechanics: why some ideas survive and others die creative,&quot; a book published his research results. July 2007, the San Francisco office of McKinsey &amp; Qipuxisi senior director Lenny Mendonca, McKinsey consultant Matt Miller and when he was at Stanford University Business School Sloan Foundation scholars Parth Tewari discussed so full of ideas, &quot;tack&quot; The main principles and business executives how to use these principles to communicate more successfully. &quot;McKinsey Quarterly&quot; (the &quot;Quarterly&quot;): Let us start from the definition of success, what is the sticky ideas? Qipuxisi: sticky ideas is able to understand when people hear the future be able to remember and to change people&#39;s thinking or behavior creativity. This is a very high standard. Recall the last time you saw the introduction, you remember how much? How does it change your daily decisions? Leaders will spend weeks or months to reach a correct idea, but then only spent a few hours time to consider how the creative message to other people. This is a tragedy. Take some time to ensure that something shiny in your mind are your employees or customers in the minds of shining worth it. ?Qipuxisi personal circumstances * July 19, 1963 Born in Huntsville, Alabama * Married, one child Educational Background * 1986, graduated from Texas A &amp; M University with a Bachelor of Industrial Engineering * 1991 Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University Work experience Stanford University Business School (2000 ~ present) * Professor of Organizational Behavior Duke University Fuqua School of Business (1997 ~ 2000) * Associate Professor University of Chicago Business School (1991 ~ 1997) * Teaching Assistant and Associate Professor Other cases ? His research has been in such as &quot;cognitive psychology&quot; (Cognitive Psychology), &quot;Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes&quot; (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes) and the &quot;Quarterly Journal of Economics&quot; (Quarterly Journal of Economics) and other academic publications published, including &quot;Scientific American&quot; (Scientific American), &quot;Financial Times&quot; (Financial Times), &quot;Washington Post&quot; (Washington Post) and &quot;Vanity Fair&quot; (Vanity Fair) for his various publications, including studies have been conducted comment. * He has been to National Public Radio (NPR), The Today Show (The Today Show) and the National Geographic channel. * As the Stanford &quot;Social Innovation Review&quot; (Standford Social Innovation Review) of the Editorial Board members; through the Stanford Social Innovation Centre research program, with more than 190 social sector organizations, on their mission and strategies through collaboration. Back to top ?&quot;Quarterly&quot;: give us an example of creative sticky it? Qipuxisi: In 1961, John F · Kennedy proposed to the Americans to the moon within a decade. That is a sticky idea. It has inspired dozens of public and private organizations thousands of people. It was a surprising idea: that it received attention because it is so amazing - the moon with our distance. It very appealing to our emotions: We were now in the Cold War, the Russians had launched four years ago, Sputnik satellite into space. It is very specific: that everyone in the same way described the prospects for success. In your organization, how many targets are involved in exactly the same way each person depicted in it? During that period, my father for the IBM work. He was the original &quot;Gemini (Gemini)&quot; space mission to do some programming. He did not think he was working for IBM - he believes he is helping to achieve the goal the Americans landing on the moon. Living in our neighborhood the other side of an accountant works for a defense contractor, and he also consider themselves Americans landing on the moon in helping to achieve the goal. When you stimulate the accountants, you know already have a solution. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: Well, when Creative has the kind of influence is important, when is it unimportant? Of course, not every leader to convey information should have tack, right? Qipuxisi: Indeed, not every message is worth people dreaming about. Daily briefings will not have a tack. But consider those who need a tack of information: the information strategy of your organization your employees will need to have mandatory; related products and services you need convincing to your customers. When the role of an information need to continue for some time, take some time to design the information is worth it. If you make a purchase decision customers or your employees make an important business decisions, you are about to enter the office, then the information you do not need to tack on them. However, if you need it in a week or a month to make the right decisions, you better hope you have a tack of information. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: leaders in learning to make their information with the adhesive force of the most difficult things? ?Qipuxisi: I think simplicity is the most difficult. Leaders learn a lot about their organization and business matters, and hope to share with others. However, the effective leader is the simplicity of the master. I am not saying the information should be mentally handicapped or the information into summaries of broadcast; I say the strategy is to identify the most important and central element and highlight them. This way to make everyone within the enterprise to focus on the correct targets. Obtain the correct information is difficult to do simple things, but you can not do so. I have eight core values with a non-profit organizations. Studies have shown that even small choices can make a few good people to know what to do, preventing them from making a decision. When you take into account the eight core values, how can you avoid the policy paralysis it? Bill. Clinton running for president the first time, guidance information is &quot;the most fundamental is the economy, stupid.&quot; In that election there are many problems, but if you try to seize all of these issues, you will not make a complex campaign organization does not track. You have to choose you want to make the battle, and won. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: But you wrote in the book, in order that the information is sticky, not enough light there are concise, information must also be very specific. You talk about its importance. Qipuxisi: an abstract information, for example, such as &quot;maximize shareholder value.&quot; To achieve this goal, staff tomorrow, you should do? Now this abstract information and the FedEx story to make a comparison. The story is a driver unable to open his delivery route of a pick-mail, because he forgot the keys in the office. His time is very tight, and he knows that if he returned to the office to get keys back that mailbox, the mailbox to mail the package to catch the plane. So he found a wrench to quickly remove the entire mailbox, that mailbox to effortlessly express installed on the truck, he knew, back in the office will be able to open the mailbox! When your competitive advantage is &quot;absolutely positive reliability&quot;, this is the behavior you want. This is the long term and to maximize shareholder value approach. However, if only to tell the FedEx driver to maximize shareholder value, will only allow them to figure this out. And this story is to tell them what to do. When information becomes abstract, the most common cause is a leader suffering from a &quot;knowledge-disaster syndrome.&quot; Psychologists and behavioral economists have shown that when we know a lot of time on a field, allow us to imagine if we knew nothing about what would look like, it will become very difficult - it is the &quot;knowledge disaster syndrome.&quot; If you ever talk with your IT staff had any problems on your computer, then you have in a &quot;knowledge-disaster syndrome,&quot; the other side. The IT staff know a lot about computers, so that he or she can not imagine the rest of us understand so little of this. We have our own areas of expertise that IT personnel as the same: too complex and too easy to abstract. As a corporate executive, you might have 30 years of business experience and work in a company 20 years of experience. So when you talk about maximizing shareholder value, you is something you have learned to understand the abstract language to speech. However, this abstraction for your front-line employees is completely unclear. If you look them up with the story of FedEx similar information, you can achieve results will be much better communication. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: To expand on this further, give us a talk about leadership in the organization how to use these ideas to create change? Qipuxisi: When Jack Welch, GE embarked on restructuring the company, he has been a sunset industry had worked a number of traditional business areas. He often talk about him and nuclear engineering team managers with the story of the planning retreat. That was in 1979, Three Mile Island nuclear power plant after a nuclear leak, but their business plan is envisaged that they will continue to sell more nuclear power plants in the United States. His managers said, &quot;I can not imagine that we can sell the other nuclear power plants, therefore, to re-make a plan to sell the plan without the premise of the new nuclear reactors become practical.&quot; They re-development of a nuclear reactor based on providing services to existing plans. His other traditional business unit managers also tell the story. They may know that nuclear energy team managers to sell more products to be confusing, perhaps this story will prompt them to ask ourselves whether they have been deceived. This story is provided specific recommendations - you can be sold to the existing infrastructure to create some cause. When you come up with such specific story, you are in a good position to change the way people think and act on. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: How do you make sense in the board conference room suitable for other audiences ideas, such as employees, business and industry and the wider social strata? ?Qipuxisi: Once the creative and innovative features with a sticky - concise, specific and tell a story, which is more easily spread. Jack. Welch will make a lot of nuclear energy to bring the audience the story of the team. He can worry about GE&#39;s business portfolio of Wall Street analysts who use the story, tell them why GE is still a worthwhile bet in the business. He can worry about their employees in the industry about this story, to assure them that even in a worst industry, a good business there is still hope. Leaders must constantly have a lot of different agendas with a variety of audiences talking. And an industry analysis or net present value or a seven-point plan for change than a good story or an instance more easily spread among those audiences. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: the ability to design cohesive message may learn it? Qipuxisi: Yes, it can learn. Steve Jobs (Steve Jobs) looks very ordinary normal, but he spared no effort in Silicon Valley to introduce his new product will be known. He systematically consider his information, and most of his information is very effective. However, few other leaders like him thoughtful. If you want to learn how to make your information with the tack, the highest return on investment is to more concrete proposals. System to double-check your presentation, your presentation slides, or your memo, and then remove all the contents of the abstract. An example is to replace, such as &quot;excellent customer service,&quot; such claims. In the Nordstrom department store (Nordstrom), they cite the example of a salesman, this salesperson to a customer to buy goods in the Macy also made gift packaging. Now, Nordstrom for each audience, the abstract &quot;excellent customer service,&quot; all of a sudden have become real meaning. This is your communication skills increased by 200% or 300%. Typically, the leaders that make their information with the viscous force, they must come up with a shot worthy of Madison Avenue slogans. But if you think about most of the commercials, they are actually not very tack. That is why we have to repeat many times these ads causes. The typical Advertisements and Federal Express on the driver forgot the keys in the mailbox when the story of the removed compared. This story has a bonding force of urban legend, but it is true. It is a bear with a concrete example of the absolute reliability of the strategy. You can tell your story staff to guide them how to act. You can also use it for a commercial advertisement, which may be greater than the typical FedEx encourage customers to win the trust of commercial advertising is much better - those who rush to the reliability. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: in the design of adhesive force information, market research and focus groups play in them? Qipuxisi: I am a fanatic of fans, because I am a researcher. But let us face it: your organization has many of the most important information has never been close to the focus group. I have never heard of a senior leadership team which had a focus group for a demonstration of corporate strategy introduced. Simply by making it with the correct characteristics to achieve viscous information, you may go a long way. My message simple enough right? It specifically is it? There I can tell the story? If the leaders in a thousand or a million or a million people in the organization accomplish something, they had better take the time to carefully check the information with the stick again to force the characteristics list. On this basis, if you organize a presentation for the new strategy focus group, teams of employees throughout the organization were randomly selected, then their feedback will further improve your quality of information. When you speak the correct instance, you will be able to see people visibly pleased. &quot;Quarterly&quot;: Marshall McLuhan&#39;s famous quote &quot;the medium is the message&quot; What does it mean today? You talk about the importance of these things in the media, How? Qipuxisi: I admire McLuhan came up with the full force of a stick the slogan, but if I take the liberty, and his slogan is wrong. In fact, the information is information. Too many to consider the media - newsletters, Internet, Web2.0-- the people are prisoners over the years in the field of education committed the same error. 8 mm film film still remember how the education reform it? Then the VCR, and then later the PC. The media will certainly help, but, 8 mm film film can not save a bad math. ?Leaders say the find could be a good story, you should find wide heart, what the media does not matter. Think &quot;Seabiscuit&quot; Ocean biscuits (Seabiscuit) this colt, and finally became the champion. In the thirties of last century, this story of overcoming adversity and inspired to read this story in the newspaper people. In the first decade of this century, it inspired both in the books read or seen the story in the movie, people. If you have the money to shoot a new life on the organization&#39;s inspirational story of the film, it would be great. If not so much money, go find the story inspiring, and it published in your newsletter. Six basic characteristics of Qipuxisi studies have shown that viscous creativity has six basic characteristics of the following: Simplicity. If the information is concise, they memorable. Although the short pieces of improvisation, but they will not last. Golden Rule and the like, such as the motto both short and deep enough to guide the behavior of the number of generations. Unexpected. Sounds like common sense things that will not tack. The information you are looking for an unusual feeling in the part. Such information would create the interest and curiosity. Concrete is. Abstract language and creative sensibility, will not give the impression left; and concrete is the image of the language and ideas are memorable. Compare &quot;The Americans on the moon within ten years&quot; and &quot;through targeted technology initiatives and enhanced team work to win the space race day in the leadership position.&quot; Credibility. The audience will buy it right on this information? This information well-founded it? Or just chat with you this information? Very common phenomenon is that a person trying to convey a message, then refer to an external expert, and the most credible source of information that is listening to the people of this information. &quot;You know at it?&quot; This problem is usually more credible than outside experts. Emotion. Cases involving people and also move people. &quot;Our heart have,&quot; Heath wrote, &quot;man away feeling things, rather than abstract concepts to feel.&quot; Tell a story. Each of us every day, telling stories, and why? &quot;Research shows that inner preview a scenario will help us in the face of situations that performed better,&quot; Heath wrote, &quot;the story as a kind of mental flight simulator, faster and more efficient for us ready to respond. &quot; About the author: Lenny Mendonca is a San Francisco office, senior director of McKinsey; Matt Miller is a McKinsey consultant. On the wish to contribute to this article thank Parth Tewari, he helped initiate and organize this interview. Tewari recently left Stanford to become India TechnoServe (a help to create business solutions to overcome poverty, non-profit organizations) directors, where he is using these ideas to form his mode of communication.