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					Bei Zhang: carry Academia Sinica curtain call
Bei Zhang: carry Academia Sinica curtain call
?■ Tao Sun reporter
October 29, 107-year-old Zhang Bei away in sleeping.
Bei Zhang is the 1948 "Academia Sinica" one of 81
academicians and also the last one to leave, he took a time to flee.
Bei Zhang family in mourning mourning hall before the portrait of Tony and old,
simple, serene. In his eyes caught the attention of a signature book, the reporter saw
the signature of Yang Wei of Zhejiang University. Bei Zhang not only was born in
Zhejiang, and crafts for the Department of Biology, Zhejiang University for 20 years,
from 1930 to 1950.
On the day before his death, Bei Zhang, Peking University, Professor Linke Chun
discussion misses "Spiral fat" issues, the discussion lasted about
one and a half hours. "You do at least half a year!" Bei Zhang
told Linke Chun.
Bei Zhang life concerns the origin and evolution of life of cells, just as concerned
about their lives as cell renewal, can be used for this conjecture: the old view that
Linke Chun Pui "biological three basic elements - proteins, nucleic acids,
lipids form a helix are possible" Inheritance of a similar idea with its
original spirit.
News media used the "well-known biologist and educator, founder of
China and the pioneer of biological physics" title dedicated to him. As
early as 1949, was selected as the "Academia Sinica" Fellow
occasion Bei Zhang for selected reasons, "Cytology and Experimental
Morphology, Department of Biology, Zhejiang University, presided over"
has enough weight, and whether in personnel training and the subsequent biological
physics, radiation biology and other disciplines to promote development - even
though reporters have contacted a number of scholars believe that the old beta cells is
not even the great achievements of the reconstruction.
Wang Gu Bei Zhang Yan told aides "Science News", until his
death, Tony is not regular old every Wednesday to discuss the work, from this point
that a generation can glimpse the scientific attitude and commitment.
Bei Zhang and Overview "Zhejiang - Germany - Zhejiang University -
Beijing" entire life, Zhu Kezhen, Su Buqing, Alice Cai, Chern ... ... and
other academicians figure also followed.
"54" on-street cry
In May 1919 in that famous campaign, Shanghai is also excited. Student meetings,
processions everywhere publicity. At this time 16 years Bei Zhang had left home in
Ningbo, came to Shanghai Tongji Medical College Engineering (Tongji University
formerly) German arts school. He also raised the flag of paper followed.
May 11, Simon public stadium in Shanghai, Tongji students sentiment went to the
memorial service, "54" campaign the only martyr Kuo
Ch'in light of the locale. Two representatives at Peking University Xu
Deheng and Yang Zhongjian dedicated to reporting stories of martyrs. Yang Zhongjian
of which was also to study in Germany, to the "Dinosaur, Muslim Xinjiang
and Shandong's Lystrosaurus fossils of frogs, hosted by the Geological
Survey of New Generation Research," paleontologist, geologist was
elected at the Academia Sinica Academy of Sciences.
During this period, the same as the "Academia Sinica" Fellow
of the second installment of "Boxer students," Hu, has since
returned from Cornell University students to become university professor, and put
into the "new youth" of editing.
At the same time, and Hu with the second batch of 70 students Boxer Indemnity Chao
has received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, he returned to Cornell University
who majored in mathematics teaching, and then returned in 1920 Tsinghua taught
physics, mathematics and psychology.
Boxer Indemnity same group of students Kezhen and Bei Zhang tied many lives, he
was entitled in 1918 to "the Far East Typhoon's new
classification," PhD thesis at Harvard University. He then returned to the
normal university, Wuhan (Wuhan University) taught.
Hu and Chiang Meng-lin on Sun Yat-sen in Shanghai will visit when Bei Zhang is
holding paper flags, scream running the streets in Shanghai.
Studying in Germany
Although the majority of Chinese people at that time because the reasons for the
Boxer Indemnity study in the U.S., but Bei Zhang chosen study in Germany. Autumn
1921, Bei Zhang, Tongji Medical matriculation in. Bei Zhang and her father just about
800, via Hong Kong, Hanoi, Singapore, Ceylon, and then by the Arabian Gulf, Red
Sea, the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, after he landed in Marseilles, France, take
the train to Freiburg, after a months.
Germany during this period, until the mid-20th century, 30, has been the world center
of scientific development, its physics, chemistry, biology and medicine are at the top
level of the world, Einstein, Heisenberg, Bohr led scientists Star high points.
Bei Zhang did not continue to study medicine, but chose College. A year later, he
transferred to the University of Munich, where he studied under a zoologist want
Hertwig. Bei Zhang seize every opportunity to lecture to learn, but Hertwig to retire,
the old professor took young Bei Zhang Bin introduced to the soil zoologist at the
University Blochmann root.
University of Tubingen in the soil, Bei Zhang met Yang Zhongjian. They listen to an
old biology class Broili, a good talk.
The same origin, Zhu Jiahua, Tongji German matriculation (after "Jurassic
limestone of Germany, founded and presided over the Geological Survey of Guangxi
and laid the basis of geological research in South China" elected members
of Academia Sinica), I also study in Germany. However, at this time is the Peking
University professor Zhu status, and after becoming a professor of philosophy
University of Berlin (also known as Geology) PhD.
During this period, mathematician Su Buqing to Japan, and later received a Doctorate
of Science, Tohoku Imperial University; geneticist Li has heard to the United States,
and later received a doctorate from Cornell University genetics; later served as deputy
director of Chinese Academy of Microbiology's Teng group also Cornell
University has received a master's degree and plant pathology doctorate in
forest. The physicist Zhao Zhongyao was in 1927 went to California Institute of
Technology study.
From Hangzhou rushing to Zunyi
In March 1928 graduated from the University of Tubingen in the soil, Bei Zhang
received a Ph.D. Natural Science, the doctoral dissertation is "vinegar
worm life cycle stages and under various experimental morphology."
Autumn of 1929, Bei Zhang returned to China to worship Chiang Meng-lin met with
Minister of Education, Chiang put him enthusiastically introduced to the newly
established Department of Biology, Zhejiang University.
Bei Zhang Despite very pleased, but not quite trust what it says is great. He also went
to his alma mater, Tongji, where he met Alice Tsai. Choi in 1925 at the Department of
Physiology, University of Chicago Ph.D., after the "nervous system
anatomy, physiology and metabolism of carbohydrates, presided over the Central
University School of Medicine Department of Physiology," elected to the
Academia Sinica.
Alice Choi just want to go abroad to speak on behalf of physiology class Pui year, but
the shell for various considerations, politely refused. So when Zhang Cai Yun Nobel
to Zhejiang University Psychology Department recommendation for Guo Ren Yuan
wrote.
August 1930, Bei Zhang candidates to Zhejiang University associate professor,
created the "one person" Department of Biology, he proposed
the development of the main direction of Experimental Biology. In this way, Bei
Zhang threw himself into the Department of Biology, Zhejiang University of the
building has gone, his day painting the wall charts and order books and equipment,
preparation of teaching materials.
This time, Bei Zhang accent, English is not good, then you do not understand German.
Bei Zhang persevered, and increasingly successful, but also the assistant Zhu Bao
Wang (Zhu from psychology to physiology, a Chinese Academy of Sciences
Acdemy).
Zhejiang University in 1936, has been chaired by the Kezhen. Impact and at this time
has been put into the leadership of Academia Sinica, the National Meteorological
Institute of the construction of the national meteorological agency. Because of his
outstanding research and work, he was "China climate science, climate
areas, storm generation, flood and drought distribution, geography, Academia Sinica,
who chaired Meteorological Institute" was chosen of the Academia Sinica.
But soon took place, "77" Incident, the Japanese planes began
bombing Hangzhou. Impact and led the move four times Zhejiang 633, via Zhejiang,
Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou and six provinces, beginning in 1940
finally arrived in Zunyi, Guizhou Province. Period, Bei Zhang in the box in 1928
when the fall of PhD certificate is lost in Hangzhou.
Just Kezhen, Bei Zhang abjection move when Hu had been Ambassador to the
Republic of China. Hu in the United States over a period of 5 years of dedicated,
non-stop rush for the American people support the Chinese government to do
propaganda against Japan. Hu Shi's academic achievement is also
significant to his later history of Chinese thought and research into the history of
Chinese literature ranks of the Academia Sinica.
Everyone has a different choice. Chao this time at the University of Hawaii professor
of Chinese music program, from 1938 to 1941 has taught at Yale University. 1946,
Education Minister Zhu Jiahua please Chao served as president of the Central
University in Nanjing, they were Zhao declined.
Against Japan's most prestigious comes as Southwest Associated
University. In Zhang Boling, Yiqi, under the leadership of Chiang Meng-lin, the later
of the Academia Sinica Wu Ta-you, Hua, Wu Xun, Chen Yin Ke, Dai Fanglan, Jin Yue,
Chern are on the the coach.
The Romanian plant physiologist in the 1940 Los cases from the Central University
Department of Biology, Zhejiang University to teach.
Selection of the Academia Sinica
April 1, 1948, Academia Sinica academician published the first list of 81
mathematical group of 28 people, 25 biological groups, cultural groups 28. Of up to
83-year-old thinker Wu Jingheng, the youngest is 37-year-old mathematician Chern.
Bei Zhang learned that he was elected to the Academia Sinica, and was invited in
August to open Academy of Sciences meeting in Nanjing. Impact and asked him to
find the details, Impact and tell Tony: Zhejiang University has 3 selected, that is, Zhu,
Tony and Su Buqing, and Tony and Su were the candidates he recommended.
In late September, three meetings with the train to Nanjing, China on his way and is
known as the founder of modern botany money Chong Shu same car.
September 23, 1948 morning, the rain-shrouded, Academician of Academia Sinica of
the first session of the Academia Sinica in Nanjing Jiming Temple hall, to be more
than 50 academicians. Impact and Japan, according to records, Academia Sinica
President Jiang Zhu Jiahua will read a speech about 10 minutes, then Fellow of the
Economic and Zhang Yuan Hu on behalf of speech. The Academy 81 people 18
people in a foreign country, such as Hua, Wu Ta, Guo, Li Siguang, etc., leave of
absence who Wujing Heng, Chen Yin Ke, Liang Siyong other 10 people.
Bei Zhang shortly after the meeting, the father went to the funeral home cooking, but
at this time of the Academia Sinica president Zhu Jiahua concerns at stake in the
Nanjing government, but he still misses the KMT authorities of nuclear science. Zhu
early in 1946, Central University physics professor Zhao Zhongyao sent to the Pacific
island to visit the United States Bikini atomic bomb test is obviously not only for
Zhao Zhongyao visit, after which he returned to his alma mater, California Institute of
Technology will continue to engage in research related to learning. Zhao Zhongyao to
stay in the United States, gamma ray, neutron absorption and radiation of the elected
members of Academia Sinica, when the Chinese regime change after the return to
New China Zhao Zhongyao chosen.
Choose to remain in China
Tense political situation at this time, and currency collapse. Bei Zhang from the home
back to Hangzhou, and found that most need to do is to immediately buy rice.
But now things have Zhu Kezhen headache is Bei Zhang by taking into account of the
failure. April 28, 1949, Impact and received the Mayor of Hangzhou Yu Jimin notice,
"Trouble-speed transfer Zhejiang University Zhujiao Zhang, Wang
Shanghai early hand."
May 2, when the Impact and took to the streets in Shanghai 8:00 occasion buy biscuits
full breakfast, see the "News" contains news Kezhen fly to
Taiwan. Zhu, "greatly troubled, I do not know of any to this
message." He then passers-by met Chiang Ching-kuo Chiang persuaded
Taiwan, Impact and politely refused the.
May 26, all of the liberation of Shanghai, Zhu Kezhen see the
"People's Liberation Army is very good order, not to bully
people see things." He and Bing talked about political, very speculative.
They all thought that the KMT is the KMT's loss of the self service. Impact
and wrote in his diary that day: "In 1927 / 1928, the Chiang Kai-shek of
Taiwan in the unanimous choice, but 10 years, Gang Bizi private, sweep, indulge
corruption, Death to ruin, do not also Xi Hu?"
And Adherence to study plants and animals were ranked as the founder of the Bing is
also the Academia Sinica, his main task is to study comparative anatomy and
entomology, and has chaired the Science Society of China Institute of Biology.
Bing, Impact and have chosen to stay.
Formation of Chinese Academy of Sciences
May 27, 1949, Compton effect, the researchers are training to find Kezhen Wu
Shanghai Science and academic groups on the scientific community assembly. Impact
and that "the occasion of the Northern Expedition in 1927, the people of
joy as today. Hope that the Communist Party to work hard in the end, not as KMT
corruption. Science for the building is very important, I hope to attach importance to
the Communist Party."
June 1949, Bei Zhang and Su Buqing to Beijing to attend the National Natural
Science Workers Congress preparatory meetings, participation in the proposed
Chinese Academy of Sciences. Convenor of the Preparatory Meeting of the reasons
there Yanjici, Sun Yun Zhu, Bei Zhang 3. The meeting discussed mainly about serving
the people, theory with practice and the mass line and other ideological problems.
This generation of intellectuals do not keep up with the Chinese Communist
Party's ideology. June 9, 1949 in Shanghai, "Academia
Sinica" set up to commemorate the 21 anniversary of Chen Yi, Zhang Yuan
Ji, Gu, Mao Yisheng, attended. Kezhen account: "When Propaganda von
highest in the world set about the principles of Marxism-Leninism, that the subjective
views of the proletariat than the bourgeoisie, more objective and impartial advice,
statement-consuming solution."
Bei Zhang returned to the occasion, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Yinchu the president already.
The study was China's financial market and financial principals have good
relations with Bei Zhang, and often encourage shellfish research.
When a file to be transferred to the Chinese Academy of Sciences Zhang Bei work,
Ma reluctant. After the horses have been transferred to Beijing to do principals, This
agreement shell out. The occasion of his departure, Tony Tan Zhen recommended its
successor, and Biology Department, Dean of the post.
Bei Zhang as one input to the Shanghai Institute of Experimental Biology preparation
went. The Impact and then in October 1949 served as vice president in the post of
Division, Dean Guo. During the preparation Kezhen had recommended WU Yu and Li
Siguang Lu Dingyi as president, while the Zhou Dynasty and Lu Dingyi mentioned do
two inscriptions of the Guo.
Academia Sinica's end
In 1952, the Bei Zhang, Feng Depei attended the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Delegation Visit to Soviet Union, during the Bei Zhang contact with the Soviet Union
Academy of Agricultural Sciences Dean Lysenko. Pride of the Lysenko doctrine has
emphasized the importance of Michurin, but the big criticism of their opposing views.
Bei Zhang unconvinced, but did not refute. But "Lysenko
incident" in China, the implications of the genetics community is
extremely poor, in addition to Li Jing, Beijing Agricultural University were caused by
leaving the U.S., botanist, of the Academia Sinica Adherence has also been hit.
In 1954, Bei Zhang was transferred to the Beijing Institute of Beijing preparation is
the derivative of the Working Group. After that, he became the Chinese Academy of
Sciences in 1955 Acdemy.
Most of the Academia Sinica in Natural member became the Chinese Academy of
Sciences Acdemy, but there are exceptions, such as the Adherence (mainly for
political reasons, died in 1968 of persecution), Jiang Lifu (mainly for political reasons,
1978 February 3 died of illness in Guangzhou), Wu Dingliang (March 24, 1969, died
in the persecution).
July 1958, Bei Zhang, started Biophysics, guiding the biological physics, radiation
biology research, in addition, his life is tied to the cell reconstruction work.
April 20, 1971, of international law and diplomacy of the Academia Sinica weeks
choke students died. Year on April 29, Li Siguang the occasion of the death, but frail
in the leisure and vice president of Impact and that subjects were Luo Luo, Hong Yin
Zhang were liberated, Feng Depei can be liberated soon. Impact and has been a matter
of fact this time, "idle", Yinchu as early as 1960, the population
problem was dismissed by the office of university president.
At this point, Impact and hearing only 20% of the alarm clock by ear, left ear can hear,
right ear can barely hear.
January 4, 1973, Impact and director of that micro-organisms, of the Academia Sinica
Dai Fanglan died, Kezhen and Dai Fanglan the 20th century, Southeast University, 20
years old colleague, who reported: "After the liberation in Beijing 22 years,
never in contact, This shows that the intellectuals of a boy's, not the old
habits of cooperation. because in the Southeast University, wearing the College of
Agriculture, I am logical Institute, and Agricultural Management Institute for the
funding of two things to compete substandard. this news died because of this book as
a souvenir. "
February 7, 1974 Impact and death due to lung disease in Beijing, at the age of 83.
The day before, he was still a diary. Su Buqing his colleagues at Zhejiang University,
March 17, 2003 in Shanghai, has died at 102 years old.
In 2000, the youngest of the Academia Sinica Chern returned to the motherland and
settle in Nankai University. He was the first Shaw Prize in 2004, after the death of the
year on Dec. 3.
In 2009, Bei Zhang left. Thus, the rage of the Academia Sinica put a full stop.
He died before he goes on the first meeting of the group photo of the Academia Sinica
has also been on many descendants of the desk, constantly being recalled, Mi for a
long time often new.

References:
1. "Bei Zhang Biography", Ningbo University Press, 2009
2. "Kezhen diary Ⅱ", People's Publishing House,
1984
3. "Kezhen diary Ⅴ", Science Press, 1990

4. "Welcomed" Mr "," Jiangsu Education
Press, 2003

				
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