Archives of the Soong ?Respondents Wu Jingping □ □ professor of history at Fudan University in an interview with Southern Weekend reporter Zhu Qiang 2007-11-29 16:29:24 &quot;Soong is a pragmatic liberal faction within the KMT, more westernized, the establishment of a more complete sense of modern China&#39;s financial and monetary system to stop the Japanese invasion, to seek international assistance to improve China&#39;s international status, made a significant contribution&quot; Professor Wu Jingping is the authority on TV Soong, the Republic of historians, &quot;written by Soong Critical Biography&quot;, was well received. Since 2005, Professor Wu made three trips to the Hoover Institute, read the diary excerpt Chiang, Soong file, is one of the few published historical data for these new scholars with one voice. Negative figures over the past recent years, an objective assessment of gradual Southern Weekend: Soong is the most controversial figures in modern history, historians at home and abroad for his basic assessment of what? What changes have taken place in recent years? Wu Jingping: Soong in the past is a fundamental denial of the figure: &quot;Legend,&quot; a representative of &quot;civil war criminals&quot;, the KMT&#39;s pro-American faction and so on. Gradually in recent years with an objective evaluation. &quot;History, such as adjudication and rule&quot;, I think the merits and demerits of Soong&#39;s history should not be simplified treatment, it should be in accordance with the basic historical facts based on historical data to fully tap its scientific and factual judged. For example, Soong is a pragmatic liberal faction within the KMT, Bijiao Westernization, the establishment of modern China than in the full sense of financial Jinrongzhidu of curb Japan&#39;s aggression, seeking international Yuan Zhu and enhance China&#39;s international status, have made important contributions. Kuomintang, Soong as a party representative, the official ban on its public criticism; the DPP came to power, the KMT regime in the evaluation of the occurrence of a tendency to disregard historical facts, only starting from the ideology, summarily reject such say you is a foreign government, corruption and so on. Currently in Taiwan, and representatives of the Republic of history, the lack of an objective study of the environment, but has been difficult to obtain government funding. Soong criticized Hu on U.S. foreign policy is too bookish Southern Weekend: Soong file, Chiang Kai-shek diaries and other important historical materials gradually open, on the history of the Republic of China to promote cross-strait What is the significance? Evaluation of the Soong&#39;s history can change or provide a new interpretation of? Wu Jingping: The historical study of the history of the Republic of China is undoubtedly very important, but relatively short time since opening. Over time, if one can the information of selected exemplary Selected, school note, or openly published the full-scale figures and objective evaluation of Zhexie History of the Republic of China is of important role in promoting the present, Fudan University in cooperation with the Hoover Institution-related work. Historians had some research in this area, even if the results are non-political discourse areas, but also specific enough depth. Also in the views and methods, to truly respect the history. Many important historical figures demeanor, there was a specific historical conditions, has been the historical facts can not be changed; we love and hate will not change its nature. Should not be content only to give some common, abstract conclusion. Song Jiang example of relations, we should concern Japanese War Soong Chiang Kai-shek&#39;s representatives and the Minister of Foreign Affairs as a permanent role of the United States during, and Song with the then Ambassador to the relationship between Hu Shi, have become an unavoidable issue. Hu, Sung and the two do not become conclusive, in Hu Shi&#39;s diary have been involved. Of this history, if only to see his diary, said Hu did not measure and so a number of public comments, it will leave a bully Hu Song, delays in the national and foreign affairs image. After I went to Hoover, the TV Soong Chiang Kai-shek diaries in archives and all relevant parts of the extract and research, is now basically have a clearer conclusion. When war broke out in 1937, the National Government is the veteran diplomat Ambassador Wang Zhengting, U.S. assistance was very conservative, the king several times in the report, said U.S. aid in the fight for important achievements, but afterwards they show on the U.S. brokers as not only a lot of money wasted, but bungled the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Chiang Kai-shek decided to replace him, the appointment of Ambassador Hu Shi. Hu often use their personal reputation in the United States made a speech, on the U.S. government to understand and support China&#39;s Anti-Japanese War played a role, but Chiang Kai-shek government&#39;s most urgent need is immediate military, financial aid, so more reliable Kung Shanghai Commercial and Savings Bank, the President Chen Guangfu has sent in the past, in order to strengthen the U.S. industrial, commercial and financial links, registered in the United States set up the World Trade Corporation, and has reached two loans, but the war with Chiang&#39;s demands and needs of China is still far behind. It is contained in the diary, Chiang Kai-shek in fact already on the Hu dissatisfaction, including Hu repeatedly accepted U.S. universities awarded an honorary doctorate. Chiang think that as Ambassador to the U.S. should not spend too much energy in these areas. Chiang frustrations over time, continues to deepen. He has repeatedly prepared to Hu back home, and considered Wellington Koo, Sze, and the many successor, Hu therefore also worried that staying in the U.S., have a negative impact in foreign affairs, a moment of hesitation, until after the outbreak of the Pacific War, in 1942 8 only months removed from Hu&#39;s ambassador duties. Soong as an envoy to the United States in June 1940, the Chiang not only authorized him to engage in diplomatic representations on behalf of the Chinese Government, also specified in the United States apply for the &quot;loans do not have to talk over with Hu, please brother as they carry out its own&quot; and contact the specific circumstances of U.S. military aid should be confidential to the world trading company. Soong on Hu&#39;s diplomacy in the United States are not satisfied with his telegram to Chiang Kai-shek, Hu repeatedly mentioned in dealing with some problem, some say wrong; in the United States on China&#39;s situation is inaccurate, incomplete or even wrong, be misleading. Song Jiang also reported some of the important messages that Chiang specify delivery to Hu, they were unable to find Hu, as he left a speech in Washington went out. Chiang Sung to the United States when the request had a government specific position, because as the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek is &quot;unknown job status&quot; on the adverse diplomatic work in the United States, Jiang is not promised, in this case, the song that should have a strong effective ambassadors to work with him, such people like Hu, bookish too strong, longer than the pontificating to sit with the arms dealers, finance and other dignitaries and politicians deal with lack of experience. Through the analysis of these files, we can further understand the true causes of Song Hu complain and background, as well as Chiang Kai-shek, Song, the complex relationship between Hu. &quot;What is not Soong billionaire&quot; Southern Weekend: &quot;Soong Dynasty&quot; disclosure, Soong&#39;s assets up to hundreds of millions of dollars, he has no record of this file or special instructions? Wu Jingping: Soong files have a very clear statistics and records. Song handwriting in ink his own name the number of assets, including what a bond worth more; his wife Zhang Leyi were recorded separately. I have the impression that he died in the file records of its total assets of the seven or eight million, including real estate, what is not a billionaire. Soong records show that he held his own portfolio is very sensitive to fluctuations in market prices, frequently logs Change exact figures, minor Bianhua such property was also concerned about 可以 from another angle, he is not a wealthy. In addition, he was in office&#39;s representative, Minister of Foreign Affairs during the official fees in fact very limited, such as his defense in the United States set up the supply company to rent, hire many foreign workers, not enough government funding for recurrent expenditure. How do? Files show, Song asked the Bank of China in his personal account the money set aside to maintain the operation of national defense supply company. In addition, he maintains a file of correspondence from the Ministry of Finance to the Song that is your current level of Foreign Ministers (the end of 1941, the foreign minister, Song), to give you the wages and payments to overseas makeup, how much amount is . Song replied that it was his understanding that the makeup is non-compliance, especially for subordinates to be returned and requested the check. These data not only from the song files themselves, are assigned the records, such as his secretary. In short, the Song of the file is relatively preserved relatively complete, and many important historical documents related to the original or copies are retained, a higher value. Southern Weekend: The Soong is the most evil comments, including his four big families, including corruption, indirectly leading to the KMT in mainland China have completely failed. Wu Jingping: the reasons for the collapse of the Kuomintang in China are complex, and corruption is only one fundamental reason is institutional. Kung file not open, temporarily aside. Song in the Anti-Japanese War is not over finances, he resigned in 1933, the central bank president and finance minister post, two posts until the end of 1944 has been held Kung. Bore the financial authority firmly in his hands, then all this dissatisfaction with Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang&#39;s diary records, Kong Lianzheng government in the end not to tell him how much foreign exchange reserves, leading to Chiang dependence on the policy of the United States a miscarriage of justice, Chiang in his diary that if had known the truth, would not place undue reliance on the United States. Kung did not even tell the Chiang family property treasury, not to mention a Song. Anti-Japanese War, Song, Kong is very contradictory. Kong is the executive vice president of the central bank president, who reached U.S. loans and financial assistance are in his control. According to Soong Recorded Song of the hole deep dissatisfaction with the style, including his loans in the United States led to an agreement hole immediately replied, then you do not control, which is something I am Ministry of Finance. In 1942, the United States reached 500 million U.S. dollars loan agreement, a few days, Kung announced to spend 200 million U.S. dollars, for the issue of U.S. bonds. The United States was shocked, asked the Chinese to spend such a large loan, how without warning in advance, it was announced to the media. Song is also very angry, sent a letter to Chiang Kai-shek for U.S. aid after the things that I care. This incident shows that Anti-Japanese War Song if you want to use improper means to embezzle U.S. loans and aid corruption is almost impossible. Chiang Kai-shek is to trust ourselves, not sure Soong Southern Weekend: The latest file information are able to Chiang Kong, the relationship between the Song to provide three new interpretation of? Wu Jingping: file not open holes. We can only be observed under the existing historical data, see the 8-year war situation. Chiang Kai-shek and Soong&#39;s relationship more reflected in the civil service, but also business-like. The relationship between Jiang and the hole would be more close to home, such work would be the way to the hole on his way home to eat a family dinner, birthday of the younger generation are met, the engagement ceremony, and he will go. Oi-ling Soong Chiang&#39;s diaries are in frequent, Jiang called her big sister, and her dealings more. Wait until the bad relations between Chiang Kong, Chiang decided to reuse the Song, Yuan allowed to serve as Acting President, together with Song made in Sino-US diplomatic good results, but also to help Chiang resolve the problem Stilwell, Chiang only Soong one came forward to congratulate the birthday dinner, Chiang&#39;s diary during the war, only this time. Few other things other than official said Song, even though there are more than a rebuke of Song, said Song personality is too strong, opinionated, do not listen to him (Jiang) and so forth. Southern Weekend: Song in U.S. aid to make such great efforts and contributions, enough to show his ability, but it sure why the Chiang hole? Wu Jingping: KMT regime at that time as a state machine about the operation, causing the collapse of his regime&#39;s fundamental system of where the problem lies behind the deep reasons for that? Over the years I have had some new thinking. For example, in the more difficult war period, the domestic fiscal and financial situation is not good, the currency depreciation, general feeling of insecurity, the military on the defensive, reasonably high-level government and party between those who should work together to seek common ground, excluding personal grudges, together against Japanese aggression. May actually not the case. Chiang Sung has been worried about his true attitude, he has failed to take advantage Chiang is not trust him. Song of the files it records, letter of inquiry that he had the money Chang Chiu, chairman of what my views, including the recent hole is how to see and so, on this family relationship, the subordinate relationship, Song no such confidence. Political democracy in favor of war Southern Weekend: You have 3 times to the United States access to the Hoover Institute and research files Soong Chiang Kai-shek diaries, these materials are not particularly impressed that you are? Wu Jingping: A more important finding: resistance occurred during the unification of political democracy movement to the Kuomintang The formation of democracy, &quot;Ta Kung Pao,&quot; also published critical articles on the Chiang government. Song was in the United States, to hear the news from a friend after Chongqing favor, he thought the war should have a certain period of China&#39;s political democracy and progress. This is the first time I saw Song expressed his idea of political democracy in favor of war, of course, these views have not appeared in press, is in communication with domestic friends reflected. There Ryukyu Islands, in May 1943 under the Song and the transcript of President Roosevelt, Soong formally proposed, the anti-fascist war ended, the recovery of Northeast China and Taiwan, Okinawa, Roosevelt agreed. However, during the Cairo Conference the same year, Jiang Xiangying beauty about Okinawa&#39;s sovereignty issue, said China and the United States after the war only to participate with the management of the Ryukyu Islands, is an international trusteeship, not to recover. Why is there this difference? I think the important factor is the relationship between Chiang Sung Stilwell before the meeting in Cairo broke down the incident, Chiang wrath, refused to see Song, not to deal with foreign official Song, Song could not attend the Cairo meeting. Such an important international conference, Minister of Foreign Affairs was unable to attend, It is strange? He then went to those staff may simply not know the song, and Roosevelt had that kind of talk.