Archives of the Soong

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?Respondents Wu Jingping □ □ professor of history at Fudan University in an
interview with Southern Weekend reporter Zhu Qiang 2007-11-29 16:29:24

"Soong is a pragmatic liberal faction within the KMT, more westernized,
the establishment of a more complete sense of modern China's financial
and monetary system to stop the Japanese invasion, to seek international assistance to
improve      China's     international   status,    made      a    significant

Professor Wu Jingping is the authority on TV Soong, the Republic of historians,
"written by Soong Critical Biography", was well received.
Since 2005, Professor Wu made three trips to the Hoover Institute, read the diary
excerpt Chiang, Soong file, is one of the few published historical data for these new
scholars with one voice.

Negative figures over the past recent years, an objective assessment of gradual

Southern Weekend: Soong is the most controversial figures in modern history,
historians at home and abroad for his basic assessment of what? What changes have
taken place in recent years?

Wu Jingping: Soong in the past is a fundamental denial of the figure:
"Legend," a representative of "civil war
criminals", the KMT's pro-American faction and so on.
Gradually in recent years with an objective evaluation. "History, such as
adjudication and rule", I think the merits and demerits of
Soong's history should not be simplified treatment, it should be in
accordance with the basic historical facts based on historical data to fully tap its
scientific and factual judged. For example, Soong is a pragmatic liberal faction within
the KMT, Bijiao Westernization, the establishment of modern China than in the full
sense of financial Jinrongzhidu of curb Japan's aggression, seeking
international Yuan Zhu and enhance China's international status, have
made important contributions.

Kuomintang, Soong as a party representative, the official ban on its public criticism;
the DPP came to power, the KMT regime in the evaluation of the occurrence of a
tendency to disregard historical facts, only starting from the ideology, summarily
reject such say you is a foreign government, corruption and so on. Currently in
Taiwan, and representatives of the Republic of history, the lack of an objective study
of the environment, but has been difficult to obtain government funding.

Soong criticized Hu on U.S. foreign policy is too bookish
Southern Weekend: Soong file, Chiang Kai-shek diaries and other important historical
materials gradually open, on the history of the Republic of China to promote
cross-strait What is the significance? Evaluation of the Soong's history can
change or provide a new interpretation of?

Wu Jingping: The historical study of the history of the Republic of China is
undoubtedly very important, but relatively short time since opening. Over time, if one
can the information of selected exemplary Selected, school note, or openly published
the full-scale figures and objective evaluation of Zhexie History of the Republic of
China is of important role in promoting the present, Fudan University in cooperation
with the Hoover Institution-related work.

Historians had some research in this area, even if the results are non-political
discourse areas, but also specific enough depth. Also in the views and methods, to
truly respect the history. Many important historical figures demeanor, there was a
specific historical conditions, has been the historical facts can not be changed; we
love and hate will not change its nature. Should not be content only to give some
common, abstract conclusion.

Song Jiang example of relations, we should concern Japanese War Soong Chiang
Kai-shek's representatives and the Minister of Foreign Affairs as a
permanent role of the United States during, and Song with the then Ambassador to the
relationship between Hu Shi, have become an unavoidable issue. Hu, Sung and the
two do not become conclusive, in Hu Shi's diary have been involved. Of
this history, if only to see his diary, said Hu did not measure and so a number of
public comments, it will leave a bully Hu Song, delays in the national and foreign
affairs image. After I went to Hoover, the TV Soong Chiang Kai-shek diaries in
archives and all relevant parts of the extract and research, is now basically have a
clearer conclusion.

When war broke out in 1937, the National Government is the veteran diplomat
Ambassador Wang Zhengting, U.S. assistance was very conservative, the king several
times in the report, said U.S. aid in the fight for important achievements, but
afterwards they show on the U.S. brokers as not only a lot of money wasted, but
bungled the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Chiang Kai-shek decided to replace him,
the appointment of Ambassador Hu Shi. Hu often use their personal reputation in the
United States made a speech, on the U.S. government to understand and support
China's Anti-Japanese War played a role, but Chiang Kai-shek
government's most urgent need is immediate military, financial aid, so
more reliable Kung Shanghai Commercial and Savings Bank, the President Chen
Guangfu has sent in the past, in order to strengthen the U.S. industrial, commercial
and financial links, registered in the United States set up the World Trade Corporation,
and has reached two loans, but the war with Chiang's demands and needs
of China is still far behind.
It is contained in the diary, Chiang Kai-shek in fact already on the Hu dissatisfaction,
including Hu repeatedly accepted U.S. universities awarded an honorary doctorate.
Chiang think that as Ambassador to the U.S. should not spend too much energy in
these areas. Chiang frustrations over time, continues to deepen. He has repeatedly
prepared to Hu back home, and considered Wellington Koo, Sze, and the many
successor, Hu therefore also worried that staying in the U.S., have a negative impact
in foreign affairs, a moment of hesitation, until after the outbreak of the Pacific War,
in 1942 8 only months removed from Hu's ambassador duties. Soong as an
envoy to the United States in June 1940, the Chiang not only authorized him to
engage in diplomatic representations on behalf of the Chinese Government, also
specified in the United States apply for the "loans do not have to talk over
with Hu, please brother as they carry out its own" and contact the specific
circumstances of U.S. military aid should be confidential to the world trading

Soong on Hu's diplomacy in the United States are not satisfied with his
telegram to Chiang Kai-shek, Hu repeatedly mentioned in dealing with some problem,
some say wrong; in the United States on China's situation is inaccurate,
incomplete or even wrong, be misleading. Song Jiang also reported some of the
important messages that Chiang specify delivery to Hu, they were unable to find Hu,
as he left a speech in Washington went out. Chiang Sung to the United States when
the request had a government specific position, because as the representatives of
Chiang Kai-shek is "unknown job status" on the adverse
diplomatic work in the United States, Jiang is not promised, in this case, the song that
should have a strong effective ambassadors to work with him, such people like Hu,
bookish too strong, longer than the pontificating to sit with the arms dealers, finance
and other dignitaries and politicians deal with lack of experience.

Through the analysis of these files, we can further understand the true causes of Song
Hu complain and background, as well as Chiang Kai-shek, Song, the complex
relationship between Hu.

"What is not Soong billionaire"

Southern       Weekend:        "Soong Dynasty"       disclosure,
Soong's assets up to hundreds of millions of dollars, he has no record of
this file or special instructions?

Wu Jingping: Soong files have a very clear statistics and records. Song handwriting in
ink his own name the number of assets, including what a bond worth more; his wife
Zhang Leyi were recorded separately. I have the impression that he died in the file
records of its total assets of the seven or eight million, including real estate, what is
not a billionaire.
Soong records show that he held his own portfolio is very sensitive to fluctuations in
market prices, frequently logs Change exact figures, minor Bianhua such property
was also concerned about 可以 from another angle, he is not a wealthy. In addition,
he was in office's representative, Minister of Foreign Affairs during the
official fees in fact very limited, such as his defense in the United States set up the
supply company to rent, hire many foreign workers, not enough government funding
for recurrent expenditure. How do? Files show, Song asked the Bank of China in his
personal account the money set aside to maintain the operation of national defense
supply company. In addition, he maintains a file of correspondence from the Ministry
of Finance to the Song that is your current level of Foreign Ministers (the end of 1941,
the foreign minister, Song), to give you the wages and payments to overseas makeup,
how much amount is . Song replied that it was his understanding that the makeup is
non-compliance, especially for subordinates to be returned and requested the check.
These data not only from the song files themselves, are assigned the records, such as
his secretary.

In short, the Song of the file is relatively preserved relatively complete, and many
important historical documents related to the original or copies are retained, a higher

Southern Weekend: The Soong is the most evil comments, including his four big
families, including corruption, indirectly leading to the KMT in mainland China have
completely failed.

Wu Jingping: the reasons for the collapse of the Kuomintang in China are complex,
and corruption is only one fundamental reason is institutional. Kung file not open,
temporarily aside. Song in the Anti-Japanese War is not over finances, he resigned in
1933, the central bank president and finance minister post, two posts until the end of
1944 has been held Kung. Bore the financial authority firmly in his hands, then all
this dissatisfaction with Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang's diary records, Kong
Lianzheng government in the end not to tell him how much foreign exchange reserves,
leading to Chiang dependence on the policy of the United States a miscarriage of
justice, Chiang in his diary that if had known the truth, would not place undue
reliance on the United States.

Kung did not even tell the Chiang family property treasury, not to mention a Song.
Anti-Japanese War, Song, Kong is very contradictory. Kong is the executive vice
president of the central bank president, who reached U.S. loans and financial
assistance are in his control. According to Soong Recorded Song of the hole deep
dissatisfaction with the style, including his loans in the United States led to an
agreement hole immediately replied, then you do not control, which is something I am
Ministry of Finance. In 1942, the United States reached 500 million U.S. dollars loan
agreement, a few days, Kung announced to spend 200 million U.S. dollars, for the
issue of U.S. bonds. The United States was shocked, asked the Chinese to spend such
a large loan, how without warning in advance, it was announced to the media. Song is
also very angry, sent a letter to Chiang Kai-shek for U.S. aid after the things that I
care. This incident shows that Anti-Japanese War Song if you want to use improper
means to embezzle U.S. loans and aid corruption is almost impossible.

Chiang Kai-shek is to trust ourselves, not sure Soong

Southern Weekend: The latest file information are able to Chiang Kong, the
relationship between the Song to provide three new interpretation of?

Wu Jingping: file not open holes. We can only be observed under the existing
historical data, see the 8-year war situation.

Chiang Kai-shek and Soong's relationship more reflected in the civil
service, but also business-like. The relationship between Jiang and the hole would be
more close to home, such work would be the way to the hole on his way home to eat a
family dinner, birthday of the younger generation are met, the engagement ceremony,
and he will go. Oi-ling Soong Chiang's diaries are in frequent, Jiang called
her big sister, and her dealings more.

Wait until the bad relations between Chiang Kong, Chiang decided to reuse the Song,
Yuan allowed to serve as Acting President, together with Song made in Sino-US
diplomatic good results, but also to help Chiang resolve the problem Stilwell, Chiang
only Soong one came forward to congratulate the birthday dinner, Chiang's
diary during the war, only this time. Few other things other than official said Song,
even though there are more than a rebuke of Song, said Song personality is too strong,
opinionated, do not listen to him (Jiang) and so forth.

Southern Weekend: Song in U.S. aid to make such great efforts and contributions,
enough to show his ability, but it sure why the Chiang hole?

Wu Jingping: KMT regime at that time as a state machine about the operation,
causing the collapse of his regime's fundamental system of where the
problem lies behind the deep reasons for that? Over the years I have had some new
thinking. For example, in the more difficult war period, the domestic fiscal and
financial situation is not good, the currency depreciation, general feeling of insecurity,
the military on the defensive, reasonably high-level government and party between
those who should work together to seek common ground, excluding personal grudges,
together against Japanese aggression. May actually not the case. Chiang Sung has
been worried about his true attitude, he has failed to take advantage Chiang is not trust
him. Song of the files it records, letter of inquiry that he had the money Chang Chiu,
chairman of what my views, including the recent hole is how to see and so, on this
family relationship, the subordinate relationship, Song no such confidence.
Political democracy in favor of war

Southern Weekend: You have 3 times to the United States access to the Hoover
Institute and research files Soong Chiang Kai-shek diaries, these materials are not
particularly impressed that you are?

Wu Jingping: A more important finding: resistance occurred during the unification of
political democracy movement to the Kuomintang The formation of democracy,
"Ta Kung Pao," also published critical articles on the Chiang
government. Song was in the United States, to hear the news from a friend after
Chongqing favor, he thought the war should have a certain period of
China's political democracy and progress. This is the first time I saw Song
expressed his idea of political democracy in favor of war, of course, these views have
not appeared in press, is in communication with domestic friends reflected.

There Ryukyu Islands, in May 1943 under the Song and the transcript of President
Roosevelt, Soong formally proposed, the anti-fascist war ended, the recovery of
Northeast China and Taiwan, Okinawa, Roosevelt agreed. However, during the Cairo
Conference the same year, Jiang Xiangying beauty about Okinawa's
sovereignty issue, said China and the United States after the war only to participate
with the management of the Ryukyu Islands, is an international trusteeship, not to

Why is there this difference? I think the important factor is the relationship between
Chiang Sung Stilwell before the meeting in Cairo broke down the incident, Chiang
wrath, refused to see Song, not to deal with foreign official Song, Song could not
attend the Cairo meeting. Such an important international conference, Minister of
Foreign Affairs was unable to attend, It is strange? He then went to those staff may
simply not know the song, and Roosevelt had that kind of talk.

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