Architectural History - DOC

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					Architectural History
Foreign architectural history
         Division of architecture
    1. By country (national) and regional sub-
Chinese style, Japan, Singapore style, British style, French style, American style, and
so on. An area commonly used in general, such as: European style, European style,
Mediterranean style, Australian style, African style, Latin American style
    2. By type of building
    Residential architectural style, architectural style villas, office buildings
architecture, commercial architecture, religious architecture, other public (such as
schools, museums, government office buildings) architectural style, etc.
    3. In accordance with the historical development of school hours
    (1) architectural style of ancient Greece, about 800 BC to 300 AD
(2) Roman architectural style, about 300 BC to AD 365, the Roman architectural style
is an important source of European architecture <BR>
(3) The architectural style of the European Middle Ages, AD 400 to 1400, the
economy dominated by feudal lords, castle-style architecture prevalent
(4) Renaissance architectural style, in the year 1420 to 1550, building from the
experience to scientific and constantly breaking the college-style, castle-style closure
    ?These four categories can be called classical style
    ?(5), neo-classical architectural style.
    ?This style has been there three times, the earliest one was from 1750 to 1880, he
was the last European classical stage, characterized by body mass magnificent,
column using rigorous, and few decorative. Another Year in 1900-1920, with a certain
retro features. The third appeared in 1982, its main feature is to classicism and
modernism together and add the new situation, this style is quite popular in the world
    ?(6) ,1960-1975 modern style comments. 60 years since the western edge of the
rise of "modern art movement," he is to use new materials, new
technologies, the construction of the building to adapt to modern life, look spectacular,
rarely used decorations.
    ?(7) postmodern style, also known as "post-modern", began
in 1980. This style of architecture in the architectural design of re-introduction of the
decorative patterns and colors, learn different ways to compromise the historic local
time, but not retro.
4. By way of sub-construction
    ?(1) Gothic architectural style.
      Prevalent in the public Century 1050-1550, as many religious buildings, the main
feature is the tall minaret, superhuman scale and decoration of harassment to form a
unified and progressive melodies.
      (2) Baroque architecture.
1600-1760, he was almost the most flowery, decorative style of a building, even if
have to deliberately pursue too cumbersome.
     (3) Rococo architecture.
     ?1750-1790, mainly originated in France, represents the final phase of the
Baroque style, the main feature is the extensive use of semi-abstract decorative theme.
(4) wooden architecture style.
A pure style of American houses, the main feature is a horizontal, wooden bone
(5) garden style.
     ?70 years from the 20th century became popular, this style as a concept in the
Shenzhen market speculation, which is characterized by environmental planning and
landscape design, planting flowers and trees, enhance greening and landscaping
around the building to create.
     ?(6) the concept of style.
     ?90 years in the internationally popular, in fact, a model building, more to it than
people think, and strive to get rid of restrictions and constraints on the building itself,
which create a personalized color and then a strong architectural style. Enlightening.
?Architecture of Ancient Egypt
        Division of History and the typical buildings of the type:
        Old Kingdom (the former 27 to 22 centuries ago)
       ?Representation of this period is the mausoleum building. Initially modeled
residence "mastaba" (MASTAB) type, that is slightly
rectangular table collection points.
       ?Multi-pyramid at Saqqara to the Zhao Seer (Zoser) represented.
        Square tapered pyramid to the base camp of the three pyramids: Khufu
(Khufu), Khafre (Khafra), Menkaure (Menkaura), represented mainly by the Linhe
next pyramid temple, Shinto, the temple (worship hall ) and composed of square
tapered tower tomb. Khafre pyramid in front of the famous Sphinx.
       ?Middle Kingdom (the first 21 ~ 18th century BC)
       ?Moved to the Egyptian capital of Thebes, in the deep narrow gorge cut out of
caves on the cliff tombs, such as the Tomb of Man is He Tepu III.
       ?New Kingdom (the first 11 before the 17th century)
       Autocratic system to adapt to the religious formation of the sun temple tomb
instead of a major building types.
       Famous sun temple, such as: Kharak - Luxor Amun (Amon) Temple
       Art features two temples: one is the archway in front of the door and Shinto,
and Square, is the mass ritual Department, sought to adapt to dramatic magnificent
and grand religious ceremony; the other is more than a few people within the Temple
Office column The emperor worship and strive to adapt to the dark and majestic ritual
of mystery.
       Temple of the Arts focus shifted from the external image of the interior space,
from the magnificent wide commemorative large general internal space to the mystery
and sense of oppression.
       Second, the style features:
       ?Superb production of stone processing technology to create a huge body mass,
simple geometry, depth and spatial distribution; pursuit of grand, solemn, mysterious,
stirring artistic effect.
Ancient West Building
     ?First, the scope and time
     ?About 3500 BC to the fourth century before. Including early Akkadian - Suma
with culture, the future of slavery in order to establish the Kingdom of countries to
Babylon (BC 19 ~ 16th century BC), Assyrian (7th century BC, 8 BC), new
Babylonia (626 BC ~ 539 BC) and the Persian Empire (4th century BC 6 BC).
     ?Second, construction and technical achievements:
     ?Less wood shortage of stone in Mesopotamia, so start from the rammed earth
walls, to the adobe brick, fired brick construction of the wall technology, and to
asphalt, ceramic and glass nail stone veneer brick protection wall, and the material,
structure, structure and style combination , to create the structure of soil as a basic
material systems and decorative wall finishes way.
     ?Typical buildings
     ?(A), mountain station, also translated as observatory, temple tower. West people
worship the ancient mountains, objects, astrological observation tower built
multi-storey building. If Ur in the mountain station is about 21 meters high.
     ?(B), the Assyrian Empire, Sa Gen Palace, the 210 rooms composed of around 30
yards, defensive intensity. Sandwiched by the four towers of three arches of the gate
for the two rivers downstream Miyagi typical form. Department were the first wing
openings distinctive cow sculpture.
     ?(C), Houbabilun Kingdom of Babylon and the north of the city's new
Yi Shida gate, decorated with colored glass. Wall in the large area with uniform
arrangement of repeated decorative animal images composition. Palace built with
"sky gardens."
     ?(D), the Persian Empire, Pasay Rees glass palace, the two ceremonies hall, harem,
treasury between the "three-hall" as the contact. Ritual hall,
large slenderness ratio pillars, stone carving fine. High artistic level, but detrimental
to the logical structure.
Ancient Greek architecture
      First, the Aegean region of ancient architecture:
       3rd century BC, appears in the Aegean islands, Greece and Asia Minor
peninsula, the West Coast, to Crete and the Greek peninsula Maixi Ni as the center,
also known as Crete - Mai Xini culture.
       Crete, Crete Island, all secular buildings, the famous Knossos of the Minoan
palace. The level of scattered space. Hillside, very large; architectural style compact
Qian Li, housing open, rich colors. Palace West has the world's oldest
open-air theater.
       ?Mai Xini. Slightly later than its culture of Crete, the main urban center of the
Acropolis. Mai Xini Acropolis Acropolis and Tai Lun. Style rough, and strong defense.
Mai Xini Acropolis gates because of their sculpture was named "Lion
      ?Second, the ancient Greek architecture:
       Ancient Greece is the birthplace of European culture, ancient Greek
architecture is the architecture of the first of its kind in Europe, covering the southern
Balkans, the Aegean islands, Asia Minor coast, and east to the Black Sea, a vast area
west of Sicily.
       Historical Periods
       Archaic Period: 6th century BC, 8 BC, monumental architecture in
       Classical Period: 5th century BC monuments mature, local building prosperity
of ancient Greece.
       Hellenistic period: the 1st century BC, 4 BC, Greek culture spread to West Asia,
North Africa, and with local traditions.
The evolution of stone pillars and the temple structure system type system
       Early wooden frame structure building is later replaced with stone pillars,
Cornices, from the wooden structure of the transition to the stone pillars. Based
system born out of the palace's main hall in order to narrow aristocratic
face to face and forming a triangular gable. To protect the wall and colonnade formed.
       Only a holy temple hall, a rectangular plane, with its narrow end is positive.
Distribution system has side wall column type column, end column, Wai column
(including double peripteral false peripteral), etc..
       Ancient Greek Column
       In addition to the ancient Greek temples outside roof built entirely in stone.
Columns, the amount of Fang, Cornices art processing basically confirmed the
appearance of the temple. Greek architecture in the long-term stability and refine a set
of practices to improve after the formation of a different column (Order)
       Flourishing Period of two columns, each with its own strong characteristics.
       Doric (Doric) column.
       Originated in Italy, Sicily area, around the temples in Greece after use.
Characterized by its ratio of more sturdy and open a small inverted cone stigma for
the simple platform of the pillar with sharp edges and corners of the groove, closing
minutes of the pillar, killing more apparent volume, there is no column bases, stand
directly in on the platform, eaves Department of relatively thick, wire feet less, and
more for the face. In general, strive to bold, simple and powerful harmony, with the
       Ionic (Ionic) column
       Produced in Asia Minor region, characterized by a ratio of more slender, wide
bay, there are subtle, such as circular scroll stigma, of the pillar with a small round
face groove, column bases for the complex combination of flexibility, of the pillar
does not receive points obviously, Cornices thinner, use a variety of composite wire
feet. The whole style of beautiful, gorgeous, with women's body and
character. </ P>
       Late mature Collins (Corinthian) column
       Stigma formed by the buttercup leaves, like a basket of flowers, the column
body, column bases and the Ionic order and the overall percentage of similarity.
       Aesthetics and style characteristics
       Reflect the poor humanist world view. That "the United States is
composed of measure and order," while the body of the United States is the
principle of harmony presides over the number, so the human body is beautiful. When
the object of a harmonious fit with relative harmony of the human body, the object is
        Architectural style characterized by solemn, elegant, refined, has character and
vitality. "Show clear and pleasant mood ... ... such as bright sun shine in
the day, ... ...."
        Classical examples
        Flourishing Period classical representatives of the Acropolis and its main
building. Gate, the victory of the temple, Parthenon, Yiruiketi Weng temple, and the
statue of Athena. Group composition layout reflects the principle of unity of opposites,
according to the festival route, layout, open, vibrant, building arrangements conform
to the terrain, take care of the mountains, mountain view, integrated application of two
Doric and Ionic column
        Hall and semicircular amphitheater. If 麦迦洛波里斯 Theatre and Hall.
        Greece advanced stage centralized monuments. If the trophy in Athens booths
and 哈 利 克 纳 苏 the Mosuoliemu tomb. Emergence of centralized multi-layer
composition up development of new techniques.
        Altar for the independent development of buildings, such as Page Ma altar of
Zeus on the Acropolis.
        Plaza, located generally open Gallery.
Ancient Roman Architecture
         1, Construction Achievements:
         Roman architecture is the direct successor and greatly advanced the
architectural achievements of ancient Greece, opened up a new building in the field,
enriched the art of architecture practices in the construction-type system, the broad
artistic and technical achievements, reached the peak of construction the times of
         Second, construction technology:
         Building materials except brick, wood, stone outside the system using natural
volcanic ash concrete, and the invention of the corresponding formwork, concrete and
marble finishes watering techniques.
         Structures in the Etruscan and Greek column was developed based on
technology and arch structure. Arch structure is one of the greatest achievements of
Rome. Types are: tube arch, cross arch, cross arch, dome (hemisphere). Created a
complex set of vault system. Roman building layout, space combination of art forms
with the arch structure, technology, complex system closely related to the vault.
         Third, architectural art:
       ?(A) of the inheritance and development of ancient Greek column five column:
Tuscan column, Roman Doric, 罗 马 爱 奥 尼 column, Corinthian order, mixed
       ?(B) solved the structure of the bulky arch pier and the column wall art style of
conflict, creating a coupon column.
       ?(C) resolve the contradiction between column and multi-storey building, the
development of a stacked column, creating a level of elevation divided composition
       ?(D) to adapt to large volumes, composition, creating a pillar-like vertical
composition form.
       ?(E) creating a combination of arch and column column will be coupons feet
stand in a row on the column Cornices coupons.
       ?(6) to solve the column-line foot building with a huge volume of
contradictions, with a foot or composite cable line instead of a simple line of foot feet.
         Fourth, creation of architectural space
         Use tube arch, cross arch, cross arch, dome and arch balancing technology to
create a single space covered arch, one-way deep space, sequential combination of
space and other architectural forms.
5, important building type:
       ?(1) temple. Pantheon called pantanew Weng, a single room, a centralized
composition representative of the building is the highest representative of the Roman
dome technology. The plane and section diameter is 43.3m, 8.9m in diameter at the
top of the round hole.
       ?(2) Military monuments.
         Arch of Triumph: In order to show off victory in the war of aggression, built
the first degree of the Arc de Triomphe is a single arch, Saiweilusi and three arches of
Constantine Arch of Triumph.
         S Column: praise the emperor's military exploits, monuments,
Trajan's column in Fig.
       ?(3) theater. Semicircular amphitheater in Greece, based on the function of the
theater, structure and artistic form has greatly improved. Ruth Roman horse adopted
as theater.
       ?(4) Roman Colosseum. In the structure, function and form a harmonious unity
of the three. Prototype of the modern stadium construction.
       ?(5) Public baths. Baths of Caracalla, 戴克利提乌姆 baths. Flow through rich
and varied within the space, creating a series of artistic practices within the space.
       ?(6) Basilica (Basilica). The hall has a variety of functions of public buildings.
Figure Trajan Basilica.
       ?(7) residential building. One is clearly room type or style courtyard, chambers
and Wai-chu, modular homes in town Panca sites such as Pompeii; the other is in the
city apartment.
       ?(8) Palace. A Deliang Palace at Rome, Sibaladuo the 戴克利提乌姆 Palace.
         6, City Square
         Republic Square during the city's social, political and economic
center, surrounded by all kinds of public buildings, temples built spontaneously to
form an open square, Rome Luomannumu representative Square Plaza.
         Empire Square, a temple as the main form closed square, axis symmetry, and
some were multi-depth distribution, such as Rome, Trajan.
         7, style characteristics
         His forceful style of large public buildings, imposing, magnificent, diversity,
composition harmony and unity.
        8, architects and construction works
        Vitruvius       (Vitruvius)'s          "Ten        Books        on
Architecture" is the existing building of Europe's most
comprehensive monograph, the book put forward the "strong, for,
beautiful" building principles, laid the basic system of European
Byzantine architecture
        1 times
        330 AD Roman emperor moved the capital in the eastern part of the Byzantine
Empire, name Constantinople. AD 395 Roman Empire split into East and West
two-step points. Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, is also
the center of the Orthodox.
        Byzantine Empire existed in 330 ~ 1453, 4 to 6 century building boom.
        Second, success
        The development of the Roman dome-type structure and centralized system to
create a dome supported on four or more independent column structure methods and
centralized under the command of dome-type system architecture. Pastel color mosaic
and decorative arts.
        Third, structural approach </ P>
        Fan arch, Drum Tower, dome combined approach.
        4, representing an instance </ P>
        Constantinople's Hagia Sophia.
        5, the characteristics of the Greek cross type church
        Church plane for the cross, the central dome surrounded by a balance of equal
length cylindrical arch; or four-arm tube with a dome instead of arch, look for the five
main central dome, such as Venice's St. Mark's Church.
</ P>
        6, Eastern Orthodox countries such as church
        With improved Byzantine style. Church of the scale are generally small,
characterized by: external shape of the dome over the full stretch of the drum holding
the seat on top of the overall command of the formation center vertical axis to form a
centralized composition.
?Architecture in Medieval Europe
        1, Early Christian Architecture
        Western Roman Empire to the destruction of 300 years after the time period of
the Western European feudal infighting church building. Shape from the typical
Roman basilica church evolved.
      ?(1) Latin cross basilica. Built in the eastern end of the card 罗马巴西利
semicircular altar, covered with a half-dome, which before the altar, the altar is the
music scene. As the increasingly complex religious ceremonies, before the altar
together with additional horizontal space, forming a cross in the plane, much longer
horizontal than vertical, that is, the Latin cross plane. Passion of the Christ in the form
of a symbol for ritual needs, as the Catholic Church's orthodox-type
      ?(2) represents the instance. St. Paul's church in Rome.
      ?(3) style characteristics. Body to teach simple, thick wall, masonry teach rough,
gray seam thickness, the church not for decoration, heavy closed, the lack of anger.
      ?(4) type system. Basilica long axis east to west, west entrance, the altar in the
east. Basilica colonnade-style courtyard in front of the central pool are washed
(developed after the Baptistery), Basilica built on the intersection of vertical and
horizontal room lighting tower. Call believers to worship with built clock tower and
        2, Roman style (Romanesque) Construction
        10 ~ 12 century European architectural style of a Christian region, also known
as Roman architecture, like Rome, Roman.
      ?(1) of the form features. Inherited early Christian architecture, graphic still
Latin cross, the west one, two bell tower.
      ?(2) Example: Pisa Cathedral group, Germany Ulms Cathedral, France Ngong
Farm ancient cathedral.