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Kirby Italy (Le Corbusier, 1887 年 to 1965, the French architect) is last
century's greatest architect.

Swiss architect and city planner Kirby Italy (Le Corbusier), published since 1919
Universal Declaration of pure doctrine and proposed forms of modern machines and
architecture links together the theory, the planning program of many important
buildings, such as the Paris Exposition of Switzerland Hall, North Africa, Algiers and
other cities, building on the concept of far-reaching future generations.

Le Corbusier (Le Corbusier1887 -1 965 on October 6 on August 27), born Charles
Edouard Jeannert-Gris, is the most important architects of the 20th century is one of
modern architecture movement of militants and the Lord . He and 瓦尔特格罗 Pius,
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and as an international form of modern construction
camp or construction camp, the main representative. Kirby agreed to do another

His rich and varied architectural works and passionate philosophy profoundly
influenced 20th-century urban landscape and contemporary way of life, from the early
years of the white family villas, apartments Marseille to Ronchamp Chapel, converted
from Paris, planning to chang Calcutta Metro, from "Towards a New
Architecture" to "Modular," he changing architecture
and urban thinking, and always will be his followers far behind. Modern architecture
of Le Corbusier is an insurmountable peak, an inexhaustible source of architectural

Le Corbusier was born in northwest Switzerland near the French border town, the
parents engaged in watch making, watch Junior technical schools had at home
learning, interested in art, 1907, to Budapest and Paris, has studied architecture in
Paris to the use of reinforced concrete to the famous architect 奥古斯特贝瑞 the
school, and later to Germany Behrens firm, Peter Behrens firm to try a new approach
of building construction and design of new industrial known, where he met while
working there 瓦尔特格罗 Pius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who have influence
each other, and together create a modern architectural thinking. He also traveled to
Greece and Turkey, visit visit the ancient building and civil construction.

Le Corbusier in 1917 settled in Paris, while engaged in painting and sculpture,
Cubism and avant-garde painters and poets edited magazine "new
spirit", according to his grandfather's last name to take the
pseudonym Le Corbusier, he In the first period wrote: "a new era began, it
is rooted in a new spirit, You Mingquemubiao of a kind of constructive and integrated
newcomers spirit." He later issued some of the Qi Zhong Guan Yu
finishing construction of the articles collected and published the book booklet
"Towards a New Architecture", fierce denial of conservative
since the nineteenth century architectural point of view, revivalist architectural styles,
praised the achievements of modern industry, that "our time is a day to
determine their own style "in praise of engineers working
method," Engineer of economic rules driven guided by the mathematical
formula that led us to the laws of nature Yi Zhi, to the harmony.
"that" housing is a living machine ", advocated
large-scale Di Fang Fa Yi industry's build houses, "Architectural
primary mission is to promote lower costs, reduce the housing of the
components." emphasis on architectural design, "the original
form is a form of beauty", to honor the simple geometry. Le
Corbusier's architectural design into full play the characteristics of the
frame structure, as load-bearing wall Bu Zai, you can design large lateral windows,
some of his design had not been accepted by people, many of the design was rejected,
but these structures and designed by other architects in the future form of
popularization and application, such as the back layer of the apartments, cable Jiegou
the exhibition hall, etc., he was in the construction design of the many ways a pioneer
of modern architecture design produces a very wide impact.

Le Corbusier also proposed many ideas on urban planning, he was opposed to big
cities against the trend, Zhu Zhang's new urban planning that in the modern
technological conditions, completely Ke Yi Ji to maintain the population density, You
Xingcheng quiet health of the urban environment and the first high-rise buildings and
the interchange of ideas, is very far-sighted. 20 and 30 years, he always stood in the
forefront of the development trend of building, architectural design and urban
planning played a role in promoting the modernization.

During World War II, he fled to the countryside, and later to India and work in Africa,
the post-war architectural style, he clearly has changed, shifted emphasis from a focus
on functional forms; shift from emphasis on importance of modern industrial
technology experience in civil construction; smooth shift from the pursuit of smooth
pursuit of the sometimes rough old is the original taste. Therefore, the new building
after the war, he is still the leading schools. His design philosophy until his death, all
of the great architects of the world's enlightening. His designs often very
controversial, he designed the church of Notre Dame Long Hong strange appearance,
so old school indignant, but was regarded as a classic innovators. League of Nations
headquarters in Geneva, he designed the program caused controversy over the
assessment time, head, and finally by the politicians ruled. His Marseille apartment,
by the French Landscape Protection Association filed a complaint, but later became
the local attractions; his Algiers to do the planning and architectural design by the
municipal authorities rejected, but later one of the back layer by layer design been
Many coastal countries in Africa and the Middle East adopted by

Le. Corbusier - The five features of the new building
Masters of modern architecture, the most important architects of this century, one of
the positive movement of modern architecture into the molecular and Lord. In 1928
he and W · Gropius, close Sifandeluo organization of the International Association of
Modern Architecture

Le Corbusier modernist architectural aesthetics of the main advocates of the important
founders of the machine, in 1923 published his masterpiece "to the new
building,"    the    book      proposed      house    is   "living
machines." 1926, proposed new construction of five characteristics:

1. Housing bottom with the independent pillar;

2. Rooftop garden; 3. The free surface; 4. Lateral window; 5. Free facade.

His innovative ideas and unique insight is thinking of building a strong academic
impact. Representative works of this period is Villa Savoy (1928-1930), Baliruishi
student apartments, villas platform.

Savoy Villas: Building the ideal embodiment - the three elements of light air and the
new green building the perfect combination of five points.

A set of building system - slab-column load-bearing system

Social ideal - standardized components, machines, able to take social responsibility.
Reflects the psychological depths of the Europeans wiped away the classical complex

After World War II, his style has obviously changed, its characteristics reflected in the
organic form of free

Type of exploration and performance of materials, especially like the performance
after the ejection of water without the decoration of reinforced concrete, such as the
Brutalist style, named after (or New Brutalist) represents the works of Marseilles
apartment, Ronchamp Chapel, Chang Chandigarh court, drawing spit hai Abbey,
among which Ronchamp Chapel of the external form and internal mystery beyond the
scope of Christianity, back to the stone age prehistoric grave form, is considered the
boutique of modern architecture.

Le Corbusier is also a city planning expert, he engaged in a large number of studies of
urban planning and design of representative works planning, Chandigarh, India.

Langxiang Church: Citroen bearing system, the shape in the design, wall bending.
There are three major space around a small shrine, is up for each of the upper roots of
the "tower." Out on the roof outside. Significant difference
between the various elevations. Homes as the ideological source of the Mediterranean,
the internal spatial relationship with the Pantheon and the surrounding space within
the hall similar treatment.

Its architectural shape and space permits 明 柯 布 西 耶 with extraordinary
imagination, but also reflects the image of the characteristics of modern Western

Le Corbusier Residential Design - architectural design of origin:

All of Le Corbusier with the residential design-related career, and his greatest
contribution is residential, and residential space is the first carrier is a direct relation,
it can be measured through the design of a residential home construction is excellent.
Through analysis of these small residential models, understand all of Le Corbusier on
the design for each new artistic conception.

Le Corbusier in his native Switzerland in 1905 designed the first residential building
is entirely residential local native style, inside and outside is full of geometric
decoration, two-story, owner of the house is a jewel in commercial art school, because
Le Corbusier teacher's introduction completed the construction this maiden,
when he was 17 years old.

1914 by Le Corbusier had foreseen the domino-type residential building in the birth
of modern times, he has designed for the mass production type worker housing, there
are white Shi Yan Building Group, including the minimum limit of the house, while
Cobb invented for non- skilled workers in the building method, because regional
differences in the design of local residential areas are Cobb, one of Le
Corbusier's work very much like the construction industry, an
anthropologist, he is the type of housing around the world and are interested in , Cobb
has also launched non-Western European circle hut modeled on the original
residential research, in order to house the victims of war and the Dimensions system,
etc.. Through a wide range of residential design, table 达柯布西耶 human care.

Le Corbusier building is imaginative architects:

Le Corbusier was an imaginative architect, his interpretation of the ideal city, insights
on the natural environment and strong traditional beliefs and respect are quite unique.
As an internationally influential architects and urban planners, public style, he is a
good application of rare talent --- he can fashion rolling elements and rough, delicate
factors such as the perfect combination. He grid, cube design, often with simple
geometry, the general square, circular and triangular and other graphics into
seemingly simple model. As an artist, Le Corbusier know how to control the volume,
surface and contour, as he created a lot of abstract sculpture also reflects this pattern.
Therefore, in Le Corbusier's design, by a large number of patterns to
produce a vivid visual effects of dominance of its kind architectural model building
into the situation as an artist in clay sculpture and mold on the same cut. Through
careful design, in bright and dark contrast of light, he succeeded in maximizing the
limited space and can produce good visual effect.
Learning to master, to pay tribute to the Masters.

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