When the Going Gets Tough Parental Depression as Both

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					When the Going Gets Tough: Parental Depression as
   Both Response and Predictor of Adolescent
      Externalizing Behavior Over 3 Years

                               Joseph P. Allen
                               Jill Antonishak
                                Nell Manning
                              University of Virginia

Collaborators:
Maryfrances Porter, Ph.D.     Farah Williams            Martin Ho
Penny Marsh                   Debbie Land, Ph.D.        Mindy Schmidt, Ph.D.
Kathleen McElhaney, Ph.D.     Katie Little              Glenda Insabella, Ph.D.
F. Christy McFarland          Jennifer Haynes           Wrenn Thompson
Jessica Meyer                                           Joanna Chango
             Copies of this and related papers are available at:
                     WWW.TEENRESEARCH.ORG
     Maternal Depression and Offspring Antisocial
                  Behavior (ASB)

   Depressed Mothers Often Have Antisocial Children

       Maternal Depression as a Risk Factor for ASB

       Even when maternal depression is assessed prenatally

       A form of parental “backing down”?

   Less Clear How Process Plays Out In Adolescence
        Questions About Maternal Depression and
          Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

   A Simple Effect of Maternal Reporting Bias?

       Do Depressed Mothers (mis) perceive their children as less
        well-behaved?

   Does maternal depression predict future increases in teen
    misbehavior?

   Could maternal depression be a reaction to teen
    misbehavior?
                               Sample
   184 Adolescents, their Parents, Best Friends, and Other
    Friends

   Equal numbers of Males and Females

   Assessed Annually, Beginning at Age 13

   Highly Socio-economically Diverse (Median Family Income=
    $40- $60K)

   31% African American; 69% European American

   Intensive Interviews and Observations with all parties (Parents,
    teens, best friends, other friends) (Total N over first 6 years ~
    1200).
                 Measures: Maternal Depression

   Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1993)
   Maternal self-report
       21-items assessing symptoms such as:
            guilt
            depressed mood
            suicidal thoughts
            insomnia

   Continuum/severity approach
                Measures: Externalizing Behavior

   Obtained from Multiple reporters via multiple measures:
        Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1981)

        Short-form of CBCL for teens (Lizotte, Chard-Wierschem, Loeber, & Stern, 1992)

        Youth Self Report (Achenbach, 1991)

   Assessing symptoms of externalizing behavior including: aggression,
    hostility, delinquency, hyperactivity and immaturity

   Reporters include:
        Mothers
        Fathers
        Youths
        Close and Other Friends
       Questions About Maternal Depression and
         Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

   Does the link just reflect maternal bias?

   Does maternal depression predict increasing teen
    misbehavior over a 3-year span?

   Could maternal depression be a reaction to teen
    misbehavior?
Do Depressed Mothers See Externalizing Behavior
            That Others Don’t See?
                                          Teen Externalizing
                                          (Maternal Report)
                                     b          b                 Total
                                    Entry     Final  DR2           R2

Externalizing (Teen Report)          .31**      .31**    .09**   .09**




                Modest correlation between maternal and
                teen report of teen externalizing behavior
Do Depressed Mothers See Externalizing Behavior
            That Others Don’t See?
                                          Teen Externalizing
                                          (Maternal Report)
                                     b          b                  Total
                                    Entry     Final  DR2            R2

Externalizing (Teen Report)          .31**      .26**    .09**    .09**
Maternal Depression (BDI)            .47***     .47***   .22***   .31***




           Maternal Depression Accounts for a great deal of the
             misbehavior that mothers see but teens do not.
Do Depressed Mothers See Externalizing Behavior
            That Others Don’t See?
                                          Teen Externalizing
                                          (Maternal Report)
                                     b          b                 Total
                                    Entry     Final  DR2           R2

Externalizing (Teen Report)         .31**      .16*     .09**    .09**
Maternal Depression (BDI)           .47***     .41***   .22***   .31***
Externalizing (Paternal Report)     .54***     .54***   .28***   .59***




            Some of the misbehavior seen by depressed mothers
                  turns out to be seen by fathers as well
Do Depressed Mothers See Externalizing Behavior
            That Others Don’t See?
                                          Teen Externalizing
                                          (Maternal Report)
                                     b          b                  Total
                                    Entry     Final  DR2            R2

Externalizing (Teen Report)          .31**      .13+     .09**    .09**
Maternal Depression (BDI)            .47***     .31***   .22***   .31***
Externalizing (Paternal Report)      .54***     .51***   .28***   .59***
Externalizing (Close Frnd Report)    .04        .04      .00      .59***
Externalizing (Other Frnd Report)    .27***     .27***   .06***   .65***



      The role of maternal depression in explaining what mothers see
       decreases still further when we also consider what peers see.
        Depressed Mothers May Not Be Biased,
                They May Be Realists

   If we compare mothers to any other single reporter,
    they appear to see misbehavior that others don’t see.

   But…
    as we consider multiple vantage points on teen misbehavior,
    maternal perceptions appear to reflect what others collectively
    do see
       Questions About Maternal Depression and
         Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

   Does the link just reflect maternal bias?

   Does maternal depression predict increasing teen
    misbehavior over a 4-year span?

   Could maternal depression be a reaction to teen
    misbehavior?
Does Maternal Depression Predict Future Increases
        in Teen Externalizing Behavior?
                                   Teen Externalizing (Age 16)
                                        (Paternal Report)
                                                          Total
                                       b        DR2        R2
Step I.
 Teen Externalizing                   .52**       .27***     .27***
 (Paternal report) Age 13




         Teen Externalizing Behavior Displays Moderate Stability
Does Maternal Depression Predict Future Increases
        in Teen Externalizing Behavior?
                                   Teen Externalizing (Age 16)
                                        (Paternal Report)
                                                          Total
                                       b        DR2        R2
Step I.
 Teen Externalizing                   .52**       .27***     .27***
 (Paternal report) Age 13



Step II.
 Maternal Depression (BDI)            .35***      .13***     .40***
 (Teen Age 13)

  Maternal Depression Predicts Increasing Teen Externalizing Behavior
Does Maternal Depression Predict Future Increases
        in Teen Externalizing Behavior?
                                  Teen Externalizing (Age 16)
                                      (Maternal Report)
                                                         Total
                                      b       DR2         R2
Step I.
 Teen Externalizing                  .66***     .43***     .43***
 (Maternal report) Age 13



Step II.
 Maternal Depression (BDI)           .16*       .03*       .46***
 (Teen Age 13)

          Increases are Predicted Whether We Examine Paternal
              or Maternal Reports of Teen Problem Behavior
Maternal Depression as a Mediator of Change in
         Teen Externalizing Behavior
      Age 13                      Age 16

                    .51***
       Teen                       Teen
    Externalizing              Externalizing
                    .31**



     Maternal
     Depression
Maternal Depression as a Mediator of Change in
         Teen Externalizing Behavior
      Age 13                      Age 16

                    .51***
       Teen                       Teen
    Externalizing              Externalizing
                    .31**
                                         ?


     Maternal          ?
                                    ??
     Depression
Maternal Depression as a Mediator of Change in
         Teen Externalizing Behavior
      Age 13                      Age 16

                    .51***
       Teen                       Teen
    Externalizing              Externalizing
                    .12
                                       .28*


     Maternal       .66***       Maternal
     Depression                 Depression
       Maternal Depression and
      Teen Externalizing Behavior
  Age 13                      Age 16

                .51***
   Teen                       Teen
Externalizing              Externalizing
                  ??
                                    .28*


 Maternal       .66***       Maternal
 Depression                 Depression
       Questions About Maternal Depression and
         Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

   Does the link just reflect maternal bias?

   Does maternal depression predict increasing teen
    misbehavior over a 4-year span?

   Could maternal depression be a reaction to teen
    misbehavior?
Teen Externalizing Behavior Predicting Change in
      Maternal Depression (Ages 13 to 16)
                                     Maternal Depression
                                        (Teen Age 16)
                                  b         b            Total
                                 Entry    Final  DR2      R2
Step I.
 Maternal Depression              .73***    .52***   .44***   .44***
 (Teen Age 13)




           Maternal Depressive Symptoms are Highly Stable
Teen Externalizing Behavior Predicting Change in
      Maternal Depression (Ages 13 to 16)
                                       Maternal Depression
                                          (Teen Age 16)
                                    b         b            Total
                                   Entry    Final  DR2      R2
Step I.
 Maternal Depression               .73***    .52***   .44***   .44***
 (Teen Age 13)
Step II.
 Teen Externalizing (13)           .16*      .18**    .02*     .46***




  Teen Externalizing Behavior Adds to Maternal Depression Over Time
Teen Externalizing Behavior Predicting Change in
      Maternal Depression (Ages 13 to 16)
                                        Maternal Depression
                                           (Teen Age 16)
                                     b         b            Total
                                    Entry    Final  DR2      R2
Step I.
 Maternal Depression                .73***     .52***   .44***     .44***
 (Teen Age 13)
Step II.
 Teen Externalizing (13)            .16*       .18**    .02*       .46***

Step III.
 Depression X Externalizing         .23***     .23***   .05***     .51***

         Externalizing Behavior Interacts with Baseline Maternal
           Depression to Predict Future Maternal Depression.
  Interaction of Baseline Maternal Depression & Teen
  Externalizing Predicting Future Maternal Depression
                               1.2
Maternal Depression (Age 16)


                                 1
                               0.8
                               0.6
                                0.4
                                0.2
                                  0
                               -0.2
                                           Low Maternal Depression at Baseline
                               -0.4
                               -0.6
                               -0.8
                                       Low Teen                     High Teen
                                      Externalizing                Externalizing
  Interaction of Baseline Maternal Depression & Teen
  Externalizing Predicting Future Maternal Depression
                               1.2
Maternal Depression (Age 16)


                                 1
                               0.8
                                      High Maternal Depression            Initially Depressed
                               0.6          at Baseline                     Mothers Appear
                                0.4                                     Particularly Vulnerable
                                0.2                                      to Teen Externalizing
                                                                               Behavior
                                  0
                               -0.2
                                            Low Maternal Depression at Baseline
                               -0.4
                               -0.6
                               -0.8
                                        Low Teen                     High Teen
                                       Externalizing                Externalizing
                               Summary

   A self-sustaining negative feedback loop?

       Maternal Depression        Increasing Teen Problem Behavior

       Teen Problem Behavior  Increasing Maternal Depression

            Especially for the most depressed/vulnerable mothers

   Dominance/Submissiveness Processes in Depression

       Becoming embedded within family interaction patterns over
        time
                           Limitations

   Non-experimental Nature of Data

   Normal sample may not generalize to highly disturbed
    samples

   Role of fathers still to be examined
                              Conclusions

   Evidence of an Unfortunate Feedback Loop

   Its About Not Just How Parents Behave, But Why

   Need for Intervention to Alter Family Systems, Not Just
    Individuals




      This study was made possible by grants from the National Institute
     of Mental Health. Copies of this and related papers are available at:
                   WWW.TEENRESEARCH.ORG