Report - UNESCO REGIONAL CONFERE by pengxiang


                   Tsitsikama Conference Center
                    Port Elizabeth, South Africa
                          24 - 30 June 2001



1.      The UNESCO Regional Conference on Art Education in Africa,
organised by UNESCO in cooperation with the Government of South Africa,
was held at the Tsitsikama Conference Center in Port Elizabeth, South Africa,
from 24 to 30 June 2001. It was attended by delegates from eighteen
countries: Australia, Botswana, Comoros, Congo Brazzaville, Congo DR, Côte
d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hungary, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia,
South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia and Zimbabwe, a representative of the
OAU as well as of SIDA (Mozambique), and members of South African NGOs
dealing with Arts and Culture (list of participants in Appendix)

2.    Dr. Botlhale Thema, Chief Director of the South African Department of
Arts, Culture, Science and Technololgy (DACST), on behalf of the host
country, the Department of Education and her own Department, welcomed all
the participants to South Africa. She stated the two primary objectives of the
conference to be as follows:

     a. To improve the provision of arts education in the formal and informal
        sectors of education in Africa;

     b. To provide arts education focusing on how the arts influence the
        economies of African nations.

3.     Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology,
South Africa, gave the opening address. He began by acknowledging all the
representatives from other African countries, the OAU, UNESCO,
international NGOs, South African NGOs, education practitioners, the South
African Departments of Education, Arts, Culture, Science and Technology,
representatives from the ILO, MTN, the Ford Foundation and artists. He
lamented the fact that although Africa was known all over the world for its rich
cultures and talented artists, the continent lacked institutions such as cultural
industries which would benefit its local exponents of the arts. He therefore,
emphasized the need for an infrastructure that would contain arts institutes
and skilled teachers to train the youth in arts at the local, regional, national
and global levels. Finally, the Minister expressed the fear that globalisation
and free trade could be the greatest threat to African art forms. He was,
however, optimistic that if Africans found new ways of promoting their arts,
sharing their expertise and mobilising their rich sources, their arts education
would not only be enhanced but also jobs could be created and the level of
poverty of its people would be reduced.

4.      Mr Salah Abada, Director of the Section of Creativity and Copyright,
UNESCO, Paris, in his opening speech, stressed that art, a fundamental
element of culture, plays an important part in our daily lives since every
society promotes the arts through the education of its children. He also stated
that art and culture engender the intellectual and emotional development of
individuals, hence the perception in society that art education from an early
age is the key to the preparation for citizenship. In his statement, Mr. Abada
posed the important question "How can we organise and promote art
education for our children efficiently over the years?" His address also
contained references to several issues relating to guidelines for the
preparation and implantation of arts education curricula for primary and
secondary school. Some such issues were considered by the five working
groups of delegates (Visual Arts, Music, Theatre, Poetry and Literature and
Dance) in their deliberations on the formulation of guidelines and strategies
for arts education in Africa. In Mr. Abada's view, quality education, both at the
formal and informal levels, is essential since it enables individuals to develop
competent skills. He concluded his address by assuring the delegates that
UNESCO was willing to provide its expertise in order to encourage the rich
potential of nations which seek to develop their art education programmes
through quality education.

5.     Mr Atef Ghabrial, Senior Policy Analyst and representative of the OAU
Secretary-General then took the floor and read his message. He first thanked
UNESCO and the government of South Africa for organising such an
important event and went on to underline the need to re-examine existing
school curricula in Africa to ensure that these meet the cultural aspirations of
the people. In his view, such necessary action would meet the new challenges
and changes taking place in the world as far as cultural development was
concerned. It would, for instance, help in the prevention of conflict on a
continent like Africa where wars and conflicts are common. Mr. Ghabrial then
informed the delegates about the coming into force of the Constitutive Act of
establishing the African Union on 26 May 2001. He underscored the need for
the enhancement of co-operation, co-ordination and consultations among
member states of this Union. He also suggested that IGOs and NGOs should
be invited to contribute to the ongoing exercise for the realization of the
African Union, especially through the arts. Finally, he reiterated the
importance of promoting culture and education by placing emphasis on
creativity and innovative ideas. In this respect he informed the meeting about
the award programme which the OAU organizes bi-annually, jointly with
WIPO, to encourage innovation and creativity. He wished the delegates
success in their deliberations which, he hoped, might be adopted and
implanted in the "Plan of Action" to be considered by member states of the
Africa Union for implementation at the national level.

6.    Following the addresses of these three distinguished persons to the
opening ceremony, the Chairman, Dr. Botlhale Thema, summarized what had
been said as follows:

       a. Africa is rich in arts resources.
       b. African arts should be brought into the development paradigm.
       c. Provision should be made for arts education for all, especially for
          developing creativity among youth.
       d. The arts should contribute to initiatives relating to development as
          provided by organisations like the OAU/Africa Union and UNESCO.

II.    PAPER PRESENTATIONS: the Arts and the Cultural industries

Two papers were presented during the plenary session held after the opening

7.     The first paper, on the topic "The Production of Culture: Towards a
Creative Region” based on an ILO project, developed by a team of five
researchers, was presented by Avril Joffe, Co-ordinator of the project. The
presentation was based on research into the cultural sectors, notably the
performing arts, dance, visual arts and music of the countries in the SADC
region of Africa. The researchers identified ten categories of cultural

Cultural Heritage; Cultural Tourism; Design Sector; Publishing Sector;
Performing Arts and Dance; Crafts; Audio-Visual and Media; Multimedia;
Music; and Visual Arts. There were six research issues, namely: Tangible vs.
Intangible e.g. living off art vs. sense of identity; Co-ordination and Integration;
Funding and Finance; International Recognition vs. Local Acclaim;
Censorship; Government Role/Promotion and Funding. The researchers tried
to discover why cultural industries were important for the SADC region.
Among some of their findings were that such industries provide people with
employment and income; the development of national and local cultural
identities; the development of tourism and the creation of ideas and
information for communication. The research was also designed to: identify
the potential for an increase of trans-regional trade in cultural projects;
develop an export programme; develop a programme of audience
development for all cultural forms; and to assist governments to collect and
monitor statistics relating to cultural industries. The presenter stressed that
this research was ongoing hence the interim recommendations to support
SME development and employment in the cultural sector of the SADC region,
which include: the establishment, co-ordination and the monitoring of
copyright and the coordination of available government incentives for small
businesses. All in all, the presentation gave the delegates an insight into the
business rather than the educational aspects of the arts in the Southern
African sub region.

8.     Mr Steven Sack, Director, Cultural Development, South African
Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST), presented
the second paper of this session, on the topic "Placing culture on the national
agenda." The thrust of his presentation was on the partnerships his ministry
had established with NGO's and other organisations to promote arts and
culture education in South Africa. Such partnerships had been established in

three major entities:

       i.   in school, through relations with the Department of Education;

       ii. Out of school, where DACST had collaborated with local people to
       establish about 40 community centers and also built libraries; and

       iii. Work-based. There is a need for arts and culture to play an
       important role in interpreting governments’ priority policies such as
       poverty reduction, AIDS, black empowerment, African renaissance etc.
       In this vein DACST works closely with provincial and local authorities
       throughout South Africa. Mr. Sack pointed out that although there is a
       need for the establishment of cultural industries, cultural tourism and so
       forth, he felt the arts should not be reduced to economic trade. In other
       words, the arts should be cherished and not be valued mainly for
       economic or income generating purposes. Indeed, the goal of DACST
       in establishing partnerships with other organisations to promote the
       arts is to provide education and training for the creative arts and arts
       industries for all South Africans.


9.    Dr. Botlhale Thema (South Africa) was proposed as Chairperson and
was subsequently elected unanimously. Dr Patricia Pond (Kenya) and M. Paul
Dagri (Côte d’Ivoire) were elected vice-chairpersons. Dr Eric Akrofi, a
Ghanaian national resident in South Africa, was elected Rapporteur-general.


10.     Ms. Tereza Wagner, Programme Specialist at the Division of Arts and
Cultural Enterprises ( ACE ) at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris made the
introductory remarks before the other presentations and discussions. She
focused on the guidelines for discussion of papers in the five working groups.
She provided copies of a UNESCO position paper entitled "Arts education in
the school environment" (E/F/S). She briefly commented the different working
documents produced for the conference and referred to a publication titled A
Guide for the Preparation of Primary School African Music Teaching Manuals
edited by Prof. J.H. Kwabena Nketia (Ghana). Reference was also made to
other papers on visual arts, crafts, music etc. by researchers from all over
Africa. Ms. Wagner's presentation demonstrated the important role being
played by UNESCO in the preparation, documentation and dissemination of
material on the arts and culture of Africa


IV.1   Visual Art, Craft and Design

This session comprised the presentation of case studies from two countries:
Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Comoros.

11.     The Congolese delegate, Mr. Lema Kusa of the Academy of Fine Arts,
Kinshasa gave a presentation on the topic “L’Enseignement des arts
plastiques au Congo: évolution et expériences”. He traced the history of art
(fine arts) education in his country from colonial times (1920s to 1960s) to the
present. Although he expressed concern about European/Belgian influence
on arts education in the Congo he mentioned three milestones (the Dakar
Festival of Negro Arts, 1966; the Festival of Arts and Culture, FESTAC in
Lagos 1977 and the philosophy of Authenticity, Kinshasa, Sept. 1981), which
have somewhat inspired the Congolese to incorporate indigenous and local
ideals in art education programmes. His presentation included proposed
curricular guidelines for Congolese primary and secondary school children.
While he recommended the development of aesthetic sensitivity, taking into
consideration the child’s environment for primary education, he suggested
that a more technical approach be taken to fine arts at the secondary school

12.     Mr. Abdallah Ali Naguib, a conservation architect at the National
Museum of the Comoros delivered a paper on the topic "Artistic Tradition and
Dynamic Creativity". In his country, there are two types of educational system
in the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros:

   1. Koranic schools which propagate the Islamic religion and train children
      aged three years and above in spiritual development and,

   2. Official schools, based on the French model, under the Ministry of
      Education, where the medium of instruction is both French and Arabic.
      Generally speaking, the traditional arts (especially pottery, woodwork
      and jewellery) are much alive in Comoros. The practitioners of the
      other arts - visual, music, dance, poetry, literature and theatre - are still
      grappling with the problem of colonial influence. This problem not
      withstanding, Mr Naguib felt that educating children to value the arts of
      their culture would turn the situation around. He included a proposed
      curricular outline for (formal and informal) art education in primary and
      secondary schools of his country. He suggested that visual arts should
      help pupils to perceive, interpret and communicate and that, ultimately,
      a reconstruction of art education should be geared towards
      encouraging artists and artisans to practise their trades.

13.    A working document entitled “Proposition de programme d’orientation
de l’Education artistique plastique” by Alioune Badiane, and “Training in visual
art and craft in schools and the non-formal sector” by Doreen Sibanda, were
also available for the discussion.


14.    Dr Mitchel Strumpf of Africa University, Zimbabwe, gave a presentation
on music education in Africa, based on case studies from two countries,
namely Malawi and Zimbabwe. There was also a very brief discussion of the
music-teaching situation in Ghana. The presentation was a brief but concise
account of the status of formal music education in the three countries named
above. Its presenter examined the position of music in the schools, current
music curricula used in schools and the training of music teachers. Finally, he
offered suggestions for improving music education in Africa in general. Dr
Strumpf not only based his discussion on almost three decades of teaching
experience in several African countries but he also used information from
other African writers, notably Paul Dagri (Côte d’Ivoire), Lucy Ekwuema
(Nigeria), Rigobert Mbila Nd'Akambo (Congo Dr), Ruth Evans (Ghana), and
J.H Mketia (Ghana) in his presentation. He proposed a multifaceted music
education programme for Africa. The need to provide African school children
with the opportunity to experience the music of their communities hence the
important role of indigenous African music in school music programmes, was
emphasized. Dr. Strumpf strongly recommended that music be incorporated
into the core curriculum of schools. The prevalence of Western music
education in African countries was acknowledged but the presenter expressed
his satisfaction over attempts made by several governments and
organisations to improve teacher education most beneficial to the personal
and professional development of African youth.

15.    In the discussions that followed the above presentation other delegates
expressed their views on the issues raised in Dr. Strumpf's paper. Joseph
Nyandu, a music teacher from Zambia impressed the meeting with his
valuable contribution. On music in one's environment, he spoke of the
importance of African music in the lives of rural Zambian communities (i.e.
Bemba) and therefore a music programme based on Western music, for
example, would pose problems for the majority of African children in rural
schools. Music that is typically African should form the basis of music
education in African countries. In the same vein, he stated that the
characteristics of African music, the evolution of social life in Africa and
matters relating to the compositional techniques of African music should be
taken into account in the preparation of music curricula for schools in Africa.

16.     A working document entitled “Aperçu de la Formation Musicale en Côte
d’Ivoire” by Paul Dagri, was also available to the participants.


17.   The first presentation was given by Dr Augustin Hatar of the
Department of Fine and Performing Arts, University of Dar-es-Salaam,
Tanzania, on the topic "The State Of Theatre Education In Tanzania". He
expressed concern about the Western concept of theatre in Tanzania as well
as the plethora of ethnic theatrical forms resulting from the multiplicity of

ethnic groups (about 120) each with its own form of theatre. Two milestones
that have influenced cultural policy and enhanced theatrical education in the
country were mentioned:

   1. The establishment of a National Cultural Ministry in 1961;
   2. The Arusha Declaration, which promoted the widespread use of
      Swahili in the country was a unifying factor which made use of this
      (one) language, as a medium of instruction and an asset for teaching
      theatre in schools.

He mentioned the existence of syllabuses for teaching theatre at primary and
secondary school levels. However, there were no teachers to teach the
subject effectively. Another drawback for theatre education in Tanzania was
the negative attitude of the students and other Tanzanians in general towards
theatre education and the performing arts in general.

18.     Mrs. Kafui Sosu Kumaka (Ghana) gave a comprehensive report on the
activities of her NGO, AGORO-CILTAD located in the city of Cape Coast in
Ghana, a centre for intellectual learning and talent development whose aim is
to develop the artistic skills of local workers. The centre also promotes the
development of theatre focusing on social issues such s AIDS, drugs, teenage
pregnancy through the use of music, dance and folklore. Mrs.Kafui informed
the meeting that her NGO had benefited immensely from collaboration with
other establishments such as the Ministry of Health, the Planned Parenthood
Association of Ghana (PPAG) and Gender International. On the question of
funding the presenter acknowledged the assistance received from foreign
agencies such as DAMIDA (Denmark), Charity Association Fund,
CAF(Britain) and the Prince Klaus Fund for Culture and Development
(Netherlands). Additional programmes of the Centre include the use of
resource persons from the universities to train youth in courses in music and

19.      Bernard Kwilimbwe (Malawi) examined the role of the theatre in
relation to the other arts, especially music and dance, in his country, He
informed the meeting that the radio plays an important role in the
development theatre, especially among the people of Malawi. Other
institutions like the church and the school play a vital role in the development
of theatre education. The establishment of a national dance troupe in Malawi
in 1987 had enhanced theatre awareness in the country. His major concern is
the type of theatre education that should be provided for Malawian school

20.    The participants made several contributions to the discussions
following the three presentations. It was noted that the university of Natal was
the only university institution in South Africa offering courses in traditional arts.
It was suggested that the South African DACST (Department of Arts, Culture,
Science and Technology) and DOE (Department of Education) should
encourage the teaching of traditional arts especially in primary and secondary
schools. Issues related to curricula for the arts within a national education
philosophy or policy arose from time to time. A majority of the delegates

agreed that the arts should become an integral part of the school curriculum.

21.    Three documents were presented          entitled “Etude de cas sur
l’enseignement du théâtre et des formes d’art dramatiques en milieu scolaire
en Côte d’Ivoire” by Naky Sy Savane (E/F) ; “La situation de l’enseignement
du théâtre au Burkina Faso” by Jean Pierre Guingané” ; « Enseignement du
théâtre pour les jeunes en République démocratique du Congo » in RD
Congo by Katanga Mupey, were made available for discussion.

22.    Delegates spent the morning of the second day of the conference at
various locations in the city of Port Elizabeth for individual presentations by
South African NGOs. They were given the choice of attending one session
from a list of five: Teacher Training, the South African Qualifications
Framework, Music Education and Training, Visual Arts Education and
Training, and the Performing Arts Education and Training. These sessions
gave the delegates an opportunity to share experiences and programmes and
to network with others in the same or related fields.


23.     Mr Jay Pather of Natal Technikon, Durban, South Africa, made the first
presentation. He stated that attempts at drawing up a curriculum for dance,
especially African dances were fraught with problems some of which he
identified in connection with infrastructure, definition and outcomes,
curriculum development and methodology, and the training of dance teachers.
The absence of indigenous African dances in the curricula of South African
schools was noted.

24.    Dr. Robert McLaren (Zimbabwe) spoke on the topic, "Teaching dance
to the children in Zimbabwe: The Chipawo Experience." His presentation
focused on dance education in Zimbabwe based on the Shona word
"chipawo" meaning "please give" or "give as well", a philosophy of sharing.
The word is also the acronym for the Children’s Performing Arts Workshop
(CHIPAWO), a project which aims at involving the cultural experience of
Zimbabwean children through the culture and performing arts of the country,
the region and the continent. The pedagogy stresses free expression,
creativity and originality and it provides cultural education for all children. The
presenter expressed the hope that other delegates would use this model in
their child education programmes.

25.     Mr Herbert Makoye (Tanzania) gave the third presentation on the
status of dance in school curricula of Tanzania. He presented a paper entitled
“Dance Training and Cultural Transmission: A Study of Dance Teaching
Situation in Tanzania Schools” He stated that dance was offered as an
extracurricular activity and thus it was not easy to place it in the curricula of
Tanzanian schools. Another factor acting against dance was that it was
incorporated into the theatre syllabus where pupils were required to use it in
accompanying performances of indigenous songs. The presenter also

expressed concern about the reliance of Tanzanian curriculum planners on
electronic equipment and materials like television, and videotapes for dance
instruction, which was ineffective since most schools had no electricity supply
or access to such equipment and materials.

26.     In the discussions that followed, the presentation focused on the
interrelationship of music and dance in the context of indigenous African
traditions. While many agreed that dance, music and drama were inseparable
within African communities, others argued that some modern dances were
performed in silence (without sound or music) hence the need to treat music
and dance as separate disciplines.


27.    Mr. Lupwishi Mbuyamba, UNESCO Cultural Adviser for Southern and
Eastern African Countries, summarized the papers of two delegates, who
were unable to come to the conference and had,therefore sent their papers
by electronic mail.

       a. The first reflection was on a paper entitled "Etude sur la Poésie, la
       tradition orale et la littérature au Togo” by Ketline Adodo, the delegate
       of the Society of French Poets (Togo) and « L’Enseignement de la
       littérature en général et de la poésie en particulier au Burundi » by
       Adrien Ntabona. The importance of the oral traditions and oral literature
       in poetry learning and performance             was emphasized in the
       presentation. Both authors proposed that poetry should be accessible
       to all. All children must be given the opportunity to express their
       aesthetic feelings through poetry. The methodology of poetry education
       should be based on recitation, which is employed by praise singers in
       the African oral traditions.

       b. The second reflection dealt with the work of the Angolan writer,
       Louis Mendonca who has developed a programme called "reading is
       growing" designed to give primary school children experience in
       reading. Mr. Mendonca distributes books for the children to read and
       make their own presentations on their progess.

28.    Ms Nise Malange of the Bartlet Art Trust (BAT) Centre in Durban,
South Africa, gave the second presentation in the Poetry and Literature
category. She informed the delegates about her project in KwaZulu Natal
Province of South Africa in preparation for the impending international
conference on racism to be held in this country. She focused on "Respect for
Cultural Diversity" and this diversity was demonstrated in the action of her
NGO in programmes involving praise singing (isibongo) workers poetry and
poetry competitions in English organised in South African schools. She
suggested the development of African languages and literature, which are
marginalized, in her country. Finally, she remarked that poetry was essential
in society since, apart from developing peoples’ creative skills, it had a
therapeutic effect. Several interesting issues cropped up in the discussions,
which immediately followed the presentations. Concern was expressed about

the marginalization of African languages and literature especially in South
African universities.

29.     During the discussion, it was recalled that the use of Swahili as a
medium of instruction and the promotion of other local Tanzanian languages,
as well as a children's book project which resulted in the production of 150
volumes of children's literature in Swahili, have enhanced literary education in
Tanzania. The conclusions that came out of the discussion were summarized
as follows:

   a. Reading programmes need to be improved;
   b. African languages need to be promoted;
   c. Field recordings of oral literature, poetry etc. is necessary and should
      result in the production of pedagogical materials for schools;
   d. The production of literature should be increased.


30.    The first presentation was made by Mr Williams, Chief Director,
Department of Education, South Africa who gave a comprehensive report on
the arts and culture curricula, which are to be implemented in South African
schools. The place of arts and culture in the Curriculum 2005 document of
the Department of Education (DOE) was given prominence. Other important
topics covered were: ‘Teacher orientation and training”, “Identification of
talented learners”; “Analysing the needs of emerging arts and culture

31.    Ms. Edith Marata of the Ministry of Education, Gaborone, Botswana,
presented a paper on the “Visual arts education in the primary and secondary
school level” of her country. She spoke of the lack of teachers with adequate
backgrounds in music and the arts as the major problem faced by her Ministry
in developing arts education programmes in schools. She also informed the
other delegates that her Ministry had provided syllabi for teaching, drawing,
painting, music and physical education in primary and secondary schools.
Finally, she added that the junior secondary schools focused on visual arts
education, namely art, craft and design.

32.    A presentation was given by Mr Ervast Mtota, Principal of the College
of Arts in Windhoek, Namibia, concerning informal and formal education in his
country. Within the curriculum structure of basic education, visual arts, dance,
drama and music were taught to all children between ages 6 to 16. In grades
8, 9 and 10 arts and culture could be taken as an elective subject and was
taught by a specialist teacher. It was interesting to know that elective
modules are examinable while core modules are non-examinable at these
grade levels.

33.   The final presentation of this session was given by Mrs. Alice Baffoe of
the Ministry of Education, Accra, Ghana, who presented a document on “Arts

Education Programmes as Organised in Ghana”. She gave a brief history of
art education in Ghana as well as a review of government official documents
on education which have influenced arts education in the country since the
1980s. Art and crafts, drawing and painting are visual art subjects, which are
examinable at the end of secondary education. Visual art is an integral part of
the primary school curriculum and indeed, primary school children are
required to acquire skills in basketry, leatherwear, sculpture, clothing and
textiles.   Thus, post-primary pupils may have been prepared for an
apprenticeship in any of the aforementioned trades, should they decide to
work and study. Mrs. Baffoe stressed that vocational art education started in
primary school is strengthened at the secondary school level. Secondary
school leavers can thus use such vocational skills in their jobs should they
decide to seek employment. The role played by associations such as the
Ghana National Association of Teachers (GNAT) and the Ghana Association
of Art Teachers (GAAT) in the development and implementation of visual arts
curricula in Ghanaian schools was acknowledged by the presenter. It
emerged from her presentation that although other arts like music, dance and
drama were offered in Ghanaian schools, they were superseded by education
in the visual arts.

34.    In the discussions following the four presentations the delegates
agreed that in-service training for teachers needs to be strengthened if the
current low status of arts education in African schools is to be improved.


35.    The focus of this session was on the intervention of NGOs in out-of-
school, non-formal arts education. Mrs Kafui Sosu Kumaka of the AGORO-
CILTAO project gave the first address. She informed the delegates about the
success of her NGO in using theatre as a means of social development of the
youth and street children in the city of Cape Coast in southern Ghana.
Audience participatory approach was used and content was based on
pertinent social issues like, AIDS, robbery, drugs etc. Other devices
employed in staging musical and theatrical performances were the use of
simple language (local or English) and humour. The Ministry of Education
sometimes requests her establishment to conduct extracurricular music and
theatre activities in schools in the Cape Coast municipality.

36.     Ms. Andrea Karpati (Hungary) of the International Society for Education
through Art (INSEA) gave a presentation on the activities of her organization.
She said that Africa was under-represented in INSEA, which currently has
3000 members in 86 countries. She presented the website constructed by
UNESCO and INSEA entitled: Directory of resources for Education in the Arts
(IDEA) which has a collection of best practises in art education in 25 countries
all around the world: Only 2 countries in Africa (Ghana and Egypt) have
participated on this network. She also briefly presented her organization’s
project pilot: “My Culture Is”, which aims to collect material in order to publish
school materials for teaching the arts.

37.   Mrs Helen Smuts of the Guateng Institute for Curriculum Development,
Johannesburg, South Africa, who has an NGO for visual arts gave a video
presentation on African masks used in musical and theatrical performances
by societies in countries like Nigeria, Senegal, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast.

38.    Mr David April, a dancer with a South African NGO based in
Johannesburg, known as “Moving into Dance” involved delegates physically in
his presentation based on movements of parts of the human body especially
the head, shoulders, arms, torso and feet. He told the delegates that he
belonged to a professional dance company, which encouraged the
combination of academic discipline with physical movement.            The
methodology of learning is informal and the company also trains community
dance teachers.

39.    The fifth presentation was given by Ms. Lindy Joubert, Director of the
Asia Pacific Confederation of Arts Education (ASPACHE). She presented a
paper entitled “New Paradigms: The Arts in the Core Secondary Curriculum
– Cutting Edge Research and Practice in Australia and the United States” .
Her organization propagates the mental and physical excellence reflected in
Australia’s performance in sport e.g. cricket and rugby as well as in arts in
culture. She advised delegates to emulate Australia, a multiracial country that
has achieved excellence in sports and the arts.

40.    The last presentation of this session was given by Mr Mali Voi,
UNESCO Regional Advisor on Culture in the Pacific. He gave a very short
address on arts education as a living culture and proposed that arts and
culture should place emphasis on economic and social development.


Delegates divided up into five working groups to formulate guidelines and
strategies. Each group worked under a leader and a rapporteur as follows.

   1. Visual Arts, Craft and Design

      Group Leader: Mr David Paton (South Africa)
      Rapporteur: Ms Maryla Bialobrzeska (South Africa)

   2. Music:

      Group Leader: Dr Mitchel Strumpf (Zimbabwe)
      Rapporteur: Mr Bernard Kwilimbe (Malawi)

   3. Theatre and Mass Media

      Group Leader: Dr A. Hater ( Tanzanie )
      Rapporteur: Mr Phil Manana ( Tanzanie )

   4. Dance

      Group Leader: Ms Jay Pather (South Africa)
      Rapporteur: Herbert Makoye (Tanzania)

   5. Poetry and Literature

      Group Leader: Ms Nise Malange (South Africa)
      Rapporteur: Mr Joachim Mandavo (Congo)

The results of these Working Groups were incorporated into the Action Plan
and the booklet entitled “Cultural heritage, creativity and education for all in
Africa” (booklet cover).

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