UNESCO REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON ART EDUCATION IN AFRICA Tsitsikama Conference Center Port Elizabeth, South Africa 24 - 30 June 2001 REPORT I. OPENING CEREMONY 1. The UNESCO Regional Conference on Art Education in Africa, organised by UNESCO in cooperation with the Government of South Africa, was held at the Tsitsikama Conference Center in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, from 24 to 30 June 2001. It was attended by delegates from eighteen countries: Australia, Botswana, Comoros, Congo Brazzaville, Congo DR, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hungary, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia and Zimbabwe, a representative of the OAU as well as of SIDA (Mozambique), and members of South African NGOs dealing with Arts and Culture (list of participants in Appendix) 2. Dr. Botlhale Thema, Chief Director of the South African Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technololgy (DACST), on behalf of the host country, the Department of Education and her own Department, welcomed all the participants to South Africa. She stated the two primary objectives of the conference to be as follows: a. To improve the provision of arts education in the formal and informal sectors of education in Africa; b. To provide arts education focusing on how the arts influence the economies of African nations. 3. Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, South Africa, gave the opening address. He began by acknowledging all the representatives from other African countries, the OAU, UNESCO, international NGOs, South African NGOs, education practitioners, the South African Departments of Education, Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, representatives from the ILO, MTN, the Ford Foundation and artists. He lamented the fact that although Africa was known all over the world for its rich cultures and talented artists, the continent lacked institutions such as cultural industries which would benefit its local exponents of the arts. He therefore, emphasized the need for an infrastructure that would contain arts institutes and skilled teachers to train the youth in arts at the local, regional, national and global levels. Finally, the Minister expressed the fear that globalisation and free trade could be the greatest threat to African art forms. He was, however, optimistic that if Africans found new ways of promoting their arts, sharing their expertise and mobilising their rich sources, their arts education would not only be enhanced but also jobs could be created and the level of poverty of its people would be reduced. 2 4. Mr Salah Abada, Director of the Section of Creativity and Copyright, UNESCO, Paris, in his opening speech, stressed that art, a fundamental element of culture, plays an important part in our daily lives since every society promotes the arts through the education of its children. He also stated that art and culture engender the intellectual and emotional development of individuals, hence the perception in society that art education from an early age is the key to the preparation for citizenship. In his statement, Mr. Abada posed the important question "How can we organise and promote art education for our children efficiently over the years?" His address also contained references to several issues relating to guidelines for the preparation and implantation of arts education curricula for primary and secondary school. Some such issues were considered by the five working groups of delegates (Visual Arts, Music, Theatre, Poetry and Literature and Dance) in their deliberations on the formulation of guidelines and strategies for arts education in Africa. In Mr. Abada's view, quality education, both at the formal and informal levels, is essential since it enables individuals to develop competent skills. He concluded his address by assuring the delegates that UNESCO was willing to provide its expertise in order to encourage the rich potential of nations which seek to develop their art education programmes through quality education. 5. Mr Atef Ghabrial, Senior Policy Analyst and representative of the OAU Secretary-General then took the floor and read his message. He first thanked UNESCO and the government of South Africa for organising such an important event and went on to underline the need to re-examine existing school curricula in Africa to ensure that these meet the cultural aspirations of the people. In his view, such necessary action would meet the new challenges and changes taking place in the world as far as cultural development was concerned. It would, for instance, help in the prevention of conflict on a continent like Africa where wars and conflicts are common. Mr. Ghabrial then informed the delegates about the coming into force of the Constitutive Act of establishing the African Union on 26 May 2001. He underscored the need for the enhancement of co-operation, co-ordination and consultations among member states of this Union. He also suggested that IGOs and NGOs should be invited to contribute to the ongoing exercise for the realization of the African Union, especially through the arts. Finally, he reiterated the importance of promoting culture and education by placing emphasis on creativity and innovative ideas. In this respect he informed the meeting about the award programme which the OAU organizes bi-annually, jointly with WIPO, to encourage innovation and creativity. He wished the delegates success in their deliberations which, he hoped, might be adopted and implanted in the "Plan of Action" to be considered by member states of the Africa Union for implementation at the national level. 6. Following the addresses of these three distinguished persons to the opening ceremony, the Chairman, Dr. Botlhale Thema, summarized what had been said as follows: 3 a. Africa is rich in arts resources. b. African arts should be brought into the development paradigm. c. Provision should be made for arts education for all, especially for developing creativity among youth. d. The arts should contribute to initiatives relating to development as provided by organisations like the OAU/Africa Union and UNESCO. II. PAPER PRESENTATIONS: the Arts and the Cultural industries Two papers were presented during the plenary session held after the opening ceremony. 7. The first paper, on the topic "The Production of Culture: Towards a Creative Region” based on an ILO project, developed by a team of five researchers, was presented by Avril Joffe, Co-ordinator of the project. The presentation was based on research into the cultural sectors, notably the performing arts, dance, visual arts and music of the countries in the SADC region of Africa. The researchers identified ten categories of cultural industries: Cultural Heritage; Cultural Tourism; Design Sector; Publishing Sector; Performing Arts and Dance; Crafts; Audio-Visual and Media; Multimedia; Music; and Visual Arts. There were six research issues, namely: Tangible vs. Intangible e.g. living off art vs. sense of identity; Co-ordination and Integration; Funding and Finance; International Recognition vs. Local Acclaim; Censorship; Government Role/Promotion and Funding. The researchers tried to discover why cultural industries were important for the SADC region. Among some of their findings were that such industries provide people with employment and income; the development of national and local cultural identities; the development of tourism and the creation of ideas and information for communication. The research was also designed to: identify the potential for an increase of trans-regional trade in cultural projects; develop an export programme; develop a programme of audience development for all cultural forms; and to assist governments to collect and monitor statistics relating to cultural industries. The presenter stressed that this research was ongoing hence the interim recommendations to support SME development and employment in the cultural sector of the SADC region, which include: the establishment, co-ordination and the monitoring of copyright and the coordination of available government incentives for small businesses. All in all, the presentation gave the delegates an insight into the business rather than the educational aspects of the arts in the Southern African sub region. 8. Mr Steven Sack, Director, Cultural Development, South African Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST), presented the second paper of this session, on the topic "Placing culture on the national agenda." The thrust of his presentation was on the partnerships his ministry had established with NGO's and other organisations to promote arts and culture education in South Africa. Such partnerships had been established in 4 three major entities: i. in school, through relations with the Department of Education; ii. Out of school, where DACST had collaborated with local people to establish about 40 community centers and also built libraries; and iii. Work-based. There is a need for arts and culture to play an important role in interpreting governments’ priority policies such as poverty reduction, AIDS, black empowerment, African renaissance etc. In this vein DACST works closely with provincial and local authorities throughout South Africa. Mr. Sack pointed out that although there is a need for the establishment of cultural industries, cultural tourism and so forth, he felt the arts should not be reduced to economic trade. In other words, the arts should be cherished and not be valued mainly for economic or income generating purposes. Indeed, the goal of DACST in establishing partnerships with other organisations to promote the arts is to provide education and training for the creative arts and arts industries for all South Africans. III ELECTION OF THE BUREAU (CHAIRPERSON, RAPPORTEURS) 9. Dr. Botlhale Thema (South Africa) was proposed as Chairperson and was subsequently elected unanimously. Dr Patricia Pond (Kenya) and M. Paul Dagri (Côte d’Ivoire) were elected vice-chairpersons. Dr Eric Akrofi, a Ghanaian national resident in South Africa, was elected Rapporteur-general. IV. ARTS EDUCATION AT SCHOOL LEVEL 10. Ms. Tereza Wagner, Programme Specialist at the Division of Arts and Cultural Enterprises ( ACE ) at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris made the introductory remarks before the other presentations and discussions. She focused on the guidelines for discussion of papers in the five working groups. She provided copies of a UNESCO position paper entitled "Arts education in the school environment" (E/F/S). She briefly commented the different working documents produced for the conference and referred to a publication titled A Guide for the Preparation of Primary School African Music Teaching Manuals edited by Prof. J.H. Kwabena Nketia (Ghana). Reference was also made to other papers on visual arts, crafts, music etc. by researchers from all over Africa. Ms. Wagner's presentation demonstrated the important role being played by UNESCO in the preparation, documentation and dissemination of material on the arts and culture of Africa 5 PRESENTATION OF NATIONAL SYNTHESIS: IV.1 Visual Art, Craft and Design This session comprised the presentation of case studies from two countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Comoros. 11. The Congolese delegate, Mr. Lema Kusa of the Academy of Fine Arts, Kinshasa gave a presentation on the topic “L’Enseignement des arts plastiques au Congo: évolution et expériences”. He traced the history of art (fine arts) education in his country from colonial times (1920s to 1960s) to the present. Although he expressed concern about European/Belgian influence on arts education in the Congo he mentioned three milestones (the Dakar Festival of Negro Arts, 1966; the Festival of Arts and Culture, FESTAC in Lagos 1977 and the philosophy of Authenticity, Kinshasa, Sept. 1981), which have somewhat inspired the Congolese to incorporate indigenous and local ideals in art education programmes. His presentation included proposed curricular guidelines for Congolese primary and secondary school children. While he recommended the development of aesthetic sensitivity, taking into consideration the child’s environment for primary education, he suggested that a more technical approach be taken to fine arts at the secondary school level. 12. Mr. Abdallah Ali Naguib, a conservation architect at the National Museum of the Comoros delivered a paper on the topic "Artistic Tradition and Dynamic Creativity". In his country, there are two types of educational system in the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros: 1. Koranic schools which propagate the Islamic religion and train children aged three years and above in spiritual development and, 2. Official schools, based on the French model, under the Ministry of Education, where the medium of instruction is both French and Arabic. Generally speaking, the traditional arts (especially pottery, woodwork and jewellery) are much alive in Comoros. The practitioners of the other arts - visual, music, dance, poetry, literature and theatre - are still grappling with the problem of colonial influence. This problem not withstanding, Mr Naguib felt that educating children to value the arts of their culture would turn the situation around. He included a proposed curricular outline for (formal and informal) art education in primary and secondary schools of his country. He suggested that visual arts should help pupils to perceive, interpret and communicate and that, ultimately, a reconstruction of art education should be geared towards encouraging artists and artisans to practise their trades. 13. A working document entitled “Proposition de programme d’orientation de l’Education artistique plastique” by Alioune Badiane, and “Training in visual art and craft in schools and the non-formal sector” by Doreen Sibanda, were also available for the discussion. 6 IV.2 MUSIC 14. Dr Mitchel Strumpf of Africa University, Zimbabwe, gave a presentation on music education in Africa, based on case studies from two countries, namely Malawi and Zimbabwe. There was also a very brief discussion of the music-teaching situation in Ghana. The presentation was a brief but concise account of the status of formal music education in the three countries named above. Its presenter examined the position of music in the schools, current music curricula used in schools and the training of music teachers. Finally, he offered suggestions for improving music education in Africa in general. Dr Strumpf not only based his discussion on almost three decades of teaching experience in several African countries but he also used information from other African writers, notably Paul Dagri (Côte d’Ivoire), Lucy Ekwuema (Nigeria), Rigobert Mbila Nd'Akambo (Congo Dr), Ruth Evans (Ghana), and J.H Mketia (Ghana) in his presentation. He proposed a multifaceted music education programme for Africa. The need to provide African school children with the opportunity to experience the music of their communities hence the important role of indigenous African music in school music programmes, was emphasized. Dr. Strumpf strongly recommended that music be incorporated into the core curriculum of schools. The prevalence of Western music education in African countries was acknowledged but the presenter expressed his satisfaction over attempts made by several governments and organisations to improve teacher education most beneficial to the personal and professional development of African youth. 15. In the discussions that followed the above presentation other delegates expressed their views on the issues raised in Dr. Strumpf's paper. Joseph Nyandu, a music teacher from Zambia impressed the meeting with his valuable contribution. On music in one's environment, he spoke of the importance of African music in the lives of rural Zambian communities (i.e. Bemba) and therefore a music programme based on Western music, for example, would pose problems for the majority of African children in rural schools. Music that is typically African should form the basis of music education in African countries. In the same vein, he stated that the characteristics of African music, the evolution of social life in Africa and matters relating to the compositional techniques of African music should be taken into account in the preparation of music curricula for schools in Africa. 16. A working document entitled “Aperçu de la Formation Musicale en Côte d’Ivoire” by Paul Dagri, was also available to the participants. IV.3 THEATRE 17. The first presentation was given by Dr Augustin Hatar of the Department of Fine and Performing Arts, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, on the topic "The State Of Theatre Education In Tanzania". He expressed concern about the Western concept of theatre in Tanzania as well as the plethora of ethnic theatrical forms resulting from the multiplicity of 7 ethnic groups (about 120) each with its own form of theatre. Two milestones that have influenced cultural policy and enhanced theatrical education in the country were mentioned: 1. The establishment of a National Cultural Ministry in 1961; 2. The Arusha Declaration, which promoted the widespread use of Swahili in the country was a unifying factor which made use of this (one) language, as a medium of instruction and an asset for teaching theatre in schools. He mentioned the existence of syllabuses for teaching theatre at primary and secondary school levels. However, there were no teachers to teach the subject effectively. Another drawback for theatre education in Tanzania was the negative attitude of the students and other Tanzanians in general towards theatre education and the performing arts in general. 18. Mrs. Kafui Sosu Kumaka (Ghana) gave a comprehensive report on the activities of her NGO, AGORO-CILTAD located in the city of Cape Coast in Ghana, a centre for intellectual learning and talent development whose aim is to develop the artistic skills of local workers. The centre also promotes the development of theatre focusing on social issues such s AIDS, drugs, teenage pregnancy through the use of music, dance and folklore. Mrs.Kafui informed the meeting that her NGO had benefited immensely from collaboration with other establishments such as the Ministry of Health, the Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) and Gender International. On the question of funding the presenter acknowledged the assistance received from foreign agencies such as DAMIDA (Denmark), Charity Association Fund, CAF(Britain) and the Prince Klaus Fund for Culture and Development (Netherlands). Additional programmes of the Centre include the use of resource persons from the universities to train youth in courses in music and dance. 19. Bernard Kwilimbwe (Malawi) examined the role of the theatre in relation to the other arts, especially music and dance, in his country, He informed the meeting that the radio plays an important role in the development theatre, especially among the people of Malawi. Other institutions like the church and the school play a vital role in the development of theatre education. The establishment of a national dance troupe in Malawi in 1987 had enhanced theatre awareness in the country. His major concern is the type of theatre education that should be provided for Malawian school children. 20. The participants made several contributions to the discussions following the three presentations. It was noted that the university of Natal was the only university institution in South Africa offering courses in traditional arts. It was suggested that the South African DACST (Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology) and DOE (Department of Education) should encourage the teaching of traditional arts especially in primary and secondary schools. Issues related to curricula for the arts within a national education philosophy or policy arose from time to time. A majority of the delegates 8 agreed that the arts should become an integral part of the school curriculum. 21. Three documents were presented entitled “Etude de cas sur l’enseignement du théâtre et des formes d’art dramatiques en milieu scolaire en Côte d’Ivoire” by Naky Sy Savane (E/F) ; “La situation de l’enseignement du théâtre au Burkina Faso” by Jean Pierre Guingané” ; « Enseignement du théâtre pour les jeunes en République démocratique du Congo » in RD Congo by Katanga Mupey, were made available for discussion. 22. Delegates spent the morning of the second day of the conference at various locations in the city of Port Elizabeth for individual presentations by South African NGOs. They were given the choice of attending one session from a list of five: Teacher Training, the South African Qualifications Framework, Music Education and Training, Visual Arts Education and Training, and the Performing Arts Education and Training. These sessions gave the delegates an opportunity to share experiences and programmes and to network with others in the same or related fields. IV.4 DANCE 23. Mr Jay Pather of Natal Technikon, Durban, South Africa, made the first presentation. He stated that attempts at drawing up a curriculum for dance, especially African dances were fraught with problems some of which he identified in connection with infrastructure, definition and outcomes, curriculum development and methodology, and the training of dance teachers. The absence of indigenous African dances in the curricula of South African schools was noted. 24. Dr. Robert McLaren (Zimbabwe) spoke on the topic, "Teaching dance to the children in Zimbabwe: The Chipawo Experience." His presentation focused on dance education in Zimbabwe based on the Shona word "chipawo" meaning "please give" or "give as well", a philosophy of sharing. The word is also the acronym for the Children’s Performing Arts Workshop (CHIPAWO), a project which aims at involving the cultural experience of Zimbabwean children through the culture and performing arts of the country, the region and the continent. The pedagogy stresses free expression, creativity and originality and it provides cultural education for all children. The presenter expressed the hope that other delegates would use this model in their child education programmes. 25. Mr Herbert Makoye (Tanzania) gave the third presentation on the status of dance in school curricula of Tanzania. He presented a paper entitled “Dance Training and Cultural Transmission: A Study of Dance Teaching Situation in Tanzania Schools” He stated that dance was offered as an extracurricular activity and thus it was not easy to place it in the curricula of Tanzanian schools. Another factor acting against dance was that it was incorporated into the theatre syllabus where pupils were required to use it in accompanying performances of indigenous songs. The presenter also 9 expressed concern about the reliance of Tanzanian curriculum planners on electronic equipment and materials like television, and videotapes for dance instruction, which was ineffective since most schools had no electricity supply or access to such equipment and materials. 26. In the discussions that followed, the presentation focused on the interrelationship of music and dance in the context of indigenous African traditions. While many agreed that dance, music and drama were inseparable within African communities, others argued that some modern dances were performed in silence (without sound or music) hence the need to treat music and dance as separate disciplines. IV.5 POETRY AND LITERATURE 27. Mr. Lupwishi Mbuyamba, UNESCO Cultural Adviser for Southern and Eastern African Countries, summarized the papers of two delegates, who were unable to come to the conference and had,therefore sent their papers by electronic mail. a. The first reflection was on a paper entitled "Etude sur la Poésie, la tradition orale et la littérature au Togo” by Ketline Adodo, the delegate of the Society of French Poets (Togo) and « L’Enseignement de la littérature en général et de la poésie en particulier au Burundi » by Adrien Ntabona. The importance of the oral traditions and oral literature in poetry learning and performance was emphasized in the presentation. Both authors proposed that poetry should be accessible to all. All children must be given the opportunity to express their aesthetic feelings through poetry. The methodology of poetry education should be based on recitation, which is employed by praise singers in the African oral traditions. b. The second reflection dealt with the work of the Angolan writer, Louis Mendonca who has developed a programme called "reading is growing" designed to give primary school children experience in reading. Mr. Mendonca distributes books for the children to read and make their own presentations on their progess. 28. Ms Nise Malange of the Bartlet Art Trust (BAT) Centre in Durban, South Africa, gave the second presentation in the Poetry and Literature category. She informed the delegates about her project in KwaZulu Natal Province of South Africa in preparation for the impending international conference on racism to be held in this country. She focused on "Respect for Cultural Diversity" and this diversity was demonstrated in the action of her NGO in programmes involving praise singing (isibongo) workers poetry and poetry competitions in English organised in South African schools. She suggested the development of African languages and literature, which are marginalized, in her country. Finally, she remarked that poetry was essential in society since, apart from developing peoples’ creative skills, it had a therapeutic effect. Several interesting issues cropped up in the discussions, which immediately followed the presentations. Concern was expressed about 10 the marginalization of African languages and literature especially in South African universities. 29. During the discussion, it was recalled that the use of Swahili as a medium of instruction and the promotion of other local Tanzanian languages, as well as a children's book project which resulted in the production of 150 volumes of children's literature in Swahili, have enhanced literary education in Tanzania. The conclusions that came out of the discussion were summarized as follows: a. Reading programmes need to be improved; b. African languages need to be promoted; c. Field recordings of oral literature, poetry etc. is necessary and should result in the production of pedagogical materials for schools; d. The production of literature should be increased. V. PRESENT SITUATION OF ARTS AND EDUCATION FOR ALL FOR SCHOOLS 30. The first presentation was made by Mr Williams, Chief Director, Department of Education, South Africa who gave a comprehensive report on the arts and culture curricula, which are to be implemented in South African schools. The place of arts and culture in the Curriculum 2005 document of the Department of Education (DOE) was given prominence. Other important topics covered were: ‘Teacher orientation and training”, “Identification of talented learners”; “Analysing the needs of emerging arts and culture industry”. 31. Ms. Edith Marata of the Ministry of Education, Gaborone, Botswana, presented a paper on the “Visual arts education in the primary and secondary school level” of her country. She spoke of the lack of teachers with adequate backgrounds in music and the arts as the major problem faced by her Ministry in developing arts education programmes in schools. She also informed the other delegates that her Ministry had provided syllabi for teaching, drawing, painting, music and physical education in primary and secondary schools. Finally, she added that the junior secondary schools focused on visual arts education, namely art, craft and design. 32. A presentation was given by Mr Ervast Mtota, Principal of the College of Arts in Windhoek, Namibia, concerning informal and formal education in his country. Within the curriculum structure of basic education, visual arts, dance, drama and music were taught to all children between ages 6 to 16. In grades 8, 9 and 10 arts and culture could be taken as an elective subject and was taught by a specialist teacher. It was interesting to know that elective modules are examinable while core modules are non-examinable at these grade levels. 33. The final presentation of this session was given by Mrs. Alice Baffoe of the Ministry of Education, Accra, Ghana, who presented a document on “Arts 11 Education Programmes as Organised in Ghana”. She gave a brief history of art education in Ghana as well as a review of government official documents on education which have influenced arts education in the country since the 1980s. Art and crafts, drawing and painting are visual art subjects, which are examinable at the end of secondary education. Visual art is an integral part of the primary school curriculum and indeed, primary school children are required to acquire skills in basketry, leatherwear, sculpture, clothing and textiles. Thus, post-primary pupils may have been prepared for an apprenticeship in any of the aforementioned trades, should they decide to work and study. Mrs. Baffoe stressed that vocational art education started in primary school is strengthened at the secondary school level. Secondary school leavers can thus use such vocational skills in their jobs should they decide to seek employment. The role played by associations such as the Ghana National Association of Teachers (GNAT) and the Ghana Association of Art Teachers (GAAT) in the development and implementation of visual arts curricula in Ghanaian schools was acknowledged by the presenter. It emerged from her presentation that although other arts like music, dance and drama were offered in Ghanaian schools, they were superseded by education in the visual arts. 34. In the discussions following the four presentations the delegates agreed that in-service training for teachers needs to be strengthened if the current low status of arts education in African schools is to be improved. VI. PRESENTATION ON ART AND EDUCATION FOR ALL FOR OUT- OF-SCHOOLS 35. The focus of this session was on the intervention of NGOs in out-of- school, non-formal arts education. Mrs Kafui Sosu Kumaka of the AGORO- CILTAO project gave the first address. She informed the delegates about the success of her NGO in using theatre as a means of social development of the youth and street children in the city of Cape Coast in southern Ghana. Audience participatory approach was used and content was based on pertinent social issues like, AIDS, robbery, drugs etc. Other devices employed in staging musical and theatrical performances were the use of simple language (local or English) and humour. The Ministry of Education sometimes requests her establishment to conduct extracurricular music and theatre activities in schools in the Cape Coast municipality. 36. Ms. Andrea Karpati (Hungary) of the International Society for Education through Art (INSEA) gave a presentation on the activities of her organization. She said that Africa was under-represented in INSEA, which currently has 3000 members in 86 countries. She presented the website constructed by UNESCO and INSEA entitled: Directory of resources for Education in the Arts (IDEA) which has a collection of best practises in art education in 25 countries all around the world: Only 2 countries in Africa (Ghana and Egypt) have participated on this network. She also briefly presented her organization’s project pilot: “My Culture Is”, which aims to collect material in order to publish school materials for teaching the arts. 12 37. Mrs Helen Smuts of the Guateng Institute for Curriculum Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, who has an NGO for visual arts gave a video presentation on African masks used in musical and theatrical performances by societies in countries like Nigeria, Senegal, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast. 38. Mr David April, a dancer with a South African NGO based in Johannesburg, known as “Moving into Dance” involved delegates physically in his presentation based on movements of parts of the human body especially the head, shoulders, arms, torso and feet. He told the delegates that he belonged to a professional dance company, which encouraged the combination of academic discipline with physical movement. The methodology of learning is informal and the company also trains community dance teachers. 39. The fifth presentation was given by Ms. Lindy Joubert, Director of the Asia Pacific Confederation of Arts Education (ASPACHE). She presented a paper entitled “New Paradigms: The Arts in the Core Secondary Curriculum – Cutting Edge Research and Practice in Australia and the United States” . Her organization propagates the mental and physical excellence reflected in Australia’s performance in sport e.g. cricket and rugby as well as in arts in culture. She advised delegates to emulate Australia, a multiracial country that has achieved excellence in sports and the arts. 40. The last presentation of this session was given by Mr Mali Voi, UNESCO Regional Advisor on Culture in the Pacific. He gave a very short address on arts education as a living culture and proposed that arts and culture should place emphasis on economic and social development. VII. WORKING GROUP SESSIONS AND PRESENTATION OF REPORTS Delegates divided up into five working groups to formulate guidelines and strategies. Each group worked under a leader and a rapporteur as follows. 1. Visual Arts, Craft and Design Group Leader: Mr David Paton (South Africa) Rapporteur: Ms Maryla Bialobrzeska (South Africa) 2. Music: Group Leader: Dr Mitchel Strumpf (Zimbabwe) Rapporteur: Mr Bernard Kwilimbe (Malawi) 13 3. Theatre and Mass Media Group Leader: Dr A. Hater ( Tanzanie ) Rapporteur: Mr Phil Manana ( Tanzanie ) 4. Dance Group Leader: Ms Jay Pather (South Africa) Rapporteur: Herbert Makoye (Tanzania) 5. Poetry and Literature Group Leader: Ms Nise Malange (South Africa) Rapporteur: Mr Joachim Mandavo (Congo) The results of these Working Groups were incorporated into the Action Plan and the booklet entitled “Cultural heritage, creativity and education for all in Africa” (booklet cover).
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