Feelings _ Emotions by pengxiang

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									                                           Cultures and Contributions Unit
                                           -   Lesson   1:   Stereo-Types, Prejudices & Their Effects
                                           -   Lesson   2:   A European Adventure
                                           -   Lesson   3:   Tribal Life
                                           -   Lesson   4:   Latino History & Music
                                           -   Lesson   5:   Chinese Exploration
                                           -   Lesson   6:   Arab Countries & Cultures


Author: Teresa Hartzell

Grade Level: 6-8

Integrated disciplines: Technology, English, Social Studies, Arts

NE Standards:
      8.1.2 By the end of the eighth grade, students will identify, locate, and use multiple resources to
       access information on an assigned or self-selected topic
      8.1.6 By the end of the eighth grade, students will identify similarities and differences across a
       variety of eighth grade reading selections
      8.1.7 By the end of the eighth grade, students will demonstrate the ability to analyze literary
       works, nonfiction, films, or media.
      8.2.1 By the end of the eighth grade, students will write using standard English (conventions) for
       sentence structure, usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
      8.2.2 By the end of the eighth grade, students will write compositions with focus, related ideas,
       and supporting details.
      8.2.4 By the end of the eighth grade, students will demonstrate the use of multiple forms to write
       for different audiences and purposes
      8.2.5 By the end of the eighth grade, students will demonstrate the ability to use self-generated
       questions, note taking, summarizing and outlining while learning.
      8.3.1 By the end of the eighth grade, students will participate in group discussions by asking
       questions and contributing information and ideas
      8.3.2 By the end of the eighth grade, students will use multiple presentation styles for specific
       audiences and purposes.
      8.4.1 By the end of the eighth grade, students will identify information gained and complete tasks
       through listening

       Social Studies:
      II. Culture
      VI. People, Places, and Environments

      Dance - Content standard 5
      Music – Content standard 6, 8, 9
      Visual Arts – Content standard 4

          Basic Operations
          Ethical, Cultural and Societal Issues
          Productivity Tools
          Technology Communication Tools
          Technology Research Tools

Unit Materials:
   Culture Text Box - Maps of Europe, Mexico, Central America, China, Middle East and
      Indian Nations; books and articles on slavery, Japanese Interment, and women’s suffrage;
      photos of ethnic groups and countries of origin; books on inventions and cultural
      contributions from various people groups
   Poster of inventions/contributions (with inventors/contributors not indicated) and a list of
      contributions with the contributors


                      Lesson 1 – Stereo-Types, Prejudices & Their Effects

   Students will identify labels and categories, bias and stereotyping through class
     discussion, brainstorming, and class activities

   Informal assessment of the identification of labels, categories, bias and stereotyping
     through class discussion and participation in class activities

   Computer with internet capabilities and projection equipment
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWtiPcX-mZ0

      3-6 large sheets of paper (flip-board size) and markers

Anticipatory Set:

      Post vocabulary on board or large sheet of paper:
          o Bias – attitudes or behaviors based on stereotypes of people
          o Ethnicity – a categorization of people according to shared culture,
          o Race – a categorization of people based on shared biological traits such as skin
             color, hair texture and eye shape
          o Stereotype – a generalized picture of a person, created without taking the whole
             person into account; to make such a generalization.
      Have students watch YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWtiPcX-mZ0

Learning Activities
Teacher will:
   Review the vocabulary terms with the class
   Ask students these questions to begin/maintain a class discussion:
        o What are stereotypes and how do they affect people’s lives?
        o Can you think of any events in history that were influenced by stereotypes and
        o How do people learn to make stereotypes? How might they unlearn them?
        o How can the media (newspapers, television, movies) help to reduce stereotyping?
         o   Do you think certain groups are more subject to stereotyping than others? If so,
          o What do you think an individual can do to help reduce bias and stereotyping?
    Discuss with students how people often use labels or categories to describe others and
     how these labels can be based on such characteristics as clothing, looks, the way a person
     talks, or the groups to which he or she belongs. Explain that categorizing things or people
     is a natural human inclination; however, people often make assumptions about groups of
     people they don’t even know.
    Ask students to share categories that are used at school to group people (i.e. jock, brains)
     & ask them to offer some adjectives (descriptions) of people in those groups.
    Discuss with students the following questions:
          o Do assumptions apply to everyone in a group?
          o Do most people hold the same assumptions about a group? Why or why not?
          o Do assumptions tell us anything definite about a categorized individual?
          o How do assumptions affect your behavior toward others?
    Ask students for the names of different racial or ethnic groups and write them on the top
     of a large sheet of paper. Divide class into groups and have them write on their paper a
     list of stereotypes that are commonly used to describe this category of people. Rotate so
     that all groups have added to all papers. Post them.
    Discuss the following questions with the class:
          o How do the stereotypes recorded by the class make you feel?
          o What do you notice about the stereotypes listed? Be aware that the students may
             have listed good and bad adjectives, many stereotypes for different groups, or the
             same stereotypes for different groups.
          o Where have you seen these stereotypes portrayed? TV programs, movies,
             magazines, books?
          o How do you think a stereotype might cause someone to act unfairly toward another
    Review the vocabulary words
    Students will discuss these questions with the class:
          o What are stereotypes and how do they affect people’s lives?
          o Can you think of any events in history that were influenced by stereotypes and
          o How do people learn to make stereotypes? How might they unlearn them?
          o How can the media (newspapers, television, movies) help to reduce stereotyping?
          o Do you think certain groups are more subject to stereotyping than others? If so,
          o What do you think an individual can do to help reduce bias and stereotyping?
    Students will participate with the teacher in discussing how people often use labels or
     categories to describe others and how these labels can be based on such characteristics as
     clothing, looks, the way a person talks, or the groups to which he or she belongs.
    Share categories that are used at school to group people (i.e. jock, brains) with
     teacher/class. Provide some adjectives (descriptions) of people in those groups.
    Discuss the following questions:
          o Do assumptions apply to everyone in a group?
          o Do most people hold the same assumptions about a group? Why or why not?
          o Do assumptions tell us anything definite about a categorized individual?
          o How do assumptions affect your behavior toward others?
    Provide names of different racial or ethnic groups. Gather in groups and write a list of
     stereotypes that are commonly used to describe this category of people. Do this will all of
     the sheets.
    Discuss the following questions:
          o   How do the stereotypes recorded by the class make you feel?
          o   What do you notice about the stereotypes listed? Be aware that the students may
              have listed good and bad adjectives, many stereotypes for different groups, or the
              same stereotypes for different groups.
          o   How do you think a stereotype might cause someone to act unfairly toward another

Provision for special needs:
This is a class activity so no special provisions need to be made.

Quick Write: Where have you seen these stereotypes portrayed? TV programs, movies,
magazines, books? Did you notice the stereotypes at the time? How did you respond to it?

Lesson adapted from Discovery Education -

I feel that this video and these discussion questions are a good way to start off this unit of
study. It will get the students thinking and aware.



                               Lesson 2 – A European Adventure

   Students will utilize technology to access information
   Students will understand basic information on European culture by working through the

   Informal assessment of technology usage
   Formal assessment of WebQuest projects (included on WebQuest)

   European Adventure WebQuest
         o copy file or go online to: http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=64777
   Computer access with internet for student groups & printer
   PowerPoint, PodCast and MovieMaker programs for computer
   Paper, pen or pencils

Anticipatory Set:
    Reveal European inventions/inventors

Learning Activities
Teacher Will:
   Divide students into groups of 4
        Explain the WebQuest
        Supervise students as they work through the WebQuest
        Observe student presentations and pamphlets

Students Will
    Divide into groups of 4 and then choose roles
    Listen to explanation of the WebQuest
    Work through the WebQuest to gather information
    Create presentation and pamphlet as a group
    Present to class

Provision for special needs:
The teacher and/or an advanced student will work with students who have special needs so that
they may gather their information. The student’s group will assist them with the technology
aspects of the assignment, as this part is a group effort.

Students will vote and give scores for all presentations (see WebQuest.) Groups will be
recognized for achievement.

http://www.zunal.com/webquest – Zunal.com
WebQuest is an adaptation of a WebQuest from Liza Hadjipavli

I think my students will really enjoy this WebQuest and the technology project which
accompanies it – they will have fun while learning!


                                                     Lesson 3 – Tribal Life

   Students will identify misconceptions they might have held toward native Americans
     through a class exercise
   Students will learn about 5 Native American Tribes through an exercise on the internet
     and through class calibration

   Informal assessment of participation in the story time and following discussion
   Formal assessment of the completed exercise on Native American Tribe

16-20                               11-15                              6-10                               0-5
Map of the US compete with          Map of the US compete with         Map of the US compete with         Map of the US incomplete
the area of the tribe indicated,    the area of the tribe indicated,   the area of the tribe indicated,   and/or the map key missing
a map key drawn on the              a map key drawn on the             a map key drawn on the
bottom, and several other           bottom, and one or two other       bottom, and no other details
details included                    details included                   included
Worksheet completed with                                                                                  Worksheet incomplete, few
facts from internet work with                                                                             facts, little or no group work
Information written into a          Information written into a         Information written into a         Poor report, with little detail
report which is well organized,     report which is well organized,    report, organization is fair       and/or many errors
containing full sentences and   containing full sentences and   and/or report contains
no errors                       few errors                      incomplete sentences and/or
                                                                many errors

   Drawing paper, colored pencils
   The following library books: The Good Luck Cat by Joy Harjo; Bird Talk by Lenore
     Keeshing-Tobias; Two Pares of Shoes by Esther Sanderson; and Where Did You Get Your
     Moccasins by Bernelda Wheeler.
   Copy of the US map – one for each student
   Copy of the Notes About the Native Tribe worksheet – one for each student

Anticipatory Set:

Fold a piece of drawing paper in half. Make a quick drawing of an American on one side; make a
drawing of an American Indian on the other. (You may use colored pencils if you wish.)

Learning Activities
Teacher will:
   Ask students to state what they know about Indians, Native Americans and American
   Write their responses on the board
   Read the 4 children’s books out loud
   Ask students to describe the characters they heard about in the stories.
   Write these descriptions in another column on the board.
   Explain there are over 500 tribes of Indians in the United States, according to the US Gov
     Federal Register – each with their own culture and traditions. They cannot be condensed
     into one group. Many prefer to be called by their tribal name as opposed to Native
     American or Amerindian. Also explain that our class will be learning about 5 of the tribes
     right now.
   Divide the class into 5 “tribes” (Dine, Muscogee, Tlingit, Lakota, Iroquois)
   Give each student a US map and the worksheet
   Show students the website:
         o http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/kmartin/School/index.htm
   Explain the assignment
         o Working in groups, explore the website about your tribe
         o Fill in information on your map as you find it. Include where the tribe lives and any
            other information you feel is important. Be sure to make a map key
         o Write notes on your worksheet as you find information
         o When you’ve collected all your notes, work alone to write a report about your tribe.
            Use complete sentences and proper punctuation.
   Supervise students working
   Have students gather together as a class and have each person share one thing they
     learned about their tribe

    Tell the teacher/class what they know about Indians, Native Americans and American
    Listen as teacher reads the 4 children’s books out loud
    Describe the characters in the stories as the teacher writes them on the board.
    Listen to teacher’s information about the different tribes in the US.
    Divide into your “tribes” (Dine, Muscogee, Tlingit, Lakota, Iroquois)
      Take a US map and the worksheet
      Watch as the teacher demonstrates the website:
           o http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/kmartin/School/index.htm
      Listen as the teacher explains the assignment
           o Working in groups, explore the website about your tribe
           o Fill in information on your map as you find it. Include where the tribe lives and any
              other information you feel is important. Be sure to make a map key
           o Write notes on your worksheet as you find information
           o When you’ve collected all your notes, work alone to write a report about your tribe.
              Use complete sentences and proper punctuation.
      Gather together as a class and each share one thing they learned about their tribe

Provision for special needs:
Students will be working in groups so no special accommodation is needed. Students with
special needs will have an alternate level of reporting.

Have students take out their pictures from the opening of the lesson. Have them show their
pictures. Discuss the differences. Revisit the lists on the board and discuss what the students
have learned or come to see differently.

Lesson adapted from EDSITEment; National Environment for the Humanities.

This website, though simplistic, gives a basic overview of information about the tribes. I hope
that although the information is not highly detailed, it will provide an effective spring-board for
class discussions and allow the students to evaluate their previously held beliefs.


                               Lesson 4 – Latino History & Music

   Students will understand the origins and differences between terms such as Hispanic,
     Latino, Mulato, Mestizio through lecture and class discussion
   Students will understand that people of Hispanic descent have been in this country before
     its conception by reviewing some history
   Students will understand that several (22) different countries make up the Hispanic world
     through maps and class discussion
   Students will explore the music of these countries and how they have influenced American
     culture through research and the creation of a presentation

     Informal assessment of class discussion participation
     Formal assessment of project and presentation
   7-15 points             6-10 points              1-5 points               0 points        Points received
Student(s) completed    Students completed      Students completed      Students did not
Project Projection      only half of            worksheet, got          complete worksheet
worksheet, got          worksheet and/or got    signature but did not   and/or did not get
signature and turned    1 signature and         turn it in              signature
it in                   turned it in
Students followed       Students followed                               Students did not
their plan              some of their plan                              follow plan
Presentation was        Presentation showed     No presentation but     No presentation
creative, interesting   a level of creativity   research materials
and gave the class      and gave some           were submitted
new information         information
Research information                                                    No research
was turned in                                                           information was
                                                                        turned in

Computers with internet access and projection capabilities
Websites:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/latinmusicusa/index.html#/es/exp/latinpop/universe
           A copy of the Project Projection sheet for each student

Anticipatory Set:
    Watch the first 2:45 of chapter 1
         o http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/latinmusicusa/index.html#/en/wat/01/01
    Reveal Latino inventions/inventors/contributions

Learning Activities
Teacher will
   Ask students if they know the differences/definitions of the following terms and where
     they originated from:
         o Hispanic
         o Latino
         o Mulato
         o Mestizio
   Provide definitions
         o Hispanic – term that refers to the Spanish speaking world
         o Latino – term that is preferred because it does not focus on just the Spanish side of
             their heritage (since many have African or indigenous heritage as well) and speaks
             of those who share a common experience in the U.S.
         o Mestizio - The term was created specifically for those people of the particular racial
             mixture of Amerindian and European who comprise much of the population of Latin
         o Mulato – The term refers to the people who resulted from the mixture of the
             (aproximately) 200,000 Africans brought to Mexico and the mestizo populations of
             mixed European and Amerindian descent
   Explain that just as English-speaking people who live in various places which were once
     part of the British Empire do no think of themselves as all one unit, or refer to themselves
     as “Anglo”, the same is (usually) true of Latinos, and would prefer to identify with their
     country of origin.
   Ask students if they know when the first Latino came to this country
   Log on to http://www.lrc.salemstate.edu/hispanics/history.htm or provide a copy of the
     article under the History tab for each student; read and discuss the information
   Log on to
       and demonstrate the site for students
      Explain the parameters of the research and project; hand out the project projection sheet
       (this may be done at the same time or in two parts: 1) topic –at the beginning of
       research and 2) project – decided after all research has been collected)

Students will:
    Participate in discussion about term definitions and origins
    Read history article and participate in class discussion
    Watch the demonstration of the website
    Choose a project and fill out the project projection sheet (this may be done at the same
     time or in two parts: 1) topic –at the beginning of research and 2) project – decided after
     all research has been collected)
    Research and create a presentation
    Turn in all research materials (in a folder or large manila envelope, clearly labeled)
    Present final project

Project choices:
Students will select from the any of the music tabs to research an area and the music from that
area. Students will use the website:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/latinmusicusa/index.html#/es/exp/latinpop/universe as a starting
point for their research (be sure to follow all of the tabs and sub-tabs.) Students may use other
resources to supplement their information as needed. (Some of these resources may be
families.) Students will then create a final project which shows what they have learned to
present to the class. Final projects may include a PodCast, Scrapbook, Cereal Box, or other
selection of choice. All projects must be approved by teacher before beginning.

Provision for special needs:
Each student will be allowed to choose their project/presentation so no special accommodations
are necessary. Teacher will assist these students in making an appropriate choice.

Quick Write: The most surprising piece of Latino culture I learned was…

http://pbs.org – Public Broadcasting Services
http://www.lrc.salemstate.edu/hispanics/index.htm – Salaam State College

I chose this activity because of its auditory aspect. Additionally, music is often very important in
the lives of middle school students and I though it was something that would interest them and
a topic they could identify with.

                                Lesson 5 – Chinese Exploration

   Students will learn about Chinese culture through article reading and group discussions
   Students will learn explore Chinese culture through internet sources and through the
     compilation of a personal exhibit
      Students will learn effective critiquing through competing feedback forms on other

   Informal assessment of group discussions
   Formal assessment of projects which will include plan worksheet, following the parameters
     of exhibition creation, and neatness of compilation of exhibit
   Formal assessment of students’ ability to critique through completion of 5 feedback sheets

Computers with internet access for students with a printer
Copy of Traces worksheet for each group
Copies of Exhibition Feedback sheets – 5 for each student

Anticipatory Set:
    Reveal Chinese inventions/inventors/contributions

Learning Activities
Teacher will:
   Divide students into discussion groups of 4-6. Give each group a copy of the Traces
     worksheet. Have each group read it and discuss the questions.
   Supervise the group discussions
   Introduce website: http://www.asiasociety.org/node/8734
   Explain assignment (also found on website):
        o Download a work plan and fill it out
        o Go online and view the Visible Traces exhibition and browse for images to download
        o Keep your downloads in a file on the desk top
        o Write a description for each image stating why it is included in your exhibition
        o Print out your exhibition and put in a booklet form – include work plan in the back
        o View and review 5 peers’ exhibitions
   Supervise work
   Set up exhibitions – tables with exhibitions and 5 review sheets next to each (so that each
     exhibition gets 5 reviews)
   Supervise exhibition

Students will:
    Divide into groups. Read the Traces worksheet as a group. Discuss the questions.
    Listen as teacher introduce website: http://www.asiasociety.org/node/8734
    Listen to explanation of assignment (also found on website)
    Download a work plan and fill it out
    Go online and view the Visible Traces exhibition and browse for images to download
    Keep downloads in a file on the desk top
    Write a description for each image stating why it is included in the exhibition
    Print out your exhibition and put in a booklet form – include work plan in the back
    View and review 5 peers’ exhibitions – each exhibition may only have 5 reviews students
     may view them all

Provision for special needs:
Students will work in groups to read and discuss so no provisions need to be made. Projects are
all individualized so no provisions need to be made.

Pop-up sharing: one favorite thing you found in research and why; one favorite thing you saw
in the exhibition and why

http://www.asiasociety.org/node/8734 – Visible Traces

I chose this lesson because it teaches information in a non-demanding way and allows students
to use their creativity while validating the culture.


                                      Lesson 6 – Arab Countries & Cultures
   Students will able to identify discrimination and hate-crimes through discussion and
     application of learned material
   Students will be able to do group work and utilize technology in gathering information for
   Students will be able to give an oral presentation of their findings

     Informal assessment of student participation in groups and class discussion
     Formal assessment of research and presentation using rubric below (100 possible points):

            16-20                            11-15                           6-10                               1-5
Group worked effectively and      Group worked well and most     Group was disjointed and a        Group did not work together,
each member had a job to do       members had a specific job     few people did the work for all   information may or may not
                                                                                                   have been obtained
Every aspect of research was      Almost every aspect of         Some aspects of research were     Little research was obtained,
thoroughly addressed              research was thoroughly        overlooked or incomplete          was incomplete or inaccurate
Parameters of project were        Parameters of project were     Project was not as assigned or    Incomplete or faulty project
fully met                         mostly met                     was lacking elements
Project was neat and free of      Project was neat and had few   Projected lacked in neatness      Project was incomplete or had
errors; project was easy to       errors; project was easy to    and/or had errors;                many errors; project did not
read and/or understand            read and/or understand         understandability of project      convey needed information
                                                                 was questionable
Each group member had an          Each group member had a part   Most of the group members         Presentation was only done by
equal (or significant) part in    of the presentation            had a part of the presentation    one (or a few) group members

   Knowledge Test – 1 for each group of students
   One copy of the scenario for the teacher and one each of the student groups
   Research selections for student groups to draw from
   Computer access with internet for student groups
   Paper, pen or pencils

Anticipatory Set:
    Discuss the following questions with the class; list answers on board:
         o When you hear the word “Arab” what are the first things that come to mind?
         o What is an Arab American?
          o  Do you know any Arab Americans?
          o  What are the images of Arabs that we see most frequently on TV, in movies/books?
          o  How many positive Arab or Arab-American characters can students identify on TV,
             in movies?
      Reveal Arab inventions/inventors/contributions

Learning Activities
Teacher will:
   Divide the class into groups of 2-4 students
   Give each group a copy of Knowledge Test & supervise group work
   Have each group of students randomly draw a topic to research & supervise group work
   Supervise presentations
   Read the scenario out loud to class
   Give each group a copy of the scenario and questions & supervise group discussions
   Lead class in discussion about scenario solutions

Students will:
    Work together in their group to complete the Knowledge Test through discussion and by
     accessing the website provided
    Participate in class discussion about Knowledge Test experience
    Have one group member randomly draw from research topics
    Research topic and create a presentation
    Present research to class
    Listen to scenario
    Discuss, in group, the scenario and brain-storm solutions
    Participate in class discussion about solutions

Provision for special needs:
Students with special needs will be paired with other students for group work so no special
accommodations are required.

Reveal the remaining inventors/contributors on the poster
Quick Write: What I have learned and how I have changed through this unit of study

http://www.aaiusa.org – The Arab American Institute
http://adc.acqal.com – American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee

I hope this lesson will challenge the (possibly) unknown misconceptions my students have about
Arabs and American-Arabs and dispel some of the stereotypes which promote persecution.


African-American Inventors
 The street letter drop mailbox with a hinged door that closed to protect the mail was invented by Philip
   B. Downing. Downing, an African-American inventor, patented his new device on October 27, 1891
 The potato chip was invented in 1853 by George Crum. Crum was a Native American/African American
   chef at the Moon Lake Lodge resort in Saratoga Springs, New York, USA. French fries were popular at
   the restaurant and one day a diner complained that the fries were too thick. Although Crum made a
   thinner batch, the customer was still unsatisfied. Crum finally made fries that were too thin to eat with
   a fork, hoping to annoy the extremely fussy customer. The customer, surprisingly enough, was happy
   - and potato chips were invented!
 George Washington Carver (1865?-1943) was an American scientist, educator, humanitarian, and
   former slave. Carver developed hundreds of products from peanuts, sweet potatoes, pecans, and
   soybeans; products that Carver invented included a rubber substitute, adhesives, foodstuffs, dyes,
   pigments, and more.
 Dr. Drew was an American medical doctor and surgeon who started the idea of a blood bank and a
   system for the long term preservation of blood plasma (he found that plasma kept longer than whole
   blood). His ideas revolutionized the medical profession and saved many, many lives.
 The gas mask was invented by Garrett Morgan, an African-American inventor.
 In 1966 Marie Van Brittan Brown, and her partner Albert Brown, applied for an invention patent for a
   closed-circuit television security system – the forerunner to the modern home security system

Chinese Inventions
 The Wheelbarrow, First Century BCE. Descriptions of the wheelbarrow in China refer to first century
   BCE, and the oldest surviving picture, a frieze relief from a tomb-shrine in Szechuan province, dates
   from about 118 CE.
 Paper Money, Ninth Century CE. Its original name was 'flying money' because it was so light it could
   blow out of one's hand. As 'exchange certificates' used by merchants, paper money was quickly
   adopted by the government for forwarding tax payments.
 Cast Iron, Forth Century BCE. By having good refractory clays for the construction of blast furnace
   walls, and the discovery of how to reduce the temperature at which iron melts by using phosphorus,
   the Chinese were able cast iron into ornamental and functional shapes. Coal, used as a fuel, was
   placed around elongated crucibles containing iron ore. This expertise allowed the production of pots
   and pans with thin walls.
 The Helicopter Rotor and the Propeller, Forth Century CE. By fourth century CE a common toy in China
   was the helicopter top, called the 'bamboo dragonfly'. The top was an axis with a cord wound round it,
   and with blades sticking out from the axis and set at an angle. One pulled the cord, and the top went
   climbing in the air.
 The Seismograph, Second Century CE. China has always been plagued with earthquakes and the
   government wanted to know where the economy would be interrupted. A seismograph was developed
   by the brilliant scientist, mathematician, and inventor Chang Heng
 Matches, Sixth Century CE. The first version of the match was invented in 577 CE by impoverished
   court ladies during a military siege. Hard pressed for tinder during the siege, they could otherwise not
   start fires for cooking, heating, etc. The matches consisted of little sticks of pinewood impregnated
   with sulfur.
 The Kite, Fifth/Fourth Century BCE.
 The rocket and multistaged rockets, Eleventh and Twelfth CE Centuries . Around 1150 it crossed
   someone's mind to attach a comet-like fireworks to a four foot bamboo stick with an arrowhead and a
   balancing weight behind the feathers. To make the rockets multi-staged, a secondary set of rockets
   was attached to the shaft, their fuses lighted as the first rockets burned out.

American Indian
 Toboggan comes from the Algonquian word odabaggan. The toboggan is an invention of the Eastern
  First Peoples. Indian hunters first built toboggans made of bark to carry game over the snow. The Inuit
  (sometimes called Eskimos) used to make toboggans of whalebone
 The kayak was invented by the Inuit Peoples
   The game of lacrosse was invented by the Native American tribes living around the St. Lawrence River
    in New York and Ontario, and was spread by the Huron and the Iroquois
   Moccasins originated with the Eastern North American tribes, traditionally referred to a shoe with a
    puckered u-shaped 'vamp' over the instep.
   Native Americans made Root beer from Sassafras. Root beer predates colas and other popular sodas
   North American Indians used Spruce resin to quench thirst, and they also used it as a medicine. South
    and Central American Indians collected chicle from the Sapodilla tree to make gum

 Scissors were invented thousands of years ago (roughly 1500 B.C.) in ancient Egypt. Early scissors
   have been found in ancient Egyptian ruins.
 The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern
   Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries
   to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to
   Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions.
 The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it
   was the Arabs combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil; they
   perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. Shampoo was introduced to England by a
   Muslim who opened Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759
 The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water
   for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of
   power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months.
 The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would
   not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by
   a combination of gravity and capillary action.

 Chemist, Luis Miramontes co-invented the contraceptive pill. In 1951
 Carlos Juan Finlay was born in the city of Puerto Principe (now Camaguey), in the Island of Cuba, on
   the 3rd of December, 1833, was first to recognize that mosquitoes were the carrier of deadly yellow
 Narciso Monturiol was a Catalonian physicist and inventor who researched underwater navigation and
   designed an early submarine in 1856
 Arcano y Sus Maravillas, was the first to call a part of a popular Cuban dance a mambo

 A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Each battery has two
   electrodes, an anode (the positive end) and a cathode (the negative end). An electrical circuit runs
   between these two electrodes, going through a chemical called an electrolyte (which can be either
   liquid or solid). This unit consisting of two electrodes is called a cell (often called a voltaic cell or pile).
   Batteries are used to power many devices and make the spark that starts a gasoline engine.
   Alessandro Volta was an Italian physicist invented the first chemical battery in 1800.
 Levi Strauss (1829-1902) was an entrepreneur who invented and marketed blue jeans. Trained as a
   tailor in Buttenheim, Bavaria, Germany, Strauss went to San Francisco, USA from New York in 1853.
 A hot-air balloon is a balloon that is filled with hot air; it rises because hot air is less dense (lighter)
   than the rest of the air. Joseph and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier were two French bothers who made
   the first successful hot-air balloon. Their first balloon was launched in December, 1782, and ascended
   to an altitude of 985 ft (300 m).
 The idea of using a parachute to fall gently to the ground was written about by Leonardo da Vinci
   (1452-1519). The first parachute was demonstrated by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand in 1783 of France -
   he jumped from a very tall tree carrying two parasols (umbrellas).
 The first functional sewing machine was invented by the French tailor Barthélemy Thimonnier in 1830.
 Rayon is a cellulose-based fiber that is made from wood pulp or cotton waste. Rayon is used as a
   substitute for silk. It was invented around 1855 by the Swiss chemist Georges Audemars; the process
   was refined in 1864 by the French chemist and industrialist Comte (Count) Hilaire Bernigaud de
   Chardonnet (1839-1924).
   The "lead" pencil (which contains no lead) was invented in 1564 when a huge graphite (black carbon)
    mine was discovered in England. The pure graphite was sawn into sheets and then cut into square
    rods. The graphite rods were inserted into hand-carved wooden holders, forming pencils.
   The modern piano (the pianoforte) was developed from the harpsichord around 1720, by Bartolomeo
    Cristofori of Padua, Italy.
   Maria Curie (born in Warsaw, Poland, on November 7, 1867) possibly the most famous woman
    inventor, was one of the first woman scientists to gain worldwide fame, and was one of the great
    scientists of this century. Dr. Curie is primarily known for her discovery of Radium and Polonium. She
    also discovered that x-rays were able to kill tumors. She was the first person to win two Nobel prizes.
    Marie Curie decided not to obtain patents for the processing of radium and the medical applications
    applicable to it.

Lesson 2

                MULTICULTURAL AGENT!
Author: Teresa Hartzell
Description: A multidisciplinary WebQuest designed to increase awareness of diverse cultures and peoples in
Grade Level 6-8
Curriculum Language Arts, Social Studies, Technology


Have you ever had the chance to visit any European countries? Europe is a family of neighboring countries that
display both similarities and differences in culture, history, and language. This is your chance to become
genuine European Multicultural Agents! In order to become real agents all you need to do is to (virtually) visit
some European countries and learn new things about their culture, geography, economy, and politics!
The group that best achieves this activity will be awarded the First European Multicultural Travel Agent in the

So, enjoy some virtual visits, make a tourist guide pamphlet and create a multimedia presentation for the
class… Get ready for a long but exciting trip – grab your computer and mouse and plunge into this thrilling

Proceed to Task


To be nominated as The Best European Multicultural Travel Agent in the World you will need to work in
groups of 4 students to create two end products: a tourist guide/pamphlet and a multimedia presentation
(PowerPoint, MovieMaker or PodCast.) Your goal is to persuade others to visit the country you studied. What
a challenge!!!

Each group of students will be assigned a country to research. The countries are: Italy, France, Russia,
Bulgaria, Moldavia, Germany, and Austria. The research should be focused on the following categories:
culture, geography, economy, politics and education. Each student will take on a specific role during the

Proceed to Process


Follow these steps for your (virtual) country visits:

    1. Gather in your groups and choose your role
          a. Cultural agent: research/write about the culture of the country (historical monuments, sight-
              seeing spots, celebrations/customs, etc)
          b. Geographical agent: research/write about the country’s map, lakes, mountains, beach and resorts
             c. Economist travel agent: research/write about the country’s monetary system, its trade and
                imports/exports, and jobs
             d. Politician/Education agent: research/write about the country’s flag, its educational system and
                form of government
    2.   Collect your information - you may use the text-set materials, reference materials or the web. Keep your
         information orderly – this will help you when its time to put your projects together. (Be sure to use a
         new file on the desk top, properly labeled) for your on-line material.)
    3.   Go through the information you’ve gathered and decide what to use and what to discard. Discuss this as
         a group.
    4.   Using Publisher, or some other program, create a tourist brochure. Print and fold.
    5.   Create your presentation - PowerPoint, MovieMaker or PodCast.
    6.   Present to the class
    7.   When all groups have presented, vote, fill out the voting rubric.

        Italy info
        Italy FactMonster
        Italy Factbook
        France Info
        Virtual Field Trip
        France Factbook
        Russia Facts
        Face of Russia
        Russia FactBook
        Russia Travel
        Bulgaria Yahoo
        Bulgaria Library of Congress
        Bulgaria FactBook
        Moldavia Facts
        Moldavia Yahoo
        Moldavia FactBook
        Germany Yahoo
        Germany Library of Congress
        Germany FactBook
        Austria Yahoo
        Austria Library of Congress
        Austria FactBook

* If a paper copy of Quest is given (and students cannot follow links) they may search these sites:
http://kids.yahoo.com/reference/world-factbook                              http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html    http://www.factmonster.com/world.html
http://www.virtourist.com/europe/index.html                                 http://video.pbs.org/#
Student Voting Rubric
Give 1 point if:          Give 2 points if:           Give 3 points if:            Give 4 points if:                  Write your points in here:
The presentation          The presentation            The presentation             The presentation
did not include           included some of            included most of             was filled the
the right                 the required                the required                 requirements &
information               information                 information                  had much info

The flow of the           The presentation            The presentation             The presentation
presentation was          had a fairly good           had good                     was excellent in
not clear or              design but not              design,                      organization and
logical                   much                        organization,                visual appeal
                          information                 color,

The presentation          The presentation            I like the                   The presentation
was boring and            was okay, but               presentation and             was great, I was
not visually              nothing great               learned                      interested & I
appealing                                             something new                learned new

The pamphlet              The pamphlet                The pamphlet                 The pamphlet
did not give              was organized               was well                     was organized
good information          but did not give            organized and                very well; had
& was not                 many picture or             developed;                   much
organized well            much info                   visually                     information and
                                                      appealing                    looked

Teacher Grading Rubric
 0-12                                      13-18                                    14-19                                   20-25
 The group projects did not include        The group projects included 1-2 of       The group projects include at least     The group projects include all 4
 any of the suggested categories.          the suggested categories. A few          3 of the 4 suggested categories.        suggested categories. All resources
 The group did not demonstrate             resources were used effectively          Most of the resources were used         were used effectively and the final
 understanding of the task. None or        and some of the information              effectively and the information         products demonstrate a clear and
 few resources were used effectively       included in the projects is relevant.    presented in the projects is relevant   excellent understanding of the task.
 and most of the information used in                                                and well-chosen. The group              Also, the end products demonstrate
 the projects is irrelevant to the task.                                            demonstrates clear understanding        that the group employed creative and
                                                                                    of the task.                            critical thinking skills.
 The group failed to collaborate      The group demonstrated slight                 The group showed an intermediate        All the members of the group
 effectively. The group mainly        collaboration. For most of the time,          level of collaboration. Most of the     worked successfully in both
 played around instead of working     the group couldn't agree on what it           group members worked silently           preparing and presenting their final
 on the joint projects. None or few   should be doing, so valuable time             and cooperatively to achieve their      projects. High level of cooperation,
 members performed their assigned     was wasted. Few members                       goals. Members of the group             excellent collaboration, and work
 role in creating and presenting theirundertook their assigned roles                successfully played their assigned      distribution.
 final projects.                      effectively in creating and                   role in creating and presenting their
                                      presenting their final projects.              final projects.
 The group failed to present          The end product demonstrates                  The end product demonstrates            The multimedia project presents
 information in a logical, organized fairly good design but information             good design and organization.           information in an effective, well-
 manner. Most of the information is is mostly irrelevant. Members of                Color, text, and images are used        organized, and thoughtful manner.
 irrelevant and presentation lacks    the group display difficulty in               effectively to communicate              Design and presentation principles
 organization. Ineffective use of     presenting their results effectively.         meaning. Most of the members            are of high quality. Members of the
 images and text. Links are broken.                                                 participated in the oral presentation   group demonstrated excellent oral
 Few members can present their                                                      of end product.                         presentation skills.
 project to the whole class.
 The pamphlet is poorly organized The pamphlet is organized and                     The pamphlet is very organized          The pamphlet is well-organized and
 with few information relevant to the displays few relevant information.            and demonstrates valuable               includes valuable information that
 task. Information is scattered and   There are few visuals relevant to             information. However, the               persuade the audience to visit the
 visuals do not adhere to the content the content of the task. The                  language used needs improvement         country. It is exemplary both in
 of the task. The pamphlet fails to   pamphlet tries to persuade the                to persuade the audience to visit       content, design, creativity, and
 persuade the audience to visit the   reader to visit the country but lacks         the country.                            language usage.
 country.                             motivation and creativity.

Congratulations! You became a European Multicultural Agent! You have now discovered the culture,
geography, education and politics of Italy, France, Russia, Bulgaria, Austria, Germany and Moldova. You
managed not only to gather information for the countries, but you also learned to present it in a persuasive
manner using the power of new technologies What are you waiting for? Run and spread the new knowledge to
your school mates, parents, and the wider community! Tell them about this European multicultural Agent

Teachers Page

This WebQuest was designed to be used in Grades 6-8 but it could easily be modified to be used with younger
students. This Quest’s purpose was to raise student awareness of differing cultures and enhance the student’s
knowledge of some European countries. This WebQuest also serves to teach and utilize the students’
knowledge and practical application of technology.

Adapted from a WebQuest by Liza Hadjipavli

Lesson 3

US Map

Name: ________________________________________________


Lesson 3

        Notes about the Native American Tribe_______________

 What does the name of the tribe mean?

 What is another name for this tribe?

 Where did the tribe originally live? Where do members of this tribe live today?

 What did this group traditionally eat? What do they eat today?

 What are other cultural traditions that this tribe followed?

 What are some ways in which the tribe has changed its customs? Are there customs it has kept over time?
Which ones?

Lesson 4
                                               Project Projection Worksheet

  Name (Include both names if you are working with a partner):

           __________________________________ ________________________________

  The area of research I/we will be focusing on is: (If working with a partner, list each person’s responsibilities on the



  The reason I/we chose this area is:



                                                   Teacher signature: __________________________________

  The websites I/we used were:



  The project we want to complete and present to the class is:


  It will include the following information:





  Materials I/we will need to complete the project is:




                                                   Teacher signature: __________________________________

Lesson 5      Essays

Traces of Boundaries: Mapping
One’s Place in the World
        How many different uses can you think of for maps? We use road maps to find our way to other
places. Physical maps show different landforms and elevations as well as the location of rivers and
other bodies of water. Historic maps help us understand political boundaries and the movement of
people, goods, and ideas. Military leaders need maps as they plan their campaigns, and tourists need
maps in order to figure out interesting places to visit. Many maps show both natural and man-made
features. They often reflect values of the people who create them and define their place in the world.
        Maps, such as the one from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) were used for military and political
purposes and show how China viewed itself in relation to the rest of the world. Many maps depict
smaller territories. In China ownership of a map indicated sovereignty over the land it depicted. In fact,
if there was a dispute over territory, the possessor of the map was correct.

Traces of Ideas:
Communicating Through
Writing and Technology
        Try to imagine a world without writing: no Internet, no E-mail, no newspapers, no sports page,
no baseball scores, no love letters, no messages sneaked to one’s neighbor during class, no on-line
trading, no best-sellers, no college or job applications. Writing is central to our everyday lives as well
as to our understanding of the past. How can we study history without written records? (We even call
the time before writing prehistory.) How can we transmit the wisdom of the past to future generations
without writing?
        The earliest examples of Chinese writing were used by Shang rulers to try to project what would
happen in the future so they would know how to rule; this early writing was very important both
ritually and politically.
        Written Chinese also played a significant role in unifying diverse areas and people who spoke
many different dialects. Because its characters are logographic—that is, they represent words or a
minimal unit of meaning, not sounds—literate people, no matter what dialect they spoke, could read
the characters (as we read international road signs, such as No Right Turn). The Chinese invented
paper and created printing, which developed from ink rubbings on stones and metals.
        People in early China tried to tell the future by communicating with spirits.
They would inscribe questions onto an animal bone or turtle shell. After boring holes through the bone
or shell, they would insert a stick into it, which they would then heat. As the stick expanded, the bone
cracked and a shaman, or person who could communicate with spirits, interpreted the cracks to read the

• Find the writing on the bone. Where is it in relation to the cracks?
Look at the writing on the shoulder blade of an ox, above. How might the characters have been
inscribed into the hard bone surface?
• What would have been the advantages and limitations of writing on bone and shell?
• More casual forms of writing from this period have not been found. Does this mean that they did not
exist? Why or why not?
Traces of Identity: Reflecting
Diversity through Language and Writing
Multiculturalism is not a new phenomenon. Ever since the first cities and kingdoms, diverse peoples have tried
to communicate with one another, and leaders have had to figure out ways to integrate them. One strategy is to
establish a common language. Another is to use several different languages. Chinese encompasses seven
different languages and numerous dialects. The system of writing, using characters rather than letters, provided
a means of communication for literate people throughout the country. Yet China also encompasses non-Han
peoples who speak languages that are fundamentally different from Chinese. Language has become a way of
exerting power and solidifying a group's identity.

Traces of the Self: Expressing
Individuality through Poetry and
How can you ―paint a poem?‖ That’s exactly what Chinese calligraphers tried to do. Writing expressed
not only the meaning of the words but the inner feelings and personality of the writer, whose poem
became a work of visual as well as textual beauty. Symbolizing the effort toward integration and
harmony, written texts and paintings also tried to exemplify both Confucian and Daoist values.

                                                                     The Exemplars of the Beautiful and the Refined
                                                                     in Tang Poetry
                                                                     Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Tianqi period (1621–
                                                                     Compiled and edited by Yang Zhaozhi (17th
                                                                     Wucheng, Zhejiang province; Wucheng Min Yishi,
                                                                     8 columns per half folio; single-line borders; printed
                                                                     in black and red ink; overall dimensions of volumes:
                                                                     30.0 x 18.2 cm.
English translation of poem from this manuscript:
      From a swift horse prancing proudly through fallen petals,
      He brushes his whip against a cloud-covered chariot.
      A lovely woman, smiling, raises the pearl curtain—
      ―My home is there,‖ she says, pointing off at a red tower.
                                  –Translation by Professor Stephen Durrant

• What are the adjectives in this poem?
• Does the poet seem to be describing real  or fantastic events?
• What might be lost in the translation from Chinese to English?

                                                                                Manual of Paintings by Famous
                                                                             Masters of the Successive
                                                                             Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Wanli
                                                                             period (1573–1619).
                                                                             Compiled by Gu Bing (fl. 1594–
                                                                             1603); proofread and edited by Xu
                                                                             Shuhui; engraved by Liu Gangxin.
                                                                             Hulin (Hangzhou), Zhejiang
                                                                             province; Shuanggui tang, 1603.
                                                                             White folding margin at center of
                                                                             folio; single-line borders; overall
                                                                             dimensions of volumes: 33.4 x
                                                                             22.7 cm; block sizes of text: approx.
                                                                             27.1 x 19.2 cm; block sizes of
                                                                             illustrations irregular; stitched

• In the example of calligraphy on the left, what materials did the calligrapher need?
• What materials did the artist need inorder to create the painting on the left from the same book?
• Might these have been done by the same person?
• Do you think it would be possible to correct a mistake while one was writing or painting?
• Do you think that the same person could have done both the calligraphy and the painting?
        Lesson 5

          Name: _____________________________________________

                                                                               E X H I B I T I O N F EEDBACK
Name of exhibit

• What do you think is the topic for this exhibition?

• What did you learn from this exhibition?

This exhibition has been created with images printed from computer as opposed to actual objects.

• If the Art Exhibitor had to create this exhibition with actual objects instead of computer images, many considerations,
such as finding and designing an exhibition space, the size of the objects, the lighting for the exhibition, the placement of
objects in the room would have been different. Which aspect do you think would change this exhibition the most?

• Other comments:

(Lesson 6) Scenario:

      In our school we have several Arab Americans whose families have emigrated from the

Arab world last year. You have classes with a few of the boys and one of the girls and you get

along fine. As a matter of fact, there seems to be very little problems even though the teachers

and students do not have a very clear understanding about life in and the history of the Arab

world or the traditions and culture of Arabs and Arab Americans.

      Three days ago there was a bombing in the city of Los Angeles and it seems as if the

bombers were from the Middle East, just as in 9/11. That evening you saw incidents of verbal

and physical harassment against these Arab Americans in your community – at the grocery store

and the restaurant where your family went to dinner last night. The next night you heard your

parents talking about how much vandalism had happened to their homes and cars. Then

yesterday at school, a small but vocal group of non-Arab students are openly hostile to the Arab

Americans, whom they do not know personally. They make jokes about Arabs, camels and

terrorists. They call some of the Arabs “ragheads” and say the U.S. should “flatten the Middle

East because all Arabs are Muslim terrorists.” One Arab-American, Muslim girl who wears the

hijab was physically harassed when other students ganged up on her and tore her hijab off her

head. Another Arab-American boy was cursed at and verbally threatened with comments like,

“Terrorist! Go back to your country before we kill you and your family off!” Now, today, there

were arguments, pushing, shoving and kicking between the two groups at recess, and threats

about “after school”.

In your groups, identify the stereotypes that led to discrimination and discuss how/why these
stereotypes are wrong. Answer the following questions and come up with a solution. Be
prepared to present your solutions with the class.

· What should the Arab Americans do?
· What should non-Arab students do?
· What should the faculty and administration do?

(Lesson 6) Knowledge Test

Test your knowledge of Arab Americans in several key areas: religion, geography, population & culture. If you need
help with the answers, go to http://www.aaiusa.org, where many of the answers can be found. Once you have completed
the worksheet, go to http://www.aaiusa.org/resources/421/test-your-knowledge and check your answers. Be ready to
discuss what you have found and your experience.

How many Americans have Arab ancestry?





What percentage of Arab Americans are Christian?





Which cities have the highest concentration of Arab Americans?

       Minneapolis & Houston

       Chicago & Washington, DC

       Los Angeles & Detroit

       New York City & Boston

None of the perpetrators of the September 11th tragedy were American citizens.



Which of the following foods was NOT introduced to the West by Arabs?





Which of the following words does NOT have its origin in Arabic?




What does the term Semitic refer to?

       A religious group

       A nationality

       A language group

       none of the above

The average income of Arab Americans is _____ the U.S. national average.

       equal to

       22% less than

       22% higher than

       none of the above

Which of the following contributions to our society was NOT done by an Arab American?

       Heart pump

       Mother's Against Drunk Driving (M.A.D.D.)

       Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1999)

       Air conditioning

How many Arabic speakers are there in the world?

       5 million

       300 million

       750 million

       1 billion

Which of the following countries are NOT Arab countries?

       Iran & Turkey

       Morocco & Algeria

       Egypt & Lebanon

       Yemen & Oman

Which of the following films portray Arabs positively?

      Rules of Engagement (2000)

       True Lies (1994)

       Protocol (1984)

       none of the above

                                       (Lesson 6) Research Selection:
1. Arab women
    Are Arab women oppressed? Are they abused and kept locked in their homes with no education,
    rights or opportunities?

    As you begin to research, you will find a great diversity of women’s experiences. Create a written
    report or a display to include the following information, plus any other interesting facts you come

            Head covering (hijab) – who wears them and why
            Difference between full body covering and head covering; include the geographical locations and
             the reasons
            Arab women and education;
            Employment of Arab women and opportunities open/closed to them

2. The Bedouin Image

    Have you ever heard (in person or in a move) a foreigner refer to Americans as “cowboys” or
    “gangsters” – as if that is all who lived here in America? People often view Arabs as a certain
    type of people who lives a certain type of way as well.

    The stereotype is that of desserts, camels, and oases; of Bedouin tribesmen in tents, living without
    any technology or creature comforts; or of wealthy oil sheiks.

    Find photos of Bedouins and information on how they live. Find statistics on how many Bedouins
    there are at this time. Then find photos and information which dispel the above stereotypes.
    Create a poster of your collected information. (Be sure to include all stereotypes.)

3. The Arab World *
    - Select 3 Arab countries and find the following information:
                Each country’s name, government system & ruler, geographic location and
                3-6 interesting facts about each country & culture (rich or poor, level of
                   modernization, religions practiced, family structure, etc)
    - What do your selected countries have in common and what makes them distinct?
    - Present your information in a typed report or a visual display

    Our 3 countries are:

    _________________________            ________________________            _______________________

      *Repeat this card up to 7 times to complete the number of groups in the classroom, giving each group a
      different set of three Arab countries to research.

Countries:     Algeria, Bahrain, and the Comoros Islands or Dijbouti
               Omah, Yeman, and Maurtania
               Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan,
               Kuwait, Lebanon, and Libia
               Morocco, Palestine, and Qatar
               Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates
               Somalia, Sudan, and Syria


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