[...] a republican form of government' meant nothing less than a government that incorporated a Militia - 'composed,' as Virginia's Declaration of Rights stated in 1776, 'of the body of the people trained to arms.'" Working amid this milieu, and given that the Constitution does not create a United States Militia as opposed to those of the states, is it likely that the Framers intended the Second Amendment to have no application beyond the federal government? In his commentary on the Constitution, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story pointed out that in the Preamble, "the language is 'We the people of the United States,' not We, the states, 'do ordain and establish.'" It is, he says, "an ordinance ... [that] binds as a fundamental law ... between each and all the citizens of the United States, as distinct parties" (Emphasis added.) As such, while the Constitution clearly establishes the federal government, it recognizes in so doing the rights both of the states and of the people.