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This presentation is an extension of the APA Basics presentation used in Missouri State University's Writing Center. The presentation covers the appendix, graphs, charts, tables, and numbers.
Numbers, Footnotes, Tables, Figures and Appendixes By Jessica Boykin, Writing Consultant & Michael Frizell, Director The Writing Center serves Missouri State University by working with students, faculty, and staff on their writing projects. Fall 2008 & Spring 2009: Pummill Hall 401 Summer 2009 and Beyond: The Learning Commons, Meyer Library HOURS: • Monday , Tuesday, & Thursday from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. • Wednesday from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. • Friday 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Scheduling an Appointment scheduled at the top of the hour Walk-ins Walk-in for an appointments will be seen on a first come, first served basis Consultations Consultants work with: brainstorming, researching, drafting, and revising assure a 45-minute session with a tutor. Recommended: Walk in on the half hour. They cannot proofread writing projects. Students may schedule an appointment online (recommended) or call 836-6398. Make an appointment online! Writingcenter.missouristate.edu Our goal is to help students become better writers. About $30 Amazon Reviews: Unhelpful Guide about an Unenlightening Style, By doomsdayer520 (State College, PA USA) Boring but Required, By A.Trendl HungarianBookstore.com Possibly Written by Beelzebub Himself, Robert I. Hedges (Burnsville, MN USA) Title Page* Abstract* Body References* Appendixes* Footnotes* APA Basics Presentation Tables* Figure Captions* Figures* APA Advanced Presentation Indicates New Page APA has strict rules about how numbers are expressed in any document. Sometimes numbers are expressed in figures… • (1, 2, 3.5) …and sometimes, numbers are expressed in words. • (one, two, three and a half) Any number 10 and above Any number that appears in the same paragraph with a number 10 and above, if it’s being compared to the number 10 and above. Numbers that come just before a unit of measurement “15 traits on each of the four/4 checklists” (which is it?) Statistics, mathematical functions, fractions, decimals, percentages, rations, percentiles and quartiles Times; dates; ages; sample, subsample, or population size; subject and participant numbers; scores and points on a scale; exact sums of money; and numerals as numerals Numbers in a series, like page numbers and table numbers; each number in a list of four or more numbers All numbers in the abstract of the paper Below10 but not precise AND • only compared with numbers lower than 10 Zero and one, if they are easier to comprehend in word form • One-line sentence Any number that begins a title, sentence, or heading • (but try to avoid starting these with a number) Universally accepted usage Common fractions • Ten Commandments Two Kinds of Footnotes Copyright Permission Content Content Footnotes Should Represent Only One Idea Be Concise Be Necessary Copyright Permission Footnotes Accompany Reproduced Tables OR Figures Footnotes are numbered with superscript Arabic numerals.1 Always put the footnote after the punctuation, unless •it precedes a dash or •only pertains to information inside of parentheses. Footnotes 1This is what the Footnotes page should look like in the Appendix. 2There is a ½ inch tab before each footnote listed. If a footnote is longer than one line, the next line is flush left. The footnotes must be double-spaced. 3All footnotes, content footnotes and copyright permission footnotes are listed together on the footnotes page. When to use a table, and what to put in it, can be challenging questions. The APA Manual (2001) advises "tables that communicate quantitative data are effective only when the data are arranged so that their meaning is obvious at a glance" (p. 148). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and in title case. Example: Correlations Between Age and Test Scores Each table should begin on a separate page. All elements of the table should be double spaced. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. . Avoid vertical lines. Use white space within columns to separate individual listings. Always double space tables Tables must be named with an Arabic numeral. • Example: • Table 1. If the table is in the Appendix, it will have a capital letter before the numeral. • Example: • Table B1. • (For aesthetic sake) Don’t make the column headings too much wider than the column entries. If a cell is blank because the information is not applicable, •leave the cell empty! If the information is applicable, but it was not obtained, •put a dash in the blank cell. Qualifies, explains, or provides information from the table, followed by explanations of abbreviations in the table. Use a superscript lowercase letter to indicate a specific note. PROBABILITY NOTE GENERAL NOTE SPECIFIC NOTE Begins with “Note.” Basically, a table footnote. About statistical findings. GENERAL NOTE SPECIFIC NOTE Basically, a table footnote. Use a superscript lowercase letter to indicate a specific note. SPECIFIC NOTE PROBABILITY NOTE Probability Notes are about statistical findings. Used to specify the p-value of a particular statistical test. EXAMPLE: If you have some results that are significant at the p = .05 level and others that are significant at the p = .01 level, put different symbols next to those results in the table, and provide an explanatory note of your symbols underneath the table. Begin probability notes with the symbol to be defined and end them with a period, THUS: *p < .05. **p < .01. PROBABILITY NOTE …any illustration that is not a table! Graphs show relationships and give comparisons involving a set of data. Charts show relationships between parts in a group. …like tables, named with Arabic numerals. NOTE: With both figures and tables, never say “the table above,” etc., because the placement may change! LEGENDS •Legends are placed in the axis area of the figure. •They are photographed in (not typeset). In other words, they are PART OF THE GRAPH! CAPTIONS • Captions are typeset. • is both the title and the explanation of a figure. • Figure captions will have their own page in the Appendix. Figure Captions Figure 3. Fixation duration as a function of the delay between the beginning of eye fixation and the onset of the stimulus in Experiment 1. * Footnotes, tables, and figures will be numbered in the order that they are presented in the text. An appendix will include information that is valuable to your article, but could be distracting to readers if it is put in the text. …a mathematical proof …a large table …a list of words …a sample of a questionnaire or survey instrument used in the research …a computer program. There can be more than one appendix. Label each with a capital letter. Example: Appendix A. Treat the Appendix like a new paper. Use level headings, tables, and figures. Label tables and figures with the title of the appendix preceding the Arabic numeral. EXAMPLE: Figure A1. All appendix tables and figures must be cited within the appendix and numbered in order of citation. LEVEL FIVE IS CENTERED AND CAPSLOCKED Level One is Centered and Capitalized Level Two is Centered and Capitalized Level Three is Left-Aligned and Capitalized Level four is tabbed once from the left and punctuated. Despite their numbering, Levels are not used in order. Which levels are used depends on the total number in the section. Levels appear in this order: For a paper with only one level, use Level 1. For a paper with two levels, use Level 1 and Level 3. For a paper with three levels, use Level 1, Level 3, and Level 4. For a paper with four levels, use Level 1, Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4, respectively. For a paper with all five levels, Level 5 appears first, followed by Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, and Level 4. Michael Frizell Director michaelfrizell@ Missouristate.edu 836-5006 Pummill Hall 401 WEB: Writingcenter. Missouristate.edu 836-6398 Supplemental Instruction WEB: SI.Missouristate.edu
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