Equal opportunities - the catch-up game by hqk11552


									 Equal opportunities
– the catch-up game

                                                         he objective of equal                    to respond more effectively to these

     ISSUE 3 - APRIL 2007
                                              T          opportunities for all European
                                                         citizens has long been at the
                                                         forefront of European social
                                              policy. ‘Europe must work towards real
                                              equality in practice’, said European
                                                                                                  changing forces. The understanding is
                                                                                                  that driving towards more and better
                                                                                                  jobs and greater competitiveness will
                                                                                                  increase productivity and therefore
                                                                                                  prosperity, thereby improving the
                                              Employment, Social Affairs and Equal                quality of life for all European citizens.
This issue of Foundation Focus places         Opportunities Commissioner, Vladimír                But, importantly, the focus of
the spotlight on equal opportunities,
                                              Špidla at the launch of the European                policymakers at the highest levels has
                                              Year of Equal Opportunities for All in              always been on all EU citizens. It is in
viewed in the light of recent policy
                                              January of this year. But increasing                this context that the Council of
developments at EU and national level         globalisation, rapid demographic                    Ministers, when inviting the
and based on Foundation research              change and wide-scale economic                      Commission to take stock of the social
findings in this area. The aim of the         developments have all placed new and                situation in the Union, called for
series is to explore a subject of social      diverse pressures on Europe’s societies             particular emphasis to be placed on
and economic policy importance and            and application of anti-discrimination              questions of access and opportunity. As
contribute to argument and debate on          legislation has, claimed Commissioner               the recent consultation paper from the
                                              Špidla, encountered too many obstacles              Bureau of European Policy Advisers
the key issues shaping the future of
                                              and delays.                                         highlights, ‘equal opportunity is a weak
living and working conditions in
                                                                                                  goal unless accompanied by strong
Europe.                                       Increasing migration into the European              efforts to ensure that all citizens have
                                              Union and greater mobility between                  access to the resources, conditions and
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                                              countries means that Member States                  capabilities that make theoretical
www.eurofound.europa.eu/                                                                          equality of opportunity real and
                                              have an increasingly diverse profile,
publications/focusform.htm                    transforming traditional class, social              meaningful’.
                                              and often religious divisions. New
                                              patterns of family life have emerged;               So what does that mean for Europe’s
                                              fewer people are being born but they                ageing workforce? For women? For
                                              are living longer and working harder                women with children? For unskilled
                                              than ever before. As a result, demands              workers? For people with disabilities or
                                              on housing, pensions and health and                 those who are chronically ill? For the
IN THIS ISSUE                                 care facilities are rapidly reaching                new wave of migrants throughout the
                                              overload. Working and employment                    European Union? Foundation research
2      Editorial                              conditions have changed; people are                 has focused on all these areas and more
3      Interview
                                              working in new ways, within new types               over recent years. The previous issue of
       ‘Equal opportunities call for career   of organisations and with greater                   Foundation Focus took up the issue of
       investment’                            intensity. More women are in paid work              age and employment. This issue looks
                                              outside the home but there has been                 at the major obstacles to accessing
4      Research
                                              little trade-off with their domestic
       Gender, time and work: a key to                                                            equal opportunities, highlights best
       Lisbon’s success                       responsibilities.                                   practice where it exists and points to
                                                                                                  possible paths for policymakers as they
6      ‘Mind the gap’ – Quality of work for
                                              Europe’s policymakers have reacted by               look to a better, more ‘equal’ future for
       women and men
                                              taking steps to best prepare its citizens           all citizens.
9      Good practice: case study
       Bayer AG, Germany
10     Integration of people with
       disabilities into the European
                                               Foundation Focus is published by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and
12     Good practice: case study Adecco,       Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughlinstown, Dublin 18, Ireland.
       Italy                                   The Foundation is an autonomous body of the European Union, established by Regulation (EEC)
                                               1365/75 of the EU Council of Ministers of 26 May 1975.
13     Interview
                                               Editor-in-chief: Mary McCaughey Director: Jorma Karppinen Deputy Director: Willy
       ‘Not everybody starts from the same
                                               Buschak Original language: English
                                               European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
14     Research
                                               Wyattville Road - Loughlinstown - Dublin 18 - Ireland
       Successful integration means equal
                                               Tel: (+353 1) 204 31 00 - Fax: (+353 1) 282 42 09 / 282 64 56
       access and participation
                                               Email: information@eurofound.europa.eu Web: www.eurofound.europa.eu
18     Further reading


‘Equal opportunities
                                                                                                we’ve developed awareness seminars
                                                                                                that give both men and women the
                                                                                                chance to examine and perhaps
                                                                                                overcome these stereotypes. But there

call for career                                                                                 are outside obstacles as well. The oil
                                                                                                industry is often perceived to be a
                                                                                                difficult, men-only preserve. So we have

investment’                                                                                     to convince young women graduates
                                                                                                that we offer professional challenges and
                                                                                                career paths that they hadn’t expected to
                                                                                                be open to them.’
Catherine Ferrant, Vice President, Global Diversity
                                                                                                EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND WORK–LIFE
and Accountability at the French oil and gas                                                    BALANCE
                                                                                                ‘Work–life balance policy is interesting
company, Total, outlines some of her views on this                                              because it supposes that not only
                                                                                                mothers, but all employees, should
company’s approach to equal opportunities.                                                      benefit from a better balance between
                                                                                                work and ‘other life’, and from a better
THE CONCEPT OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES               education and mobility problems. At
                                                                                                involvement in their families. This is why
‘In our view, “equal opportunities” is a         Total, we work very hard to see how we
                                                                                                we work very hard on this. We have
broader and deeper concept than                  can improve their career opportunities.
                                                                                                created a 60-bed crèche in Paris, and
“diversity”. Taking the “diversity”
                                                 People tend to accept the need to              other projects are underway. We are
approach, one quite rightly seeks to root
                                                 diversify the international makeup of our      also developing time management
out any form of discrimination against
                                                 teams. But they’re more sceptical about        practices and personal services
people. Employees mustn’t be made to
                                                 trying to increase the number of women,        initiatives.’
carry too heavy a burden on their
shoulder. But equal opportunities, on the        often for cultural or psychological
other hand, presuppose freedom. If one           reasons. There are still a lot of widely-      DIVERSITY, EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND
isn’t free, one cannot take advantage of         held stereotypes to overcome, such as          THE LISBON AGENDA
opportunities that life or the workplace         the role and image of women in                 ‘Diversity enhances employee
offers. Equal opportunities call for an          companies and the so-called constraints        relationships and stimulates
even deeper investment in a person’s             that hinder their careers and mobility –       performance, and when it spreads
career,’ says Catherine Ferrant.                 even women believe them. In response,          across a company, it’s good for
                                                                                                 everyone. It’s been proven that diverse
                                                                                                 teams are more creative, more
PROGRESS MADE AT TOTAL                                                                           innovative and more responsive, all
‘The most important step for our Group                                                           valuable assets in an increasingly
has been signing a European-wide                                                                 competitive world. But diversity is about
social agreement on equal opportunities                                                          more than competitiveness; it’s also
with European trade unions. The focus                                                            about fairness and credibility. We can’t
of this initiative in the first instance is on                                                   claim that all our employees are
women and disabled people. It covers                                                             realising their full potential when our
matters such as recruitment, training,                                                           statistics show that relatively few women
functional mobility and salaries. We are                                                         and non-French employees hold
progressively implementing a “European                                                           positions of responsibility. Society has
equal opportunities scorecard” with                                                              changed. Our employees and the young
documented indicators. These will                                                                graduates we hire live in a multicultural
enable us to identify and disseminate                                                            world, and they expect their workplace
best practices and to monitor our                                                                to reflect this.’
progress in implementing equal
opportunities.                                                                                  FRANCE VS EUROPE, EUROPE VS OTHER
In 2005, we took a big step towards              Catherine Ferrant was born in Belgium in       REGIONS
making our teams more gender-diverse             1952. She holds degrees in economics and       ‘Europe is perhaps a pioneer in the field
and international by introducing tracking        communications and began her professional      of equal opportunities, if we measure its
indicators and targets. For example, we          career as a journalist at Le Soir, where she   excellence through the interest of Asian
set a goal of 12% women and 25% non-             worked as editor of the politics,              researchers and journalists for our
French employees in senior                       employment and business section. In 1989,      models and initiatives. In France, we
management by 2010, compared to 6%               she joined PetroFina as Vice President,        have the second-highest birth rate in
and 19% at the end of 2004.’                     Corporate Communications. In 2003, she         Europe and, at the same time, also one
                                                 was appointed Vice President, Global           of the highest rates of working mothers
                                                 Diversity and Accountability, heading a new    in Europe. This shows that a voluntary
THE MOST DISADVANTAGED GROUPS                    department created as part of Total’s Human    policy, with child-care facilities, parental
‘Disabled people generally tend to be            Resources and Corporate Communications         leave etc. helps women to be at work,
exposed to discrimination in various             Division.                                      and fathers to share their family
ways, including lack of appropriate                                                             responsibilities!’


Gender, time and work:
                                                                                                      housework duties than their male
                                                                                                      colleagues. This obviously has an impact on
                                                                                                      the number of paid working hours of men
                                                                                                      and women: whereas middle-aged men tend

a key to Lisbon’s                                                                                     to work slightly longer hours than younger
                                                                                                      or older generations, women work fewer
                                                                                                      paid hours on average during the ‘family-

success                                                                                               intensive’ years, (see also Figure 1).

                                                                                                      The disproportionate amount of unpaid work
                                                                                                      carried out by women does not only impact
A key element of the Lisbon strategy focuses on                                                       on their paid working hours, but possibly
                                                                                                      more importantly, on their capacity or
increasing Europe’s employment rates in general.                                                      willingness to take on paid work at all.
                                                                                                      When comparing the employment rates of
To do this effectively, concerted action is needed at                                                 men and women, it becomes obvious that
                                                                                                      the family/household burden carried by
EU and national level to boost the employment                                                         women has a clear impact on their
                                                                                                      employment rates: it is during the years of
rates of women in particular.                                                                         family responsibilities (and disproportionate
                                                                                                      female unpaid working hours) where the gap
          urrently, just over half of women   The main reason for this lower female                   between the employment rates of men and

C         (56.3%) are employed, well below
          the overall target for men and
          women of 70% set out in the
Lisbon strategy. The employment rate for
men is already above the target (71.3%), so
                                              employment rate is that women spend
                                              considerably more time on family and
                                              household responsibilities, making it
                                              difficult for them to participate fully in the
                                              labour market. Adapting European jobs to
                                                                                                      women is at its largest (see Figure 2).
                                                                                                      Furthermore, not only are middle-aged
                                                                                                      women less likely to work for pay than men:
                                                                                                      when they do work, they are much more
                                                                                                      likely to work part-time.
strategies to provide more people with jobs   become more family friendly is, therefore,
must necessarily focus on the particular      not only good for workers and their families,           It is clear, therefore, that any effort to
problems facing women when entering or        but in fact necessary to ensure progress                increase employment rates in Europe
rejoining the workforce.                      towards the ambitious objectives of making              involves tackling the so-called ‘double
                                              Europe ‘the most competitive economy in                 burden’ carried by women.
                                              the world’.
                                                                                                      A first strategy would be to tackle the
                                              Foundation research highlights the fact that            source of the problem – the unequal
                                              the difference between the amount of                    distribution of unpaid work. This means
                                              unpaid work carried out by European men                 attacking gender inequality even in the
                                              and women is huge. This is the case across              private sphere.
                                              all age groups, but it is particularly
                                                                                                      Secondly, social policy can try to reduce the
                                              important for those aged 30 to 45, the
                                                                                                      family/household burden by extending the
                                              years in which family responsibilities are
                                                                                                      social rights and basic public services that
                                              most pressing (see Figure 1). According to
                                                                                                      support families in their caring needs. Free
                                              Foundation estimates, European middle-
                                                                                                      or affordable provision of childcare and care
                                              aged female workers spend on average 20 to
                                                                                                      for dependent adults can be a very effective
                                              25 more hours per week on care or
                                                                                                      way of reducing the burden of family

                                              FIGURE 1: Weekly paid and unpaid working hours

                                                                45                                   Paid work - Men

                                                                                                     Paid work - Women
                                                 Weekly hours


                                                                          Unpaid work - Women

                                                                                 Unpaid work - Men


                                                                     15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64           65+

FIGURE 2: Employment and part-time rates                                        FIGURE 3: Part-time work and employment rate of women (%)
  100                                                                                                             80

     90                         Employment rate - Men
                                                                                                                                                                   dk se                              R2 = 0.246

                                                                                 Female employment rate (15-64)
                                                                                                                  70                         fi
     80                                                                                                                                                                    uk                              nl
                               Employment rate - Women                                                                               si pt                    at
     70                                                                                                           60            lt cy lv              ie                de
                                                                                                                           cz                            fr
                                                                                                                                                        lu         be
     60                                                                                                               bg               ro es
                                                                                                                  50 sk
                                                                                                                         gr           pl it


     40                                                                                                           40
     30                                                                                                                             mt

                                                                                                                       0   5         10           15          20        25      30      35      40      45      50
          15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64   65+                                                                                 Rate of part-time work

responsibilities and thereby increasing the             most people, and very often part-time work                                                         scope of women with family
employment rates of women.                              is simply the consequence of the lack of                                                           responsibilities. Work schedules that are
                                                        feasible alternatives for combining work and                                                       regular and predictable make it easier to
Finally, in the context of the work–life                non-work demands (only 30% of EU part-                                                             combine full-time work and family life.
balance agenda, another approach would                  timers say that they took a part-time job
involve better adapting jobs to the demands             because ‘they did not want a full-time job’).                                             3. The final and probably most important
outside the work place, so that workers                 What is more, research evidence points to a                                                  difficulty in combining family and full-
(women, in particular) can mould their                  certain degree of discrimination against                                                     time work in Europe is the lack of access
working time to their lives outside work. In            part-time workers in terms of career                                                         to flexible working-time arrangements.
terms of social policy, it means encouraging            prospects, salary, job tenure and access to                                                  Most European jobs have rigid time
companies to offer jobs that are ‘family-               supplementary benefits in most EU                                                            schedules, with very limited possibilities
friendly’.                                              countries.1 Unless the conditions of part-                                                   for workers to adapt working times to
                                                        time work are improved so that it can                                                        their needs. According to the fourth
But what does that mean in practice?                    become a real and reasonable alternative to                                                  European Working Conditions Survey,
So far, it has essentially meant part-time              full-time work, it is likely to remain to a                                                  more than two thirds of European
work. Of all the working time arrangements              certain extent an involuntary and                                                            employees have fixed working schedules,
that can be used to make jobs more                      discriminatory working-time system.                                                          with no possibilities for change; and
adaptable to outside work demands, part-                                                                                                             according to the European Establishment
time work is by far the most widely used.               If part-time work is not the solution,                                                       Survey of Working Time, only around 13%
The increase in part-time work is probably              therefore, one should consider how to make                                                   of all European establishments offer
the most important development in                       full-time work more flexible and adaptable                                                   advanced forms of flexible time
European labour markets over the last 20                to the personal needs of workers –                                                           arrangements such as working time
years, coinciding of course with the massive            particularly for European women carrying                                                     accounts or annualised working hours.
incorporation of women into employment.                 the burden of disproportionate                                                               So there is no doubt there is room for
Part-time work is mainly a female                       family/household responsibilities. Recent                                                    improvement in this area, improvement
phenomenon (almost 80% of EU part-timers                research carried out by the Foundation2                                                      which would have a substantial impact
are women), and again, it is most prevalent             shows that there are three main difficulties                                                 on the capacity of European workers
in those years in which the female                      in combining full-time work with family                                                      (male and female) to adapt paid working
family/household burden is most pressing.               responsibilities:                                                                            hours to the demands of life outside
In this way, part-time work can be                                                                                                                   work.
perceived as a ‘family-friendly’ type of work           1. First, the ‘long hours’ culture prevalent
that may allow more women to integrate                     in some jobs often makes participation                                                 An effective work–life balance policy, based
into the labour market. There is a                         by women with family responsibilities                                                  on long-term goals of gender equality,
correlation between the percentage of part-                difficult. For instance, evidence suggests                                             widespread access to child and adult care
time work and the employment rate of                       that one of the main reasons behind the                                                services, and more flexibility for workers to
women: in those countries with a higher                    lower proportion of women in managerial                                                adapt their working times to the demands of
percentage of part-time work, more women                   positions is the very long working hours                                               their private lives, would certainly improve
participate in the labour market                           usually demanded of managers.                                                          the lives of European women, while at the
(see Figure 3).                                                                                                                                   same time increasing overall employment
                                                        2. A second difficulty is the                                                             rates and the productive capacity of the
But is part-time work the solution to the                  unpredictability of work schedules that                                                European economy.
work–life conflict faced by many women?                    affects some types of jobs (again,
                                                           unpredictability is higher in managerial                                                                                  Enrique Fernández Macías
Probably not, at least not in the way it is                and professional occupations, and also in
currently regulated and practised in most EU               some sectors such as hotels and                                                        1
                                                                                                                                                      See ‘Part-time work in Europe’ EWCO report .
countries. Full-time work is still preferred by            restaurants), placing them outside the                                                 2
                                                                                                                                                      See ‘Combining family and full-time work’, EWCO report.


‘Mind the gap’ –
                                                                                                Hourly wage differentials are accentuated by
                                                                                                the unequal distribution of income between
                                                                                                women and men in the workforce. Data from
                                                                                                the fourth European Working Conditions

Quality of work for                                                                             Survey (EWCS) 2005 shows that women tend
                                                                                                to be concentrated in the lowest income

women and men                                                                                   AND NEVER THE TWAIN
                                                                                                SHALL MEET…
                                                                                                European labour markets are also highly
The number of women in paid jobs has increased                                                  segregated according to the results of the
steadily in recent years. In some sectors, women                                                fourth European Working Conditions Survey.
                                                                                                Only 26% of Europeans work in mixed
appear to have benefited most from new jobs being                                               occupations, where the workforce is
                                                                                                composed of both sexes in the ratio of at
created. But while they may have increased their                                                least 40%:60%.

foothold in the employment market, they still                                                   Half of all working women work in only two
                                                                                                sectors – 34% in education and health and
generally earn less than men in equivalent jobs and                                             17% in wholesale and retail trade. In
                                                                                                comparison, half of the jobs occupied by
they still tend to climb the career ladder more                                                 men are spread across three sectors:
slowly, if at all.                                                                              manufacturing (22%), wholesale and retail
                                                                                                (14%) and construction (13%), thus
                                                                                                confirming the horizontal segregation

            espite equal opportunities

                                                 FIGURE 1: Unadjusted hourly gender pay gap 2001–2005 (%)
            legislation, the quality of work
            and the career paths of women
            are still very different for women
and men. Although collective agreements
and minimum wage laws are in principle
gender neutral, women generally still earn         19

less than men. Part of the reason for this is
that women are segregated in some sectors          18
of the economy, taking up lower paid part-
time jobs, resulting in far fewer women than       17
men making it to top managerial positions.
The European Industrial Relations                  15
Observatory (EIRO) Annual Pay Update                         2001             2002             2003            2004              2005
provides data on collectively agreed pay                                        EU 15 + NO            NMS         All
across Europe. This includes data on gender
pay differentials in the form of the             Source: EIRO Pay Developments 2001 – 2005
‘unadjusted gender pay gap’, that is the
difference between gross hourly pay of men       According to EIRO Pay Developments 2005,       existing in the labour market. Even in the
and women across the whole economy.1             the lowest hourly wage pay gap is found in     sectors with a large female workforce,
                                                 Malta (4%), while the widest gap is in         women often find themselves in the low-
Figure 1 shows, that when looking at the         Germany (26%) – see Figure 2. This mirrors     paid jobs. Out of those working in the
unadjusted figures, quite a wide – although      the situation reported in the 2004 EIRO Pay    education and health sectors up to 55% of
narrowing – hourly pay gap still exists          Developments update. Maltese data should       men receive high pay, as compared to only
throughout Europe. Moreover, the figures         however be interpreted with care as the        27% of women.
show that the move towards narrowing wage        overall participation rate of women in the
disparities is progressing only slowly in the    labour market is very low in that country.     This serves to further highlight the issue of
EU15 and Norway: it decreased by 2.3%                                                           vertical segregation in the labour market, or
from 20.4% in 2001 to 18.1% in 2005. In          Other countries consistently reporting         in other words, representation of women in
2004–5 even this trend was broken, with an       relatively narrow gender pay gaps are          managerial posts. Nevertheless, over the
actual upturn in the hourly pay gap in the       Slovenia (6.9%), Denmark (10.1%) and           last 10 years, the EWCS has identified the
EU15. In the new Member States, hourly pay       Ireland (13.3%), while those with              slow, but steady, increase in the proportion
                                                 comparatively wide gaps include Greece         of female bosses in the European Union:
is somewhat more equitable and the gap
                                                 (25.2%), Cyprus (25%), Czech Republic          from 20% in 1995, to 23% in 2000 to 25%
there oscillated at around 17% in the years
                                                 (25.1%) and Slovakia (23.7%).                  in 2005. However, this rate is still much
2003 to 2005.

FIGURE 2: Unadjusted hourly gender pay gap 2005, by country (%)                                fathers (by around 50%). For working
                                                                                               women, by contrast, parenthood often leads
                                                                                               to part-time work. Both trends contribute to
                                                                                               the growing incidence of ‘one and a half’
                                                                                               worker households with a full-time working
                                                                                               father and a part-time working mother.

                                                                                               It is also the case that working fathers tend
                                                                                               to work longer weekly hours as their
                                                                                               parental responsibilities grow. Working
                                                                                               fathers with two children under 16 work
   5                                                                                           over two hours more each week than men
                                                                                               without children in their main paid jobs.
   0                                                                                           Only for those fathers with extended family
           Slo ta


           Bu ce




           Slo ia



          De nia


            No a

                                                                                               responsibilities (three or more children) is

           mb y


























                                                                                               there a slight fall-off in weekly working






Source: EIRO, Pay Developments 2005                                                            The opposite is the case for working
                                                                                               mothers who work fewer hours than women
                                                                                               without children, though this is largely due
lower than in the United States, where the     representation of women in part-time            to the increased incidence of part-time work
equivalent figure is 37%.2                     positions (see Figure 4), which are mostly      by working mothers. The average weekly
                                               lower paid.                                     hours of full-time working mothers actually
There are also substantial differences
between the countries when it comes to         According to the EWCS, the gender time gap      increase as their number of children
representation of women in the managerial      – the difference between men and women’s        increases.
ranks (see Figure 3). The highest proportion   contributions to the labour market in terms
of women in supervisory positions is found     of working time – shows that in the EU27
                                                                                               FIGURE 3: Proportion of workers with
in northern and eastern European countries     there is a much higher proportion of women
                                                                                               female bosses, by country (%)
(reaching almost 40% in Finland and            than men working part time (29% and 7%
Estonia), with the lowest proportion in the    respectively). Working part time has               FI
southern European and some continental         significant consequences on pay. Between           EE
countries (e.g. Germany, Italy and             70% and 80% of employees working part              LT

Luxembourg).                                                                                     UK
                                               time fall into the low-pay category.
                                               However, within the subset of part-time
Although the increase in the number of                                                            SE
                                               workers, the distribution of low pay is quite     NO
women in managerial posts is a positive        even between men and women.                        LV
development, it is not straightforward. Most                                                     HU
female bosses have female subordinates.        When looking at the differences in pay             IE
Whereas less than 10% of men have women        between men and women in full-time jobs,          DK
as their immediate bosses, around 43% of       a similar pattern emerges: overall, men tend       PL
working women in Europe have female            to be overrepresented at the upper end of         SK

bosses. Women also are more likely to be                                                          PT
                                               the income distribution scale and there are
managers of part-timers – 41% of part-         roughly twice as many women than men
timers have female bosses compared to 21%      among those on low pay.                            FR
of full-timers. Both men and women in part-                                                      HR
time employment are more likely to be          While more women than men tend to work            RO
managed by a woman. Also the proportion        part time, there are twice as many men as        EU27
of female bosses diminishes in higher          women working long hours. According to            CZ

management positions (when taking the          the fourth European Working Conditions            AT

number of subordinates as an indicator for     Survey, 14.9% of EU27 employees work more         NL

                                               than 48 hours a week. When considering the        MT
the level of management responsibility).                                                          ES
Female managers are concentrated in            gender difference in terms of working long
sectors and workplaces with a                  hours, 20% of all male workers work long           EL
predominantly female/part-time workforce       hours as compared to 8.5% of all female           LU
at the lower end of hierarchies.               employees.                                        DE
NOT WORKING 9 TO 5…                            WORKING OUTSIDE THE HOME                          CY
Vertical and horizontal segregation of         It is increasingly clear that having a family                   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45
                                                                                                       0   5
women is only part of the story.               also has a very real impact on the choice of
                                               working hours. Working fathers are less         Source: Fourth European Working Conditions
Concentration of women in the lower pay
                                               likely to work part-time compared to non-       Survey (2007)
bracket can be explained in part by over-

FIGURE 4: Incidence of part-time work by sex (%)                                                        compulsory measures, collective regulations
                                                                                                        or individual arrangements.
                                                                                                        In general, employer organisations consider
 60                                                                                                     legislation and regulation in the area of
                                                                                                        gender equality as counterproductive, and
 50                                                                                                     would prefer tailor-made company-level
                                                                                                        solutions. Many employers would also prefer
 40                                                                                                     to include gender issues as part of wider
                                                                                                        diversity policies.

                                                                                                        The trade unions tend to have a different
 20                                                                                                     view and prefer general regulation to
                                                                                                        individual solutions. They also tend to take
                                                                                                        active measures in the field of gender
                                                                                                        mainstreaming in general and regarding the
      CH NL UK NO BE LU SE IE AT DK EU DE IT FR ES TR MT PL EL RO FI CZ EE LT HU BG LV PT CY SI HR SK   gender pay gap in particular. These include
                                                                                                        organising events to raise public awareness,
                                         male             female
                                                                                                        conducting research, provision of training
                                                                                                        courses on negotiating for equal pay or
Source: Fourth European Working Conditions Survey (2007)                                                training using a model agreement on equal
                                                                                                        pay. They also implement procedures to
JUGGLING ACT                                          to identify and combat discrimination but it      combat gender discrimination.
On the assumption that working women are              can also preserve elements contributing to
largely responsible for unpaid home and                                                                 Apart from implementing legislation
                                                      persistent pay differences.
caring activities – an assumption soundly                                                               allowing for equal pay for equal work or
supported by evidence from the Working                In principle, the social partners recognise       work of equivalent value, some ’proactive‘
Conditions Survey – a key focus in the work–          the existence of the gender pay gap, as was       measures have been put in place by the
life balance debate has been on the specific          reflected by signing Frameworks of Action         social partners:
pressures placed on working women.                    for Gender Equality, a cross-sectoral accord
                                                                                                        •   fighting the gender pay gap by
                                                      of the European social partners in May
It is interesting therefore to note that men                                                                providing additional pay increases to
                                                      2005. However, in their capacity as parties
seem more dissatisfied with their work–life                                                                 female-dominated/and or low-paid
                                                      to collective bargaining, the social partners
fit than women. The main factors                                                                            sectors through central level
                                                      often disagree on the best strategy to
contributing to this unexpected outcome                                                                     negotiations;
                                                      follow in order to address the issue –
are the volume of weekly working hours and
the different ways in which working hours
are organised between men and women,
rather than gender per se. In general, part-
time workers are twice as likely to have a
positive perception of their work–life
balance as full-time workers. The high
incidence of female part-time work and low
incidence of male part-time work are
therefore key factors differentiating the
levels of satisfaction with work–life fit of
working men and women. That said, even
among those working full-time, a somewhat
higher proportion of men (24% versus 20%)
is unhappy with their work–life fit.

Although issues relating to the gender pay
gap are mostly regarded as a matter of
national legislation and politics, some
aspects of gender pay equity have been a
subject of collective bargaining. There is an
ongoing debate whether collective
agreements counter or prolong existing
gender pay gaps. On the one hand,
collective bargaining is a good mechanism


•       job (re-)evaluation/quality of present
        job classification schemes, based on
        objective criteria with a gender
        perspective leading to a favourable
                                                                     Good practice: case study
        valuation of typically female
        occupations;                                                 Bayer AG, Germany
•       promotion of voluntary pay audits;
•       national inter-sectoral agreement on
                                                                     Training and integration of early school-leavers
        gender equality and gender balance in
                                                                                ayer AG is a holding that includes   2,500 were interviewed, with a focus on

        workforce composition;
                                                                                business operations and service      knowledge, motivation and suitability. In
                                                                                companies operating                  each interview, there are three persons from
KNOCK-ON EFFECTS                                                                independently. The business          the company involved. 875 applicants were
Differences in pay between men and women                             operations are Bayer HealthCare, Bayer          selected of which 175 are taking part in the
are visible throughout Europe with women                             CropScience, Bayer MaterialScience. Central     ‘Start aid’ programme. 55% of the
generally receiving a lower hourly wage                              service functions are pooled into three         participants are male and 45% female. The
than men. Moreover, women tend to be                                 service companies. The preparatory              majority of participants have a secondary
segregated in the labour market in certain                           vocational training programme ‘Start aid’ for   school leaving certificate, although some
sectors and a vast majority work in part-                            young people is run by Bayer Industry           have no school leaving certificate at all.
time jobs, which are often low paid.                                 Services (BIS).                                 Around a third (30%) of participants come
                                                                                                                     from immigrant backgrounds.
                                                                     The preparatory
Moreover, there are further work-related                                                                                                   The training takes
                                                                     vocational training
consequences for women resulting from the                                                                                                  one year and is an
                                                                     programme is
gender pay gap that accumulate over the                                                                                                    entry qualification for
                                                                     specifically developed
life course. Due to the part-time nature of                          for young people who                                                  an apprenticeship in
their work, women might not be covered by                            are disadvantaged in                                                  various occupations
collective agreements in which yearly wage                           terms of learning and                                                 such as chemical
increases are negotiated for the full-time                           social background. The                                                production
workers. Also, lower wages translate into                            key motivation for the                                                technicians or for a
lower social security and pension                                    initiative is corporate                                               technical or
contributions and possibly less access to                            social responsibility                                                 administrative job.
supplementary pension schemes. Although                              and the role of the                                                   The programme
social partners have taken some action to                            company as a major                                                    combines instruction
facilitate greater gender equality, the issue                        local player. The                                                     to improve basic
could still be higher on the collective                              programme creates                                                     educational skills
bargaining agenda. Perhaps the conclusion                            perspectives for less                                                 with elements of
of a framework agreement at European level                           well-qualified school                                                 practical and
could further that process and stimulate real                        leavers. Without such                                                 theoretical vocational
                                                                     measures the                                                          training, including
                                                                     participants are                                                      training in social
Further research needs to be done to better                          strongly at risks of                                                  skills such as team
understand women’s early career choices –                            exclusion from the                                                    work, communication
what attracts women to certain occupations                           labour market.                                                        and self-discipline.
and sectors. In addition, it would be                                                                                A key factor for success – besides the
                                                                     In 1988/89, the initiative ‘Start aid’ began
interesting to see what particular skills and                                                                        intense selection procedure – is intensive
                                                                     with five participants at the BIS premises in
personal characteristics are attractive to                                                                           coaching of the participants during the
                                                                     Dormagen with the involvement of the
employers who offer higher pay and to                                                                                entire period of training. Another important
                                                                     works council. It was extended to all five
enable young women to develop these                                                                                  aspect is career advice to help participants
                                                                     BIS locations. The number of participants
skills.                                                                                                              choose a particular occupation.
                                                                     increased to 50 in 1991, 75 in 2001 and
Finally, more research examining the                                 175 in 2004. The increase of 100 in 2004 is     The company developed the initiative
dynamics of the gender pay gap over the                              related to a decrease of 100 for the 800        independently. The programme requires
life course would help to determine where                            regular apprenticeships, based on an            higher expenditure than for the regular
the pay gap starts and how it impacts on                             agreement with the works council. The           apprentices. Around 4.2 million euro are
other policy areas, such as education and                            reduction of places for regular                 invested in the programme annually. The
social and personal services.                                        apprenticeship was related to increasing        entire measure is financed by the company.
                                                                     problems to take on the apprentices             The intensive coaching and attention leads
                          Kasia Jurczak and John Hurley              permanently after their vocational training.    to a success rate of almost 90% of
                                                                     Participants are recruited annually through     participants being offered an apprenticeship
                                                                     the regular selection procedure for             contract at Bayer or other companies.
    The differences in calculation methods and period of reporting
    are indicated in the EIRO Pay Developments Update 2005.
                                                                     apprentices. In 2006 the company received
    Based on the data from the National Survey of the Changing
                                                                     10,000 applications and 6,000 applicants                                      Gerlinde Ziniel
    Workplace (2002)                                                 were invited to an aptitude test. Of these,


Integration of people
                                                                                                          people of working age are estimated to have
                                                                                                          longstanding health problems or disability -
                                                                                                          one in six people of the labour force age
                                                                                                          groups in Europe. Data on the scale and

with disabilities into                                                                                    significance of disability for employment are
                                                                                                          difficult to collect and compare across
                                                                                                          Europe as self-reporting rates are very

the European workforce                                                                                    different across Member States, and, in the
                                                                                                          2002 survey, only 10% of people with
                                                                                                          LSHPD reported a mental, nervous or
                                                                                                          emotional problem. Furthermore, Member
In the United Kingdom, over two million people                                                            States have employed varying definitions
                                                                                                          and criteria for disability assessment
receive disability benefits. Nearly half of these                                                         according to different policy objectives,
                                                                                                          legislation, and administrative needs.
people say they would prefer to be at work. In some
areas, the rates are even higher; for example, in
                                                                                                          PREVENTING EXCLUSION
Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales, one in five adults are                                                     To get a clear picture of disability and work,
                                                                                                          it is important to appreciate that most
in receipt of incapacity benefit.                                                                         people with disability were not born with it
                                                                                                          nor did they acquire it as a result of an
             n a wider scale, in some            Labour Force Survey Module implemented in                occupational injury or accident (see Figure

O            countries throughout the
             European Union more people of
             working age are in receipt of
disability benefits than are in
unemployment schemes. Of course the
                                                 2002, which provides basic information on
                                                 the distribution of disability among people
                                                 aged 16–64 in the Member States. The
                                                 results indicate little difference in the rates
                                                 of LSHPD between men and women of
                                                                                                          below). Fewer than one in six people report
                                                                                                          the onset of their disability as being work-
                                                                                                          related. On the other hand, most people of
                                                                                                          working age with a disability have acquired
                                                                                                          it during the course of their working life
employment situation and administrative          working age but show a clear increase in                 which means, therefore, most people with
                                                 incidence with age. About 30% of people                  disabilities have work experience. The first
procedures influence these numbers but the
                                                 aged 55 to 64 reports some disability, and               step to prevent exclusion from employment
figures tell their own story.
                                                 this proportion is higher in the new Member              is thus to retain links to work for those who
Boosting employment rates across Europe is       States, as is the reported severity of the               become ill or disabled.
a well-known objective of the Lisbon             disability.
                                                                                                          Indeed just under half of people of working
Strategy. Integrating more women and
                                                 Research shows clearly that disabled people              age with some level of disability are
retaining older workers in the labour market
                                                 often find themselves on the margins of the              employed compared with two-thirds of
are key elements in ensuring this increased
                                                 job market; for people with disabilities, for            those without disability. This relatively low
participation across the Union. But
                                                 example, employment rates are usually lower              employment rate of people with disabilities
integrating people with disabilities into the
                                                 than those for older workers. Yet 45 million             indicates, for the most part, low levels of
workforce should have an equally important
place in this drive to improve employment
participation for all European citizens.         FIGURE 1: Causes of longstanding health problem or disability (LHSPD)

Increasingly, disability has been seen as a
major cause of exclusion. Foundation                                                                                     accident or injury,
research confirms that those excluded by ill-                               Born with it or         diseases             incl. traffic
                                                                             birth injury                                accidents at work
health or disability from employment – or
indeed whose opportunities in the workforce                                                                                    Traffic accident or
                                                                                                                               injury (outside of work)
are restricted by disability – are more likely
                                                                     Do not know                                                Household, leisure
to be at risk of poverty and social exclusion
                                                                                                                                and sports accident
and to experience a diminished quality of                                                                                       or injury
life. European Union reports focus not only
on disability or ill-health as a barrier to
employment but also as a cause of early exit
from employment. The European Council has
identified disabled people as a priority for
increased labour market participation, but                                         Non-work-related diseases

so far attention has been given more to
people with physical rather than with
mental health problems.

The concept of ‘longstanding health problem      Source: Eurostat, Statistics in Focus, Theme 3 – 26/2003, Employment of disabled people in
or disability’ (LSHPD) was employed for the      Europe in 2002

retention and reintegration following            FIGURE 2: Disability management model
accident or illness in working life. There are
big differences, however, between Member                                               A Continuum of Social Inclusion Measures

States, so that fewer than one quarter of                   Employment Equity                                                 Disability Management
people with a disability are employed in
Hungary and Latvia, while more than half of
those with a disability are employed in
Denmark, France, Finland, the Netherlands,
Portugal, Sweden and the UK. Rates of                      Mediating Mechanisms                        Reintegration                              Job Retention
unemployment or inactivity of people with                  Employment Services                         Early intervention                         Human Resources/
                                                           Vocational Rehabilitation                   Mediation                                  Equal Opportunities
disability are much higher for those                       General Health Services                     Advocacy/Case Management                   Health and Safety/
                                                           Income Maintenance                          Workplace Rehabilitation                   Risk Management
recorded as ‘severely disabled’: 78% were                  Social Inclusion Measures                   Work Adaptations
                                                                                                       Transitional Work
                                                                                                                                                  Occupational Health/
                                                                                                                                                  Health Promotion
outside the labour force in 2002.                          Incentives                                  RTW Coordination
                                                                                                       Co-worker Support
                                                                                                                                                  Employee Assistance
                                                                                                                                                  Health Insurance
                                                           Anti-Discrimination Measures                Redeployment                               Re-deployment
                                                           Quotas & Levies                                                                        Adaptations
Clearly, starting points to improve the                                                                Incentives                                 Work Adjustments
                                                                                                       Anti-Discrimination Measures
situation of people with disabilities are                                                              Quotas & Levies

different across the Member States, as are
their capacities to implement changes. But
they all face similar challenges to modernise
social protection structures and to activate     Source: ‘Employment and disability: Back to work strategies’
labour market support. In many Member
States, for example, new measures have
been introduced to increase conditionality
for the receipt of benefits. This is only one    REMOVING BARRIERS                                                     EARLY INTERVENTION
component, however, of a more                    Most workers with disabilities aim to find                            To address this area of disability, different
comprehensive strategy required to ensure        jobs on the open labour market. But for this                          management models have been developed
the provision of incentives and support to       to be a real possibility, there is clearly a                          over recent years. These tend to incorporate
return to, or remain in, employment. Active      need to work towards removing the existing                            measures to both promote and maintain
labour market measures in several Member         barriers in work through work adaptations                             employee health, with particular focus on
States already include opportunities to          and more flexible and transitional work                               lifestyles and working conditions. When
upgrade skills, address educational              arrangements. Indeed, for some more                                   workers become ill, for example,
disadvantage, and provide appropriate            severely disabled people, this would require                          intervention at an early stage to monitor
counselling services, because it is now          specially organised workplaces. Effective                             absence from work and to provide
increasingly recognised that successful          implementation of the EU Employment                                   encouragement for return to work can help
measures in this area involve personal and       Equality Directive is likely to make a major                          offset long-term implications. In this way,
high-quality support, extending beyond           contribution to improving employment                                  the focus is on early prevention in order to
access to employment to measures to              opportunities for people with more severe                             manage the relevant risks as they emerge.
maintain people in work.                         disabilities.                                                         Moreover, the disability management model
                                                                                                                       emphasises the need for case management
                                                 But it is not only legislation that plays a                           for long-term absent employees,
SUSTAINABLE EMPLOYMENT MEASURES                  role in this context. Active measures for                             emphasising the timely coordination of
This emphasis on sustainable employment          integration and retention of employment                               services.
underlines the need to address barriers not      depend on a wide range of interventions
only in access to jobs for people with           from both inside and outside the workplace.                           As initiatives in Member States and at
disabilities but in the workplace itself. Many   External services include rehabilitation,                             European level underline, therefore, there is
workers with disabilities have experienced       training and employment services. Some                                still a very real need to develop awareness
discrimination in the workplace, the result      groups excluded by ill-health will also                               around the issue of disability and
often of negative, sometimes ill-informed,       require cooperation and support from                                  employment on a general basis. At the same
perceptions of their conditions. In              services such as housing and social security.                         time, at the level of management and
particular, the stigma experienced by those      To ensure a coherent and effective                                    professionals, there must be an explicit
with mental health problems gives real           approach, these services then need to                                 strengthening of disability management
cause for concern. And negative attitudes        cooperate and coordinate more effectively                             through skills development and training as
such as these are not confined to other          with in-work services. What is clear is that                          well as implementation. Some active
workers and managers but can also be found       systematic planning and allocation of                                 integration measures have already proved
even among those in the health and human         responsibility to workplace and community                             successful in a number of Member States.
resource professions faced with addressing       services is required to ensure the effective                          Building on these successes will facilitate
often highly complex personnel issues.           and sustainable integration into                                      the integration of some of the more
There is no doubt the retention or return to     employment of workers with disabilities.                              neglected groups amongst those with
work of people with chronic health problems      Through its work, the Foundation itself has                           disability into Europe’s labour market – and
is a multifaceted and often highly complex       consistently emphasised the importance of                             help keep them there.
issue. But for this reason it underlines the     appropriate counselling services for workers
need for a highly coordinated and focused        both in and outside employment, as well as                                                                  Robert Anderson
response from both companies and public          enhanced coordination between services in
authorities or services.                         the workplace.


Good practice: case                                                                          interviews or group sessions (for example,
                                                                                             training focusing on team-building).
                                                                                             Beginning with the personal demands of the

study Adecco, Italy                                                                          participant, a training course will be
                                                                                             identified that allows for a reassessment of
                                                                                             the technical competencies that they
                                                                                             already possess, adapting them to the
Labour market integration of people at risk of                                               evolution of today’s labour market. By
                                                                                             means of the training sessions, the worker
exclusion                                                                                    at risk of exclusion can find their way back
                                                                                             into work and society.
            decco is a world leader in human    elements to its success. The fact that the

                                                                                             From 2001 till the end of 2004, the Adecco
            resource solutions, with a          social circumstances of the long-term        agency network helped 47,577 persons at
            comprehensive service that          unemployed are very much taken into          risk of exclusion re-enter the labour market.
            includes temporary and contract     consideration is also a very important       Of those 47,577 workers, 35,482 were aged
staffing, outsourcing, permanent                aspect of the training sessions. The long-   over 40; almost 4,000 were long-term
recruitment, outplacement and career            term unemployed often feel excluded from     unemployed; about 6,000 were single
services, training and consulting. Adecco       society as a whole and have little self-     mothers and almost 2,000 were persons
Italy was set up in 1997 and with its 500       confidence. Through an analysis of their     with disabilities. The long-term unemployed
agencies across the country it has become a     motivations and skills, they become          mainly found work in the service sector
key market player. The workforce numbers        conscious of their capacities and            (47%) and the manufacturing sector (45%).
around 2,000 employees (of which 70% are        competences. The training programmes are
women), it has 18,000 companies as its          diverse and may consist of individual                                       Gerlinde Ziniel
clients and offers work to more then 33,000
In February 2001, in order to promote the
employment of people at risk of exclusion,
Adecco set up the Adecco Foundation for
Equal Opportunities. From the beginning,
this Foundation developed special
programmes to emphasise human potential
and the training of people with disabilities.
Throughout Adecco’s agencies network,
many companies have become involved,
often going beyond the national legislation.
The main law in question – Law no 68/99 –
states that every company with more than
15 employees has to take on persons with a
disability. This includes those with a
reduced capacity to work of 45% or more,
persons who are at least 33% disabled, the
blind or deaf-mute and war victims.
Companies, however, can get dispensation
from this law and not every category of
disability is protected by it.

From 2001 to 2005, a total of 2,818 people
with disabilities were integrated into the
labour market; so far, 90% of them have an
open-ended contract. Subsequently, the
Adecco Foundation broadened its
programmes to include other groups at risk,
namely, the long-term unemployed, single
mothers and athletes at the end of their
competitive careers.

By means of Adecco’s set-up and know-how,
the Adecco Foundation has been able to
develop ways to facilitate access to
employment for those people most at risk of
exclusion. The various methods used by
Adecco – for example, motivational analysis
and vocational training courses – are key


‘Not everybody starts
                                                                                               workplace. It, too, was a good declaration.
                                                                                               ‘But how do you get implementation?’ she
                                                                                               challenges. Race is increasingly on the
                                                                                               agenda again, she says. It is a high priority.

from the same position’                                                                        She applauds some good work that has been
                                                                                               done, citing an initiative by UNISON trade
                                                                                               union members in northwest England which
                                                                                               promoted social cohesion and helped people
Trying to define equal opportunities is not an easy                                            to work together while respecting
task, says Catelene Passchier, Confederal Secretary
of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).                                              DIFFERENT POLICIES NEEDED FOR
                                                                                               DIFFERENT GROUPS
‘On the one hand, the term ‘equal opportunities’ is                                            There is no one policy that will improve
clear – providing people with equal opportunities                                              equal opportunities all round. Different
                                                                                               policies are required, for instance, in
in life. But are people equal in their starting                                                tackling discrimination against gay and
                                                                                               lesbian persons from those addressing
positions?’ she asks.                                                                          disability. And different policies again are
                                                                                               required to eliminate discrimination against
                                                                                               ethnic minorities or on the grounds of
CRITICISING THE YEAR OF EQUAL                   says. Broader societal issues need to be       religion. The Confederal Secretary challenges
OPPORTUNITIES                                   addressed, such as childcare provision and     the business argument that equal
‘The focus has been on making women and         working time regulations.                      opportunity policies are too costly and
men equal. If there is a clear inequality of                                                   therefore not attainable. ‘We need a lot of
outcome in terms of pay, jobs or decision-                                                     people with different inputs to form the
                                                SOUNDS NICE – BUT WHAT’S THE REALITY?
making, we want women to do that equally.                                                      knowledge society.’
                                                Catelene Passchier recalls that the social
But our general criticism of equal
                                                partners made positive declarations during a
opportunities is that it’s not good enough
                                                year dedicated to disability. She asks: ‘But   VARIOUS LEVELS OF SUCCESS
for citizens to be equal before the law.
                                                did the policy lead to practice?’ Race, she    She believes that tackling gender
There needs to be equality in practice. You
                                                notes, was addressed in the 1995 Florence      discrimination has perhaps met with most
have to take their other circumstances into
                                                declaration combating racism in the            success, while the ethnic minority ground is
consideration, like family life. The question
is how to equip people so they can enjoy                                                       least well developed. She sees the removal
equal opportunities?’                                                                          of discrimination against ethnic minorities
                                                                                               as an issue of major importance for Europe.
                                                                                               There is major scope for action in
A FAIR AND JUST EUROPE                                                                         supporting ethnic minorities and improving
Asked why we have to strive for equal                                                          their working conditions, she says.
opportunities, she responds: ‘The EU is
striving to be a fair and just community. If                                                   ‘Some trade unions and organisations need
you’re in favour of a fair and just society                                                    to change their culture to be more
you have to provide equal opportunities.’                                                      accepting of a diverse workforce.

She contrasts what she calls the                                                               The fact that people are discriminated
conservative/neoliberal approach that                                                          against on the grounds of their sexual
everyone should have the same opportunity                                                      orientation is often forgotten. It’s still an
with what she sees as the social democratic                                                    area of taboo,’ she maintains. ‘The issue
or socialist approach and answers her own                                                      needs to be put on the agenda, awareness
opening question: ‘People don’t have the                                                       needs to be raised, ETUC needs to bring
same starting positions.’                                                                      things into the open. Again, some trade
                                                                                               unions and members still need to realise
                                                                                               that it’s an issue to address.’
                                                Catelene Passchier – Confederal Secretary
                                                of ETUC (European Trade Union                  A DRIVING FORCE FOR EQUAL
Ms Passchier sees flexibility and equal
                                                Confederation) since May 2003. Catelene        OPPORTUNITIES
opportunities as interlinked. ‘Everyone
                                                Passchier was born in the Netherlands. She     ‘Trade unions constitute an important
needs flexibility. Workers need to reconcile
                                                trained and worked as a lawyer and barrister   driving force for equal treatment and equal
work and family life. Women find it harder
                                                before becoming legal adviser to the           opportunities for workers – not just this
to reconcile mainstream work and family life
                                                Netherlands trade union confederation FNV      year,’ she emphasises. The social partners
– they pay with precarious working
                                                in 1988. Catelene Passchier’s current areas    play an important role in the formulation of
conditions.’ Meanwhile, men lose out by
                                                of responsibilities in ETUC include gender     collective agreements, which she sees as
having less opportunity to enjoy family life.
                                                equality and anti-discrimination, migration    more just and more effective than when
It is not enough to look at equal               and integration as well as policy and          individual workers need to fight for
opportunities on the individual level, she      legislation.                                   themselves.


Successful integration                                                                             concerning good practice, and scientific
                                                                                                   backup to evaluate the success of
                                                                                                   implemented policies and to recommend

means equal access and                                                                             new approaches. CLIP provides this.

                                                                                                   The network operates in a modular way. In
                                                                                                   each module, one specific issue relevant to
                                                                                                   the integration of migrants on the local
To support the social and economic integration and                                                 level will be discussed. The first two
                                                                                                   modules already taken up by the network
full participation of migrants in European cities,                                                 are the access to, and quality and
                                                                                                   affordability of housing for migrants as well
the Foundation launched the Network of Cities for                                                  as the effects of spatial segregation and
                                                                                                   diversity policy in cities. This consists in
Local Integration Policies (CLIP) in spring 2006.                                                  particular of looking at how social services
                                                                                                   are provided and at the internal personnel
               obility is being encouraged                                                         policy of cities, including access to

M              in the European Union to
               enhance economic growth
               and productivity. But
increasing numbers of workers migrating
within and from outside the European Union
                                                                                                   employment for migrants and anti-
                                                                                                   discrimination policies.

                                                                                                   Other topics may include:

                                                                                                   •   inter-cultural and inter-religious
have confronted national and local
policymakers with a challenge: what
supporting policies need to be implemented                                                         •   supporting entrepreneurship of
to make migration and integration                                                                      migrants;
                                                                                                   •   support for education for migrants from
European cities and, in particular, major                                                              crèche and pre-school to third level
cities with strong economies, attract                                                                  education;
immigrants from all over the world. These
cities already possess a rich experience of                                                        •   access and quality of health care for
how to integrate a highly heterogeneous                                                                migrants;
and culturally diverse population into the
local community. They are also centres of                                                          •   cultural integration policies (language,
competence in developing and                                                                           religion, culture of country of origin,
implementing strategies for integration and                                                            sports);
improved participation of immigrants and
                                                                                                   •   promotion of civic and political
ethnic minorities.
                                                                                                       participation of migrants;
                                                  The CLIP network brings together more than
However, migrants are also often at risk of                                                        •   situation of undocumented migrants;
                                                  25 large European cities in a joint learning
suffering from social exclusion. A number of
                                                  process which will extend over several years.
factors contribute to this: precarious job                                                         •   private security and violence in the
                                                  It aims to support the social and economic
structures, barriers to obtaining recognised                                                           community;
                                                  integration and full participation of
qualifications, insufficient education, lack of
                                                  migrants, and to combat social inequalities
language skills and large differences in                                                           •   local labour market policies including
                                                  and discrimination against migrants, not
cultural and social practices between the                                                              training and re-training for migrants
                                                  only in the labour market but in all key
country of origin and the receiving
                                                  aspects of life. This includes providing equal
                                                  access to schooling, housing, health and         CITIES PARTICIPATING IN THE CLIP
                                                  social services and creating conditions          NETWORK
It is the cities and municipalities that pay
                                                  leading to peaceful coexistence between          Amsterdam, Antwerp, Arnsberg, Athens,
the price for failing integration processes
                                                  migrants and the native population as well       Deputación de Barcelona, Bratislava, Breda,
and social exclusion – even though they are
                                                  as helping migrants to preserve their own        Brescia, Bucharest, Budapest, Copenhagen,
not in the position to regulate immigration
                                                  cultural identity.                               Dublin, Frankfurt am Main, Istanbul, Izmir,
flows themselves and despite the fact that
                                                                                                   Liège, Lisbon, Luxembourg, Marseille,
they depend on national and federal               Many cities have come up with innovative         Prague, Paris, Sefton, Stuttgart, Terrassa,
legislation in all immigration-related issues.    and working solutions for the problems they      Turku, Vienna, Wolverhampton, Zagreb
For this reason, cities and municipalities        face but they have lacked a forum that
have a genuine interest in successful local       allows for continuous exchange, especially
integration practices.                                                                                                             Hubert Krieger

                                           FURTHER READING
European Commission (2006) A Roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010,
   Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
European Commission (2006), Employment in Europe 2006, Luxembourg: Office for Official
   Publications of the European Communities
European Commission (2006), Equality and non-discrimination: annual report 2006, Luxembourg:
   Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
European Commission (2006), Gender inequalities in the risks of poverty and social exclusion for
   disadvantaged groups in thirty European countries, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of
   the European Communities
European Commission (2006), The gender pay gap: origins and policy responses, Luxembourg: Office
   for Official Publications of the European Communities
European Commission (2007), Report on equality between women and men 2007, Luxembourg:
   Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
ETUC, CEEP,UNICE,UEAPME (2006), Framework of actions on gender equality: first follow-up report,
ETUI-REHS (2007), Benchmarking Working Europe 2007
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Employment and
   disability: Back to work strategies, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,
   Luxembourg, 2004
European Foundation (2005), Equal opportunities for women and men in services of general interest,
   Foundation paper no. 6, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European
   Communities, http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef04128.htm
European Foundation (2006), Employment guidance services for people with disabilities,
   Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,
European Foundation (2006), Gender mainstreaming in surveys, EWCO report,
European Foundation (2006), The gender pay gap, background paper,
European Foundation (2006), Pay developments – 2005, EIROline,
European Foundation (2006), Working time and worklife balance in European companies,
   Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,
European Foundation (2007), Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, Luxembourg: Office for
   Official Publications of the European Communities,
European Foundation (2007), Local integration policies for migrants in Europe, Luxembourg: Office
   for Official Publications of the European Communities,
European Foundation (2007), Parental leave in European companies, Luxembourg: Office for Official
   Publications of the European Communities,
European Foundation (2007), Varieties of flexicurity: reflections on key elements of flexibility and
   security, Background paper, http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0721.htm
Fagan, C., Grimshaw, D, and Rubery, J. (2006), The subordination of the gender equality objective:
   the National Reform Programmes and ‘making work pay’ policies’ Industrial Relations Journal,
   37(6), 571-592.
Heery, Edmond (2006), Equality bargaining: where, who, where?, Gender, work and organization,
   13(6), 522-542.
Lewis, J. (2006), Work/family reconciliation, equal opportunities and social policies: the
   interpretation of policy trajectories at the EU level and the meaning of gender equality, Journal
   of European Public Policy, 13(3), 420-437.
OECD (2006), Employment outlook 2006: Boosting Jobs and Incomes.
OECD (2007), Women and men in OECD countries,
O’Reilly, J. (2006), Framing comparisons: gendering perspectives on cross-national comparative
   research on work and welfare, Work, employment and society, 20(4), 731-750.
Pariteia (2007), Promoting gender equality in active European citizenship: Final report,
Rubery, J. (2005), Reflections on gender mainstreaming: An example of feminist economics in
   action, Feminist Economics, 11(3), 1-26.
Walby, S. (2007), Gender (in)equality and the future of work, London, Equal Opportunities
   Commission, http://www.eoc.org.uk/PDF/WP55_Gender_(in)equality.pdf


     The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions is a
     tripartite EU body, whose role is to provide key actors in social policymaking with
     findings, knowledge and advice drawn from comparative research. The Foundation was
     established in 1975 by Council Regulation EEC No. 1365/75 of 26 May 1975.

                                                                                           ISSN 1725-6763

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