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					Airplane Single Engine - Land
FAA Practical Test Standard
         May 1995


 Annotated for Cessna - 150


       John M. Price
      August 23, 2010
      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

INTRODUCTION
  These study notes for the FAA Airplane - Single Engine,
  Land Practical Test are based on the May 1995 test
  standard, which was subsequently withdrawn. Therefore,
  there may be some discrepancies between the information
  provided here and the actual test requirements.
  The study notes are derived from a number of sources,
  including:
             The Flight Training Handbook (AC 61-21A)
             Gleim’s Private Pilot Handbook (4th Edition)
             The 1976 Cessna 150M POH.
             FARs
             AIM
             A 1988 set of King video tapes on the practical
              test.
             ASA’s Private Oral Exam Guide (ASA-OEG-P)
             TAB’s Pilot’s Guide to Weather Reports,
              Forecasts & Flight Planning.
  These notes were put together in the pre TAF/METAR days,
  so there is not a lot of information regarding them.
  The Author makes no claims that everything presented in
  here is 100% accurate. In some cases, the information given
  represents personal flying habits that he has developed as a
  result of his own training. These may or may not be entirely
  appropriate for everyone.
  The Author welcomes any comments or additional input, as
  he would like to continue to update these notes.




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                                                                                           A high performance airplane; i.e. a plane
I.     AREA OF OPERATION: PREFLIGHT PREPARATION                                             with more than 200 HP or one with flaps,
A.     TASK: CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS                                                     retractable gear and a controllable prop.
                                                                                           A tail wheel airplane.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                         A high altitude airplane (service ceiling
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to certificates                          >25,000 MSL.
        and documents by explaining the appropriate:                                   Private pilots must have biennial flight review.
         a. Pilot certificate, privileges and limitations.
                                                                                       Private pilot cannot be compensated or fly for
                    Reference: FAR 61.118                                              hire, although expenses may be shared with
                    Pilot must have pilot certificate and medical                      passengers.
                     certificate on his/her person when flying.                        A private pilot who is an aircraft salesman may
                    Qualifications for PPL                                             demonstrate airplanes provided he or she has
                                                                                        logged more than 200 hours.
                      17 Years old
                      Read, speak and understand English                              A private pilot may fly for charitable
                      3rd class medical certificate                                    organizations, provided he/she has logged more
                      FAA Written test                                                 than 200 hours, and the plane is certified in the
                      Oral & Flight test                                               standard category and complies with the 100
                                                                                        hour inspection requirements.
                      A private pilot can carry passengers, provided
                                                                               b. Medical certificate, class and duration.
                       the currency requirements are met.
                                                                                       Reference: FAR 67.
                          The pilot must have performed three
                                                                                       A private pilot must have at least a 3rd class
                           takeoffs and landings within the past 90                     medical certificate.
                           days.                                                       The 3rd class medical certificate is valid until the
                          If passengers are to be carried in a                         end of the 24th month after its date of issue.
                           tail-wheel plane, those takeoffs and                        A 1st or 2nd class medical is also valid for
                           landings must have been in a tail-wheel                      private pilot privileges until the end of the 24th
                                                                                        month after its date of issue.
                           plane and must have been to a full stop.
                                                                               c.   Pilot logbook or flight record, required entries
                          To carry passengers at night (1 hour after                  Reference: FAR 61.51.
                           sunset to 1 hour before sunrise), those
                                                                                       Pilot must record: date, duration of flight,
                           takeoffs and landings must have been                         departure point, intermediate stops, destination,
                           made at night and to a full stop.                            type and identification of aircraft.
                      Additional training and a logbook endorsement                   Pilot must record the type of experience or
                                                                                        training, such as pilot in command, 2nd in
                       by a qualified instructor are required to fly:
                                                                                        command, instruction received, cross country,



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               night, etc.                                                     This is covered elsewhere, but it is important to
              Log must include entries for such requirements                   know that if the airplane’s CG is aft of limits stall
               as biennial reviews and endorsements for                         recovery may be difficult or impossible, and if the
               complex or high performance airplanes.                           CG is too far forward, it may be difficult to pitch
                                                                                the nose up for takeoff/climb or landing flare.
  2. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to certificates
     and documents by locating and explaining the:                       d. Airworthiness directives and compliance records,
                                                                            maintenance requirements, tests, and appropriate
      a. Airworthiness and registration certificates                        records.
              Reference: FAR 91.203.                                          Airworthiness directives may require alterations
              The airworthiness certificate is issued by the                   to the plane, or place additional maintenance
               FAA at the time of manufacture of the aircraft                   requirements on it.
               and remains valid as long as the aircraft is                    Must be complied with and recorded in the
               maintained in accordance with regulations and                    aircraft maintenance logs.
               modifications required by airworthiness
               directives are performed appropriately.                         Many instruments such as the altimeter and
                                                                                transponder require periodic calibrations.
              The airworthiness certificate is required to be                   Transponder: 24 months
               posted in the aircraft where it is visible to                     Altimeter/static system: 24 months.
               passengers and crew.
                                                                                 ELT Batteries: Yearly
              The registration identifies the owner of the
                                                                               ELT batteries must be replaced after 1 hour of
               airplane.
                                                                                operation or after 50% of their shelf life.
      b. Operating limitation, placards, instrument markings,
                                                                               Rental aircraft require 100 hour inspections and
         handbooks and manuals.
                                                                                annual inspections.
              Operating limits can be found in the POH and on
                                                                               After maintenance is performed a return to
               various placards mounted in the cockpit.
                                                                                service sign-off is required.
              Some limitations can be found on the
                                                                               Maintenance records do not have to be in the
               instruments, such as the markings on the
                                                                                airplane.
               airspeed indicator.
                                                                         e. Radio station and radio operator licenses
      c.   Weight and balance data, including the equipment
           list.                                                               These aren’t specifically listed in the PTS, but if
                                                                                the airplane is radio equipped, it must have a
              The POH provides the basic equipment list for
                                                                                valid radio station license.
               the aircraft, including such standard items as
               motor, propeller, wheels, etc.                                  The radio station license has to cover all the
                                                                                radios in the plane:
              Information specific to the airplane, including
               optional or additional equipment is stored in the                 Communications radios
               plane. This document also provides the empty                      Transponder
               weight, moment and CG of that specific airplane.                  DME




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               Radio operator licenses are no longer required.                      mountain obscuration, IFR conditions (ceilings
                                                                                     and/or visibility), etc.
B.    TASK: WEATHER INFORMATION                                             c.   Wind shear reports
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                  Wind shear can occur at any altitude and in any
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to weather                        direction.
        information by analyzing weather reports and forecasts
                                                                                    Wind shear is an abrupt change in wind speed or
        from various sources with emphasis on:
                                                                                     direction (horizontally or vertically).
        a. PIREPs
                                                                                    Particularly hazardous is low level wind shear
               UA is normal pilot report; UUA is urgent pilot                       (LLWS) or microbursts because of the possibility
                report                                                               of occurrence during takeoff/climbout or
               Report contains:                                                     approach where the airplane is being flown
                                                                                     closer to the stall speed and close to the ground.
                /OV             Location (navaid, route, radial,                      Downdraft - Less than 720 FPM
                                etc.)                                                 Downburst - Greater than 720 FPM;
                                                                                         covering and area greater than 3 miles in
                /TM     Time of report in GMT                                            diameter.
                /FL     Flight level (hundreds of feet)                               Microburst - Greater than 720 FPM; covering
                                                                                         an area less than 3 miles in diameter.
                /TP     Aircraft type                                       d. The PTS does not specifically mention any of the
                /SK     Ceilings and tops (MSL)                                more general types of weather reports, however the
                                                                               following information is important:
                /WX     Visibility and other weather                                In all reports from the FSS or NWS:
                                                                                      Visibilities are given in statute miles
                /TA     Temperature at altitude (Celsius)
                                                                                      Cloud heights in feet AGL
                /WV     Wind direction and speed                                      Wind direction in true degrees
                                                                                      Wind speed in knots
                /TB     Turbulence
                                                                                    FA - Area forecasts
                /IC     Icing conditions                                              Issued three times daily for large sections of
                                                                                         the country.
                /RM     Remarks                                                       Valid for 12 hours with 6 hour outlook.
        b. SIGMETs and AIRMETs                                                        Provides information about:

               SIGMETs warn of conditions hazardous to all                                  Hazards and flight precautions
                aircraft, such as heavy or severe turbulence,                                Synopsis
                CAT, severe icing, etc.                                                      Icing
               AIRMETS warn of conditions hazardous to small                                Turbulence and LLWS
                aircraft, such as moderate turbulence or icing,



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                    Significant clouds and weather                                    or airport closures.
                                                                                     Navaids out of service.
           METAR - Current surface observations (might
                                                                                     Temporary prohibited areas.
            be automated)
                                                                                     Obstacles not shown on charts.
             Issued hourly
             Provide information on conditions at the                           General meteorological conditions:
                reporting location.                                                LIFR (Low IFR): ceilings less than 500 ft.
                                                                                     and/ or visibility less than 1 mile.
           TAF - Terminal aerodrome forecasts
                                                                                   IFR: ceilings less than 1,000 ft. and/or
             Issued three times/day
                                                                                     visibility less than 3 miles.
             Valid for 24 hours
                                                                                   MVFR (Minimum VFR): ceilings less than
             Predict conditions within 5 miles of the                               3,000 ft. and /or visibility less than 5 miles.
               airport.
                                                                                   VFR: ceilings greater than 3,000 ft. and
           WA - Winds aloft                                                         visibility greater than 5 miles.
             Issued twice daily                                      2. Makes a competent “go/no-go” decision based on
             Provide info on wind direction (true) and                  available weather information.
               velocity (knots)
             Provide temperatures at altitudes                  C.     TASK: CROSS COUNTRY FLIGHT PLANNING
             Useful for predicting:
                                                                        Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                    Possible shear conditions                         1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to cross
                    Possible icing conditions                            country flight planning by presenting and explaining a
                    Atmospheric stability                                preplanned VFR cross-country flight plan near the
                                                                         maximum range of the airplane, as previously assigned
           Radar summaries                                              by the examiner. The final flight plan shall include
             Readings taken hourly and transmitted 17                   real-time weather to the first fuel stop, with maximum
               times/day.                                                allowable passenger and baggage loads.
             Indicate radar echoes from water drops or
                                                                                 I assume this means about 250 miles for the
               ice.
                                                                                  C-150, and that would also be the first planned
           Prognostic charts                                                     fuel stop.
             Provide 12 & 24 hour forecasts of significant           2. Uses appropriate, current aeronautical charts.
               weather.
             Useful for general flight planning.                                Sectionals and Terminal Area charts are
                                                                                  appropriate.
           Depicition charts
             Issued every three hours                                           Make sure the ones you bring are current.
             Shows cloud cover, visibility and ceilings.             3. Plots a course for the intended route of flight.
           NOTAMS                                                               Draw the course lines on the maps and mark the
             Notices to Airmen                                                   checkpoints.
             Provide information about things like runway                         Plan for navigation by pilotage, ded



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                  reckoning or using navaids.                                     Magnetic heading = true heading ± magnetic
                 If plan is done relying too much on electronic                   variation (west variation is positive, and what we
                  navigation, examiner might declare the                           find on the east coast).
                  devices inoperable forcing you to rely on                       Make sure to account for the aircraft’s compass
                  pilotage and ded reckoning.                                      deviations, if any.
  4. Identifies airspace, obstructions and terrain features.
                                                                                  Make sure to add 0.8 gallons of fuel used for
             Make sure you know what types of airspace                            start up, taxi and run-up as indicated in C-150
              you’ll be traversing (i.e., Class A-G); alert areas;                 POH.
              warning areas; restricted areas; MOAs; military
                                                                                  Use climb performance chart in the POH to
              training routes.
                                                                                   determine times, distances and fuel
  5. Selects easily identifiable en-route checkpoints.                             consumption during climb. Note that the climb
             Good checkpoints include such things as:                             charts are based on little or no wind. In high wind
               Airports                                                           conditions, climb time is accurate, but distances
               Large lakes                                                        are significantly affected. In such conditions, use
                                                                                   times from chart, compute ground speed and
               Major crossroads
                                                                                   use that to predict climb distance.
               Quarries
               Easily identified bends in rivers/roads                           In my training we always figured 6 gallons/hour
                                                                                   for the C-150s, regardless of the information
             Such things as radio towers and water tanks are                      provided in the cruise performance charts in the
              useful in course plotting, but are sometimes                         POH, and that proved to be reasonably close
              difficult to identify well enough to be used as                      based on experience. It’s better to be
              good checkpoints.                                                    conservative when estimating fuel consumption.
  6. Selects the most favorable altitudes, considering weather         8. Selects appropriate navigation systems/facilities and
     conditions and equipment capabilities.                               communications frequencies.
             Altitude must be above minimum safe altitude for                    Use of VORs and NDBs is allowed, however
              the area and below any ceiling consistent with                       some examiners prefer you plan the whole trip
              the rules for the airspace.                                          using pilotage. Make sure to list frequencies and
             Maximum height numbers on the charts for each                        identification codes on the navigation log.
              quadrangle indicate height of highest natural                       Have concise list of ATC facilities that can
              terrain plus 100 ft. or highest man made                             provide radar service along the route.
              obstacle plus 300 ft., rounded up.
                                                                                  Have list of FSS outlets and frequencies along
             Over congested areas, minimum altitude is                            the route.
              1,000 feet above highest obstacle within 2,000
              feet.                                                    9. Confirms availability of alternate airports.
             Try to select altitudes that will afford the most                   Have list of airports along or near the planned
              benefit of tail winds or least effect of head winds.                 route that have sufficient runway for operations
                                                                                   and list runway info and communication
  7. Computes headings, flight time, and fuel requirements.                        frequencies.


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  10. Extracts and records pertinent information from                                Aircraft colors
      NOTAMs, the Airport/Facility Directory, and other flight
      publications.                                               D.    TASK: NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM
             Make sure you get NOTAMs for all airports                  Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits
              designated as alternates.                                             knowledge of the elements related to the
                                                                                    National Airspace System by explaining:
             Check NOTAMS for such things as parachute
              jump activity or air shows along the route.              1. Basic VFR weather minimums - for all classes of
                                                                          airspace.
             Have consolidated list of information about
              airports to be used as planned stops and                           Reference: FAR 91.155
              alternates, including:                                             Class A
               Runways available                                                  Not applicable, VFR not allowed.
               Runway lengths
               Runway restrictions (displaced thresholds,                       Class B
                   lighting, obstacles, etc.)                                      3 Statute Miles
               Communications frequencies.                                        Clear of clouds
  11. Completes a navigation log and simulates filing a VFR                      Class C and D
      flight plan.                                                                 3 Statute miles
                                                                                   1,000 ft. above; 500 ft. below; 2,000 ft.
             Flight plan information:                                                horizontal.
               Type (VFR/IFR)
               Aircraft identification                                          Class E below 10,000 ft. MSL
               Aircraft type and special equipment                                3 Statute miles
                  (C150/equipment designator)                                      1,000 ft. above; 500 ft. below; 2,000 ft.
               True Airspeed                                                         horizontal.
               Departure point                                                  Class E at or above 10,000 ft. MSL
               Proposed departure time                                            5 Statute miles
               (Initial) cruising altitude                                        1,000 ft. above; 1,000 ft. below; 1 statute
               Route of flight (navaids, airports,                                   mile horizontal.
                  intersections)                                                 Class G below 1,200 AGL (regardless of MSL)
               Destination (Airport and city)                                    Day
               Estimated time en route                                            1 statute mile
               Fuel on board (in hours and minutes)                               Clear of clouds
               Alternate airports (optional on VFR flight
                  plans, but not a bad idea)                                     Class G below 1,200 AGL (regardless of MSL)
               Pilot’s name address and telephone. On file                       Night
                  at home airport and the number is usually                        3 statute miles
                  sufficient.                                                      1,000 ft. above; 500 ft. below; 2,000 ft.
               Number of people on board.                                            horizontal.




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             Class G above 1,200 AGL below 10,000 MSL                            Speed limit 250 Knots (200 Knots underflying the
              Day                                                                  airspace or in a VFR corridor through it).
               1 statute mile                                                    VFR minimums: 3 miles visibility, clear of clouds.
               1,000 ft. above; 500 ft. below; 2,000 ft.
                  horizontal.                                             c.   Class C.

             Class G above 1,200 AGL below 10,000 MSL                            Need private pilot or student certificate.
              Night                                                               Must establish 2 way communication prior to
               3 statute miles                                                    entry (i.e. controller responds with your call sign).
               1,000 ft. above; 500 ft. below; 2,000 ft.                         Aircraft needs 2-way radio and mode C
                  horizontal.                                                      transponder.
             Class G above 1,200 AGL and above 10,000                            Depicted on the charts as solid magenta circles.
              MSL
               3 Statute miles                                                   Extends from surface to 4,000 AGL in 2 steps (5
               1,000 ft. above; 1,000 ft. below; 1 statute                        NM and 10 NM).
                  mile horizontal.                                                Speed limit 250 Knots (200 below 2,500 ft. and
  2. Airspace classes - their boundaries, pilot certification,                     within 4 NM of the primary airport).
     and airplane equipment requirements for the following:                       VFR minimums: 3 miles visibility, 1,000 ft.
      a. Class A.                                                                  above, 500 ft. below and 2,000 ft. horizontally
                                                                                   from clouds.
             Everything above 18,000 ft. up to FL600.
                                                                                  Aircraft departing from satellite airports must
             VFR not allowed in class A.                                          contact the primary control tower as soon as
             Pilot must have instrument rating.                                   practical after taking off.
             Plane must be instrument certified.                         d. Class D.
             Requires radio, mode C transponder.                                 Need private or student pilot certificate.
      b. Class B.                                                                 Must establish 2 way communication prior to
                                                                                   entry (i.e. controller responds with your call sign).
             Need private pilot certificate (students ok if
              trained in class B and have instructor                              Aircraft needs 2-way radio. No transponder
              endorsement).                                                        requirement.
             Need ATC clearance to enter.                                        Depicted on charts as blue segmented line.
             Aircraft needs 2-way radio and mode C                               Extends from the surface to 2,500 ft. AGL, 4 NM
              transponder. Needs VOR if flying under IFR.                          radius of the airport.
             Extends from the surface to 10,000 ft. AGL in                       Speed limit 250 Knots (200 below 2,500 ft. and
              steps up to 20 NM from the airport.                                  within 4 NM of the primary airport).
             Has 30 NM mode C veil.                                              VFR minimums: 3 miles visibility, 1,000 ft.
                                                                                   above, 500 ft. below and 2,000 ft. horizontally
             Depicted as solid blue circles on the charts.


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               from clouds.                                                          horizontally from clouds.
              Aircraft departing from satellite airports must                      From 1,200 AGL to 10,000 MSL - Day: 1
               contact the primary control tower as soon as                          mile visibility; 1,000 ft. above, 500 ft. below
               practical after taking off.                                           and 2,000 ft. horizontally from clouds.
                                                                                    From 1,200 AGL to 10,000MSL - Night: 3
      e. Class E.                                                                    miles visibility; 1,000 ft. above, 500 ft. below
              Can be student, recreational or private pilot.                        and 2,000 ft. horizontally from clouds.
              Surface areas for some uncontrolled airports                         Above 1,200 AGL and above 10,000 MSL: 3
                                                                                     miles visibility; 1,000 ft. above and below
              Transition zones from terminal environment to                         clouds. 1 mile horizontally from clouds.
               en-route environment.
                                                                      3. Special use airspace and other airspace areas.
              Extensions to class B, C or D airspaces to
                                                                                Prohibited area:
               accommodate instrument procedures.
                                                                                  Defined laterally and vertically.
              Federal airways.                                                   No flight permitted.
              Everything from 14,500 MSL to 18,000 MSL and                       Established for national security reasons
               above FL600.                                                       May be established temporally and
              Speed limit: 250 knots below 10,000                                  published as NOTAMs.

              VFR Minimums:                                                    Restricted area:
                Above 10,000 MSL: 5 miles visibility, 1,000                      Defined laterally and vertically.
                  ft. above and below clouds, one mile                            May be restricted only during certain times.
                  horizontally.                                                   See edge of chart for complete info.
                Below 10,000 MSL: 3 miles visibility, 1,000                      Must have permission of controlling authority
                  ft. above, 500 ft. below 2,000 ft. horizontally                   to enter.
                  from clouds.                                                    Activities in the area are hazardous to
                                                                                    aircraft.
      f.   Class G.
                                                                                Warning Area:
              Anything not designated class A, B, C, D or E
                                                                                  Like restricted areas, but since they are over
               airspace. Basically uncontrolled.
                                                                                    international waters, can’t be designated as
              Can be student, recreational or private pilot.                       such.
              No radio or transponder requirements (except in                  MOA (Military Operations Area)
               30 NM mode C veil around a class B).                               Defined laterally and vertically.
              Speed limit: 250 Knots below 10,000 ft.                            Permission to enter not required
                                                                                  Heavy volume of military training flights
              VFR minimums:
                                                                                  Contact FSS for information on activity.
                Below 1,200 ft. AGL - Day: 1 mile visibility;
                  clear of clouds.                                              Alert Area:
                Below 1,200 ft. AGL - Night: 3 mile visibility;                  Defined laterally and vertically.
                  1,000 ft. below, 500 ft. above and 2,000 ft.                    High volume of military training.



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               Be particularly alert in these areas.               E.     TASK: PERFORMANCE AND LIMITATIONS
           Controlled Firing Area                                         Objective: To determine that the applicant:
             Not charted                                                1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to
             Permission to enter not required                              performance and limitations by explaining the use of
             Activities such as artillery firing                           charts, tables and data, if available from the
             Activities are supposed to be suspended by                    manufacturer, to determine performance, including
               observer/spotter when aircraft enters the                    takeoff, climb, cruise, range, and endurance, and the
               area.                                                        adverse effects of exceeding limitations.
           Military training routes:                                               POH contains performance charts for:
             Gray lines on the charts                                                Runway requirements for takeoff and
             IR - IFR Training route; VR - VFR training                                landing
                 route.                                                               Climb time, distance and fuel consumption
             4 digit ident - low altitude (below 1,500 ft.                           Cruise performance at various throttle
                 AGL).                                                                  settings and atmospheric conditions.
             3 digit ident - high altitude ( have one or                           Exceeding limitations might mean trying to
                 more segments above 1,500 ft. AGL).                                 takeoff or land with insufficient runway length.
             2 digit ident - high or low is possible.
             Contact FSS within 100 NM of crossing for                             Exceeding endurance or range could result in
                 info on activity.                                                   running out of fuel.
           Airport Advisory Area:                                                  Basic Aerodynamics:
             Area within 10 NM of a non-towered airport                              Lift, Weight, Thrust and Drag.
                with an operating FSS.                                                Equilibrium conditions
                                                                                      Airfoil - device which produces lift as a result
           TRSA (Terminal Radar Service Area):                                         of air movement over its surface.
             Depicted on charts with a solid black line.                             Angle of incidence - Angle between wing
             Provides radar services to participating pilots                           chord and aircraft’s longitudinal axis.
               in the vicinity of class D airports.                                   Angle of attack - Angle between wing chord
             Participation is not required, but                                        and the apparent wind.
               recommended.                                                           Left turning forces:
           Hazardous Area Reporting Service                                                 Engine torque
             Available over the Great Lakes, Long Island
               Sound, Appalachian Mountains and the                                          P factor (Canoe effect)
               Everglades.                                                                   Gyroscopic precession
             Pilot contacts appropriate FSS every 10
                                                                                             Prop wash
               minutes.
                                                                                        Airplane categories:
             If contact is lost for more than 15 minutes an
               immediate SAR effort is initiated.                                            Normal: Load factor from +3.8 to -1.52
                                                                                             Utility: Load factor from +4.4 to - 1.76



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      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                      Aerobatic: Load factor from + 6.0 to -3.0                   Use weight and balance charts in the POH to
                 Adverse yaw - caused by additional drag of                       determine if the plane is within limits throughout
                  lowered aileron (raised wing).                                   the flight. This means calculate the weight and
                 Stall caused by exceeding critical angle of                      balance with the amount of fuel on board at
                  attack.                                                          departure and upon arrival at the destination.
                 Ground effect:                                                  If CG is too far aft stall recovery is difficult or
                       Less than one wingspan above the                            impossible. Plane becomes more unstable due
                                                                                   to increased distance between center of lift and
                       surface                                                     center of gravity.
                       Reduced drag                                               if CG is too far forward it will be difficult to pitch
                       Can fly in ground effect at speeds                          the nose up for takeoff/climb or landing flare.
                       unsafe for flight.                                          Plane becomes excessively stable due to
                                                                                   reduced distance between center of lift and
  2. Computes weight and balance, including adding,                                center of gravity.
     removing, and shifting weight. Determines if the weight
     and center of gravity will remain within limits during all                   Weight x Arm = Moment
     phases of flight.                                                  3. Describes the effects of atmospheric conditions on the
             Definitions:                                                 airplane’s performance.
               Empty Weight - Everything that’s                                  High temperature, high density altitude and high
                  permanently installed, unusable fuel and                         humidity all degrade the airplane’s performance
                  undrainable oil.                                                 in all phases of flight.
               Gross Weight - Maximum allowable weight
                                                                                  Changes in pressure and temperature during the
                  for the plane and its contents; 1,600 pounds
                                                                                   flight affect the altimeter accuracy, so one has to
                  for the C-150.
                                                                                   calibrate it periodically based on the altimeter
               Useful Load - Weight of pilots, passengers,                        reading of an airport within 100 miles along the
                  baggage, fuel and oil that can be carried.                       route of flight.
               Datum - Manufacturer specified point along
                  the longitudinal axis from which all moments                    When going from an area of high pressure to an
                  are referenced.                                                  area of low pressure the altimeter will read
                                                                                   higher than actual altitude.
             Overweight condition could cause:
               Excessive takeoff distance                                        When going from an area of low temperature to
               Structural damage in flight.                                       an area of higher temperature the altimeter will
                                                                                   read higher than real altitude.
               Reduced climb rate.
               Reduced Range                                           4. Determines whether the computed performance is within
               Increased fuel consumption                                 the airplane’s capabilities and operating limitations.
               Increased landing distance.
                                                                   F.    TASK: OPERATION OF SYSTEMS
               Higher stall speed
               Reduced controllability/maneuverability.                  Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits
                                                                                     knowledge of the elements related to the


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      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                operation of systems on the airplane provided                          Throttle controls amount of fuel air mixture
                for the flight test by explaining at least three of                     through the carburetor.
                the following:                                                         Mixture adjusts the ratio of fuel to air
  1. Primary flight controls and trim                                                   entering the carburetor.
                                                                                       Carburetor heat preheats air entering the
             Primary flight controls are elevator, rudder and                          carburetor and is used to prevent or remove
              ailerons.                                                                 ice in the venturi. Note that the use of
               Elevator controls pitch attitude; i.e., rotation                        carburetor heat richens the mixture because
                   about horizontal axis.                                               fewer air molecules are being taken in due
               Rudder controls yaw; i.e., rotation about                               to the air being hotter.
                   vertical axis.                                                      Primer - used for cold starting.
               Ailerons control bank; i.e., rotation about
                   longitudinal axis                                    4. Propeller.

             Trim controls are used to eliminate control                          Provides thrust.
              pressure. The C-150 has a rudder trim tab which                      Constant pitch prop is used on the C-150. The
              cannot be adjusted in flight, and elevator trim                       amount of pitch is a compromise between the
              which can be adjusted in flight.                                      pitch angles that would provide optimum climb
             Plane turns because banking causes a                                  and optimum cruise performance.
              horizontal lift component. Rudder is used to              5. Landing gear.
              counteract the adverse yaw caused by the                             Fixed (i.e., non-retractable)
              additional drag of the lowered aileron.
                                                                                   Steerable nose wheel with centering cam
             When the ball is deflected toward the inside of
              the turn, the plane is slipping into the inside of        6. Fuel, oil, and hydraulic systems.
              the turn.                                                            C-150 caries a total of 22.5 gallons of usable fuel
             When the ball is to the outside the plane is                          (plus 3.5 gallons unusable) in two wing tanks.
              skidding to the outside of the turn.                                 Fuel flows equally from both tanks through fuel
  2. Flaps, leading edge devices, and spoilers.                                     cutoff valve to carburetor. (no tank switching
                                                                                    capability)
             Flaps allow a greater rate of descent without an
              increase in airspeed.                                                C-150 holds maximum of 6 quarts of oil. A
                                                                                    minimum of 4 quarts is required for operation.
             Flaps add lift and drag.
                                                                                   Only hydraulics are in the braking system.
             Extending the flaps lowers the stall speed.
                                                                        7. Electrical system.
  3. Powerplant.
                                                                                   Alternator provides battery charge.
             C-150 has Teledyne Continental 0-200A; rated
              at 100 BHP at 2750 RPM.                                              Battery and alternator power most instruments,
                                                                                    radio equipment, lights and starter motor.
             Turns the propeller and the alternator.
                                                                                   Engine ignition is handled by dual magnetos,
             Controls include:


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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                        C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                 which provide self-sustaining operation once                          Altimeter
                 started.                                                              Magnetic direction indicator (compass)
     8. Pitot-static system, vacuum/pressure system and                                Tachometer for each engine
        associated flight instruments.                                                 Oil pressure/temperature gauges for each
                                                                                        engine.
                Pitot-static system is used for the altimeter, the
                                                                                       Fuel gauge for each tank
                 rate of climb indicator, and the airspeed
                 indicator.                                                            Landing gear position indicator if retractable
                                                                                        gear.
                Vacuum system is used for the attitude indicator                      Approved floatation devices for over water
                 and heading indicator to run the gyros in them.                        operations
      9. Environmental system.                                                         Seat belts for each occupant. Shoulder
                                                                                        harnesses for crew members.
                Wing vents, cabin air vent and heat/defrost.                          ELT
     10. Deicing and anti-icing systems.                                           For VFR night operation, all of the above, plus:
                Carburetor heat for carburetor icing.                               Approved position lights
                                                                                     White or red anticollision light
                Cabin heat/defroster might prevent ice build up                     Landing light (if aircraft is operated for hire)
                 on windshield, but is probably not enough to                        Adequate source of electricity for installed
                 remove ice.                                                            electrical and radio equipment.
                Pitot heat is available.                                            3 spare fuses of each type used, accessible
     11. Avionics system.                                                               to the pilot while in flight.
                The TSA C-150s are all equipped differently:           2. Procedures for operating the airplane with inoperative
                                                                           instruments and equipment.
                  5281Q has dual VORs
                  10141 has a VOR, NDB receiver and marker                        Reference: FAR 91.213.
                    passage indicator lights.                                      Can’t takeoff with inoperative instruments or
                  3937V has a single VOR.                                          equipment installed unless - a whole bunch of
                                                                                    stuff.
G.     TASK: MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST
                                                                                   Can fly if inoperative instruments are not part of
       Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits                          the VFR day certification instruments and
                  knowledge of the elements related to the use                      inoperative instruments are placarded
                  of an approved Part 91 minimum equipment                          “inoperative” or removed.
                  list by explaining:
                                                                                   Properly certificated pilot determines inoperative
     1. Required flight instruments and equipment for day VFR                       instruments won’t create hazardous condition.
        and night VFR flight.
                                                                        3. Requirements and procedures for obtaining a special
                Reference: FAR 91.205                                     flight permit.
                For VFR day flight;                                               Reference: FAR 21.197 and 21.199 (which I
                  Airspeed indicator                                               don’t have)


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        C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                        C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

H.    TASK: AEROMEDICAL FACTORS                                                     ear.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits a                       Feeling of nausea.
                  knowledge of the elements related to                     f.   carbon monoxide poisoning.
                  aeromedical factors by explaining:
                                                                                   Loss of energy/muscle power.
     1. The symptoms, causes, effects, and corrective actions of
        at least three of the following:                                           Kill cabin heat, let in fresh air.
        a. hypoxia.                                                                Land ASAP and get help
                Lack of oxygen                                            g. stress and fatigue.
                Symptoms include:                                                 Slows reflexes and thinking.
                  Feeling of well-being                               2. The effects of alcohol and over-the-counter drugs.
                  Tunnel vision                                                   Alcohol is a depressant. Causes lack of
                  Headaches                                                        coordination and slow reflexes.
                  Blue fingernails and/or lips
                  Impaired vision                                                 Pilot can’t fly if any alcohol in the past 8 hours or
                  Impaired judgment                                                greater than 0.04% blood alcohol content by
                                                                                    weight.
                Use supplemental oxygen or descend
                                                                                   Over the counter drugs could cause drowsiness
        b. hyperventilation.                                                        or other side effects.
                Rapid breathing usually caused by anxiety.            3. The effects of nitrogen excesses during scuba dives
                Insufficient carbon dioxide.                             upon a pilot or passenger in flight.
                Breathe into a bag or force self to take deep                     Excess nitrogen in the blood in a person flying
                 slow breaths.                                                      could cause the bends, just as when a diver
                                                                                    surfaces too rapidly.
                Talk out loud
                                                                                   Divers should wait at least 24 hours before
        c.   middle ear and sinus problems.                                         flying.
                Colds or hay fever type allergies might result in
                 sinus or ears becoming blocked. Changes in
                 pressure can cause severe pain, or even
                 ruptured ear drums.
        d. spatial disorientation.
                Loss of recognition of up and down.
                Can be caused by rapid head movements.
                Pay attention to instruments and trust them
        e. motion sickness.
                Caused by mixed signals from eyes and inner


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          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                             C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                                          appropriate sequence.
II.     AREA OF OPERATION: PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES
                                                                                         Flight log and airport/communications
A.      TASK: PREFLIGHT INSPECTION                                                        information on clipboard.
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                      Lots of pencils within reach, The ones that fall
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to preflight                          under the rudder pedals don’t count!
         inspection. This shall include which items must be                              Scrap paper on clipboard for in-flight notes.
         inspected, the reasons for checking each item, and how                          Flight computer and calculator in easy reach.
         to detect possible defects.
                                                                                         Know where other documents not normally
      2. Inspects the airplane with reference to the checklist.
                                                                                          needed in flight are in the bag:
                  POH checklist leaves important things out.                              POH
                   Better to use customized checklist (allowed, but                        A/FD
                   make sure it duplicates all items on the one in                         FARs
                   the POH).                                                               Airport info book.
                  Explain things to the examiner as you do them.             5. Utilizes all appropriate checklists.
                   Pretend the examiner is a student of first time
                   small plane passenger.                                C.     TASK: ENGINE STARTING
      3. Verifies that the airplane is in condition for safe flight.            Objective: To determine that the applicant:
B.      TASK: COCKPIT MANAGEMENT                                              1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to engine
                                                                                 starting. This shall include the use of external power
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:                              source and starting under various atmospheric
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to cockpit                   conditions, as appropriate.
         management procedures.                                                          Normal and cold start procedures are in POH.
      2. Ensures all loose items in the cockpit and the cabin are                        In cold weather, a few things to remember:
         secured.
                                                                                           Check oil breather tube, as oil may be
      3. Briefs passengers on the use of safety belts, shoulder                               congealed in it, which could cause engine to
         harnesses and emergency procedures.                                                  blow oil seals.
                  Explain seat belt operation to examiner. (both                          C-150 calls for heavy priming while someone
                   how to hook it up and how to get out of it).                               is hand turning prop. Discuss safety issues
                                                                                              related to hand propping.
                  Explain requirements for wearing belt & harness.                        Use of pre-heat is highly recommended.
                    Belt and harness required for crew members                            Oil pressure may be slow to come up. Give it
                      during taxi takeoff and landing.                                        about 30 seconds, and if it doesn’t come up
                    Belt required for flight crew at all times.                              shut the engine down.
      4. Organizes material and equipment in a logical, efficient                          Temperature will be slow to come up. Make
         flow pattern.                                                                        sure the engine is up to a reasonable
                  Fold charts to areas needed and arrange in                                 temperature before run-up.



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                     Jump start may be necessary due to low               6. Avoids other aircraft and hazards.
                      amp-hour capacity of aircraft batteries.                        Stay on the centerline and keep looking around.
     2. Positions the airplane properly considering open                   7. Completes the appropriate checklist.
        hangars, other aircraft, the safety of nearby persons and
        property on the ramp, and surface conditions.                 E.     TASK: BEFORE TAKEOFF CHECK
                If necessary, turn the plane manually before                Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                 starting.
                                                                           1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to the before
                After calling “clear” make sure you look in front,           takeoff check. This shall include the reasons for
                 all around and particularly behind before                    checking each item and how to detect malfunctions.
                 cranking.
                                                                           2. Positions the airplane properly considering other aircraft,
     3. Accomplishes the correct starting procedure.                          wind and surface conditions.
                Use the checklist in the POH or a customized                         Aircraft should be positioned into the wind if
                 list.                                                                 possible.
                Check engine instruments immediately after                           More importantly, the aircraft should be pointed
                 starting.                                                             so that people, other airplanes or anything else
     4. Completes the appropriate checklist.                                           that could be damaged by flying debris from the
                                                                                       prop wash are not behind the plane.
D.     TASK: TAXIING                                                                  If the airplane cannot be pointed into the wind,
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                     hold the controls properly for the existing wind
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to safe taxi                        conditions.
        procedures.                                                        3. Divides attention inside and outside the cockpit.
     2. Positions flight controls properly for existing wind                          Keep alert for people, other aircraft or vehicles.
        conditions.                                                        4. Ensures engine temperature and pressure are suitable
                Quartering headwind - bank toward wind;                      for run-up and takeoff.
                 elevator normal.                                                     In cold weather, oil temperature might be slow
                Quartering tailwind - bank away from wind;                            coming up.
                 elevator forward.                                         5. Accomplishes the before takeoff check and confirms that
     3. Performs a brake check immediately after the airplane                 the airplane is in safe operating condition.
        begins moving.                                                                Use checklist in POH or a customized list. POH
     4. Controls direction and speed without excessive use of                          list is good, except for transponder reminder.
        brakes.                                                                       Touch things and announce readings to the
                Good taxi speed is about walking speed.                               examiner as you check them.
     5. Complies with airport markings, signals, and ATC                              Keep looking around while you’re doing it.
        clearances.                                                        6. Reviews takeoff performance airspeeds, takeoff



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      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

      distances, emergency procedures, and departure
      procedure.
              Know the required takeoff distance based on
               current climatic conditions (temperature,
               pressure altitude, wind) and runway surface
               condition.
              Know what you’re going to do if the engine fails:
                During takeoff roll - Stop on the remaining
                  runway.
                Immediately after liftoff - If sufficient runway
                  left, get back on the ground and stop.
                  Otherwise, continue as straight a course as
                  possible to best available landing site.
  7. Assures no conflict with other traffic prior to taxiing into
     takeoff position.
              Make sure no one is on base or final before
               taxiing onto the active runway. At some airports
               this may require turning the plane for better
               visibility.
              Be particularly alert at uncontrolled airports,
               cause some planes don’t have radios.
              Makes sure no other aircraft are on the runway,
               or about to cross it.
              Announce your moves on the radio:
                Crossing the runway
                Clear of the runway
                Taking the runway for takeoff
              Write down time of takeoff.
  8. Completes the appropriate checklist.




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           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                               C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                                             Flashing Red        Taxi clear of runway in use
III.     AREA OF OPERATION: AIRPORT OPERATIONS
                                                                                             Flashing White Return to starting point on the
A.       TASK: RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND ATC LIGHT
               SIGNALS                                                                                      airport
         Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                         Red/Green           Use extreme caution
       1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to radio
                                                                                            While in the air:
          communications and ATC light signals. This shall include
          radio failure procedures.                                                          Steady Green        Cleared to land
                  Communications failure - squawk 7600.                                     Flashing Green Return to land (to be followed by
                  For radio failures when approaching to land,                                             steady green)
                   watch traffic and slip into pattern; watch for light
                   signals.                                                                  Steady Red          Give way to other aircraft and
                  For radio failure before takeoff, try to get fixed, or                                        continue circling.
                   contact tower on phone to explain situation.                              Flashing Red        Airport unsafe - do not land
       2. Selects appropriate frequencies.
                                                                                             Flashing White N/A
        3. Transmits using recommended phraseology.
                                                                                             Red/Green           Use extreme caution
                  See pilot/controller glossary.
                                                                                            Acknowledge light signals by rocking wings or
       4. Acknowledges radio communications and complies with
                                                                                             flashing navigation lights.
          instructions.
                  Repeat back instructions such as heading                 B.     TASK: TRAFFIC PATTERNS
                   changes, altitude changes, frequencies and                      Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                   transponder codes.
                                                                                 1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to traffic
                  Always let controllers know you received their                   patterns. This shall include procedures at controlled and
                   transmission.                                                    uncontrolled airports, runway incursion and collision
                  Only abbreviate call sign when controller does so                avoidance, wake turbulence avoidance and wind shear.
                   first.                                                        2. Complies with traffic pattern procedures.
       5. Interprets and complies with ATC light signals.                                   Published in the A/FD if different than standard
                  Reference: FAR 91.125.                                                    pattern (1000 ft. AGL, left hand traffic).
                  While on the ground (taxiing):                                           Pattern direction denoted by segmented circle on
                                                                                             airport surface (sometimes not visible with heavy
                   Steady Green      Cleared to takeoff
                                                                                             snow cover!)
                   Flashing Green Cleared to taxi                                           Enter at traffic pattern altitude, at an approximate
                                                                                                                                              o
                                                                                             distance from the selected reference area, 45 to
                   Steady Red        Stop


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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                 the downwind leg, with the first circuit to the left.              Reference: AIM - Chapter 2.
                  45 heading for LEFT traffic is reciprocal
                       o
                                                  o
                     runway heading MINUS 45 (LEFT is LESS).
                  45 heading for RIGHT traffic is reciprocal
                       o
                                                o
                     runway heading PLUS 45 .
     3. Maintains proper spacing from other traffic.
     4. Establishes an appropriate distance from the runway,
        considering the possibility of an engine failure. C-150 has
        glide range of about 1.3 miles from 1,000 feet with no
        wind.
     5. Corrects for wind drift to maintain the proper ground
        track.
     6. Maintains orientation with the runway in use.
                Use either side-slip or crab technique on
                 cross-wind approach.
     7. Maintains traffic pattern altitude ±100 feet (30 meters),
        and the appropriate airspeed ±10 knots.
                King tape airspeed recommendations:
                  Downwind: 1.5 VSO (63 knots or 73 MPH)
                  Base:         1.4 VSO (59 knots or 68 MPH)
                  Final:        1.3 VSO (55 knots or 63 MPH)
                My personal tastes:
                  Downwind: 80 MPH
                  Base:         75 MPH
                  Final:        70 MPH
     8. Completes the appropriate checklist.

C.     TASK: AIRPORT AND RUNWAY MARKINGS AND
            LIGHTING
       Objective: To determine that the applicant
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to airport and
        runway markings and lighting.
                Reference: AIM - Chapter 2.
     2. Identifies and interprets airport, runway and taxiway
        markings and lighting.



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          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                                          MPH. Instructor recommends 55 knots or 65
IV.     AREA OF OPERATION: TAKEOFFS, LANDINGS AND                                         MPH.
                           GO-AROUNDS
                                                                                         VY = 68 knots or 78 MPH.
A.      TASK: NORMAL AND CROSSWIND TAKEOFF AND                            6. Establishes the pitch attitude for VY and maintains VY
              CLIMB                                                          +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                        VY = 68 knots or 78 MPH.
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a normal
                                                                          7. Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, and flaps after a
         and crosswind takeoff and climb.
                                                                             positive rate of climb is established.
      2. Positions the flight controls for the existing wind
         conditions; sets the flaps as recommended.                                      Flaps are not used in normal takeoff on the
                                                                                          C-150.
                 Quartering headwind - bank toward wind;
                                                                          8. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
                  elevator normal;
                                                                                         Keep your hand on the throttle throughout
                 Quartering tailwind - bank away from wind;
                                                                                          takeoff and climbout.
                  elevator forward.
                                                                          9. Maintains directional control and proper wind drift
                 No flaps.
                                                                             correction throughout the takeoff and climb.
      3. Clears the area; taxies into the takeoff position and
                                                                                         Maintain runway centerline unless noise
         aligns the airplane on the runway centerline.
                                                                                          abatement procedures dictate otherwise.
                 Be alert for approaching traffic, other planes on
                                                                                         Keep the ball in the middle.
                  the runway
                                                                          10. Complies with noise abatement procedures.
                 Be particularly alert at uncontrolled airports for
                  planes without radios on final.                         11. Completes the appropriate checklist.
                 Announce intentions on the radio.                                      If nothing else make sure flaps are up when at a
                                                                                          safe altitude with a positive rate of climb.
                 Good idea to final check heading indicator with
                  runway alignment just before starting takeoff roll.                    Even if POH does not have an after takeoff
                                                                                          checklist, there are some important things to
      4. Advances the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
                                                                                          remember as you reach cruise altitude:
                 Emphasis on smoothly                                                     Allow airspeed to build to cruise speed.
                 Engine instrument check right away:                                      Throttle back to cruise power.
                   RPM - Near top of green arc.                                           Trim for straight and level.
                   Oil pressure/temperature - in the green                                Calibrate heading indicator.
                   Vacuum - in the green.                                                 Lean mixture if over 5,000 feet.
                   Airspeed - coming alive
      5. Rotates at the recommended airspeed, lifts off and
         accelerates to VY.
                 POH recommends rotation at 50 knots or 58


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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

B.     TASK: NORMAL AND CROSSWIND APPROACH AND                               longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway
             LANDING                                                         centerline.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                       7. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control
                                                                            throughout the approach and landing.
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a normal
        and crosswind approach and landing.                                         If there is a crosswind:
     2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface and                            Slip into the wind using ailerons to keep the
        obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown                             aircraft on the centerline.
        point.                                                                        Use rudder to keep longitudinal axis aligned
                                                                                          with the centerline.
                Flight training manual suggests 1/2 way in the                       After landing full aileron toward the
                 first 1/3 of the runway under normal conditions.                         crosswind.
     3. Establishes the recommended approach and landing                 8. Completes the appropriate checklist.
        configuration and airspeed, and adjusts pitch attitude
        and power as required.                                      C.     TASK: SOFT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB
                King tape airspeed recommendations:                       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                  Downwind: 1.5 VSO (63 knots or 73 MPH)
                                                                         1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a soft-field
                  Base:         1.4 VSO (59 knots or 68 MPH)
                                                                            takeoff and climb.
                  Final:        1.3 VSO (55 knots or 63 MPH)
                                                                         2. Positions the flight controls for the existing wind
                My personal tastes:                                        conditions and so as to maximize lift as quickly as
                  Downwind: 80 MPH                                         possible; sets the flaps as recommended.
                  Base:         75 MPH
                  Final:        70 MPH                                             Quartering headwind - bank toward wind;
                                                                                     elevator normal;
                Keep your scan going. Be particularly alert at
                 pattern turns for aircraft entering the pattern                    Quartering tailwind - bank away from wind;
                 using non-standard procedures and for aircraft                      elevator forward.
                                                                                 
                                                                                               o
                 on long final approaches.                                           Usually 10 of flaps are used, except as noted in
     4. Maintains a stabilized approach and the recommended                          the POH in cases of high density altitude with
        approach airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3                      obstructions.
        VSO, +10 / -5 knots, with gust factor applied.                   3. Clears the area; taxies onto the takeoff surface at a
                Gust factor is 1/2 the difference between the              speed consistent with safety and aligns the airplane
                 average wind speed and the maximum gust                    without stopping while advancing the throttle smoothly to
                 speed.                                                     takeoff power.

     5. Makes smooth, timely and correct control application                        Emphasis on smoothly
        during the roundout and touchdown.                                          Engine instrument check right away:
     6. Touches down smoothly at the approximate stalling                             RPM - Near top of green arc.
        speed, at or within 400 feet (120 meters) beyond a                            Oil pressure/temperature - in the green
        specified point, with no drift, and the airplane’s                            Vacuum - in the green.


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                     Airspeed - coming alive                                         landing area at low altitude to look for ruts,
     4. Establishes and maintains the pitch attitude that will                        boulders, etc. before actually landing.
        transfer the weight of the airplane from the wheels to the        3. Establishes the recommended approach and landing
        wings as rapidly as possible.                                        configuration and airspeed, and adjusts pitch attitude
                                                                             and power as required.
                Keep the elevator slightly back so plane lifts off
                 as soon as it is able to, but not so far back as to                 King tape airspeed recommendations:
                 loose sight of the runway environment.                                Downwind: 1.5 VSO (63 knots or 73 MPH)
     5. Lifts off and remains in ground effect while accelerating                      Base:         1.4 VSO (59 knots or 68 MPH)
        to VY.                                                                         Final:        1.3 VSO (55 knots or 63 MPH)
                VY = 68 knots or 78 MPH.                                            My personal tastes:
                                                                                       Downwind: 80 MPH
     6. Establishes the pitch attitude for VY and maintains VY
                                                                                       Base:         75 MPH
        +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
                                                                                       Final:        70 MPH
                VY = 68 knots or 78 MPH.
                                                                                     Keep your scan going. Be particularly alert at
     7. Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, and flaps after a                  pattern turns for aircraft entering the pattern
        positive rate of climb is established.                                        using non-standard procedures and for aircraft
                Keep flaps in to at least 200 feet, 300 might be                     on long final approaches.
                 better.                                                  4. Maintains a stabilized approach and the recommended
     8. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.              approach airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3
                                                                             VSO, +10 / -5 knots, with gust factor applied.
     9. Maintains directional control and proper wind drift
        correction throughout the takeoff and climb.                                 Gust factor is 1/2 the difference between the
                                                                                      average wind speed and the maximum gust
                Maintain runway centerline unless noise
                                                                                      speed.
                 abatement procedures dictate otherwise.
                                                                          5. Makes smooth, timely and correct control application
                Keep the ball in the middle.
                                                                             during the roundout and touchdown.
     10. Completes the appropriate checklist.
                                                                          6. Touches down smoothly, with no drift, and with the
                                                                             airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with and over the
D.     TASK: SOFT-FIELD APPROACH AND LANDING
                                                                             runway centerline.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                                                                                     Instructor recommends keeping a little power in
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a soft-field                    through touchdown.
        approach and landing.
                                                                          7. Maintains correct position of the flight controls and
     2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface and                   sufficient speed to taxi on the soft surface.
        obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown
        point.                                                                       Hold the nose wheel up as long as possible.

                If the surface conditions are unknown, and                          Keep the airplane rolling.
                 power is available, it is a good idea to overfly the                Hold back elevator to keep weight off the nose



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                 wheel (without doing wheelies).                                     takeoff power.
     8. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control                      Check engine instruments:
        throughout the approach and landing.                                          RPM - Near top of green arc.
                If there is a crosswind:                                             Oil pressure/temperature - in the green
                  Slip into the wind using ailerons to keep the                      Vacuum - in the green.
                      aircraft on the centerline.                                   Once proper engine operation is assured,
                  Use rudder to keep longitudinal axis aligned                      release brakes.
                      with the centerline.                                            Airspeed - coming alive when plane starts
                  After landing full aileron toward the                                 rolling.
                      crosswind.
                                                                         5. Rotates at the recommended airspeed, lifts off and
     9. Completes the appropriate checklist.                                accelerates to the recommended obstacle clearance
                                                                            airspeed or VX.
E.     TASK: SHORT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB
                                                                                    Lift off at 50 knots or 58 MPH.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                                                                                    VX is 56 knots or 65 MPH.
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a
        short-field takeoff and climb.                                   6. Establishes the pitch attitude for the recommended
                                                                            obstacle clearance airspeed, or VX and maintains that
     2. Positions the flight controls for the existing wind                 airspeed +10 / -5 knots, until the obstacle is cleared, or
        conditions; sets the flaps as recommended.                          until the airplane is 50 feet (20 meters) above the
                Quartering headwind - bank toward wind;                    surface.
                 elevator normal;                                                   VX is 56 knots or 65 MPH.
                Quartering tailwind - bank away from wind;              7. After clearing the obstacle, accelerates to VY, establishes
                 elevator forward.                                          the pitch attitude for VY, and maintains VY, +10/-5 knots,
                No flaps on short field takeoff                            during the climb.
     3. Clears the area; taxies into the takeoff position so as to                  VY is 68 knots or 78 MPH.
        allow maximum utilization of the available takeoff area          8. Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, and flaps after a
        and aligns the airplane on the runway centerline.                   positive rate of climb is established.
                Be alert for approaching traffic, other planes on                  No flaps on short field takeoff in C-150.
                 the runway.
                                                                         9. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
                Announce intentions on the radio
                                                                         10. Maintains directional control and proper wind drift
                Good idea to final check heading indicator with             correction throughout the takeoff and climb.
                 runway alignment just before starting takeoff roll.
                                                                         11. Complies with noise abatement procedures.
     4. Advances the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
                                                                         12. Completes the appropriate checklist.
                Emphasis on smoothly
                Hold aircraft with the brakes until engine reaches



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

F.     TASK: SHORT-FIELD APPROACH AND LANDING                            6. Touches down smoothly at the approximate stalling
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                          speed, at or within 200 feet (60 meters) beyond a
                                                                            specified point, with no side drift, and the airplane’s
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a                     longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway
        short-field approach and landing.                                   centerline.
     2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface and               7. Applies brakes, as necessary, to stop in the shortest
        obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown               distance consistent with safety.
        point.
                                                                                    C-150 POH recommends:
                As close to the end of the runway as possible                        Lowering the nose quickly
                 considering obstacles.                                               Applying heavy braking
     3. Establishes the recommended approach and landing                              Hold full back elevator
        configuration and airspeed, and adjusts pitch attitude                        Retract flaps to increase braking
        and power as required.                                                          effectiveness although experience indicates
                King tape recommended speeds:                                          that the plane will be stopped long before the
                  Downwind: 1.5 VSO (63 knots or 73 MPH)                               flaps are even part way up.
                  Base:        1.4 VSO (59 knots or 68 MPH)             8. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control
                                                                            throughout the approach and landing.
                My personal tastes:
                  Downwind: 80 MPH                                                 If there is a crosswind:
                  Base:         75 MPH                                               Slip into the wind using ailerons to keep the
                                                                                          aircraft on the centerline.
                Keep your scan going. Be particularly alert at
                                                                                      Use rudder to keep longitudinal axis aligned
                 pattern turns for aircraft entering the pattern
                                                                                          with the centerline.
                 using non-standard procedures and for aircraft
                 on long final approaches.                                            After landing full aileron toward the
                                                                                          crosswind.
     4. Maintains a stabilized approach and the recommended
        approach airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3          9. Completes the appropriate checklist.
        VSO, +10 / -5 knots, with gust factor applied.
                                                                    G.     TASK: FORWARD SLIP TO A LANDING
                Recommended short-field approach speed for
                                                                           Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                 the C-150 is 52 knots or 60 MPH.
                                                                         1. Exhibits knowledge if the elements related to a forward
                Full flaps on final.                                       slip to a landing.
                Use caution, you’ll be flying close to MCA on           2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface and
                 final.                                                     obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown
     5. Makes smooth, timely and correct control application                point.
        during the roundout and touchdown.                               3. Establishes the slipping attitude at the point from which a
                Roundout will have to be much quicker than                 landing can be made using the recommended approach
                 normal and due to the low airspeed there will be           and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjusts pitch
                 almost no floating.                                        attitude and power as required.



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                If there is a crosswind, plan the slip so that the                 Carburetor heat - off
                 upwind wing is lowered.                                            May have to put in a couple of turns of nose
                Forward slips with full flaps are not                               down trim as soon as convenient, since normally
                 recommended on some airplanes. Can’t find the                       a lot of nose up trim was put in during the
                 answer for the C-150.                                               approach. If this is the case, the plane will try to
     4. Maintains a ground track aligned with the runway                             pitch really nose high, possibly into a stall
        centerline and an airspeed that results in a minimum of                      condition.
        float during the roundout.                                       4. Retracts flaps to the approach setting if applicable.
                                                                                 
                                                                                                     o
     5. Makes smooth, timely, and correct control application                        If more than 20 of flaps were in when the
        during the recovery from the slip, the roundout and the                      go-around was started, immediately retract them
                                                                                          o
        touchdown.                                                                   to 20 .
                                                                                 
                                                                                                                     o
     6. Touches down smoothly at the approximate stalling                            Continue raising flaps in 10 increments once a
        speed, at or within 400 feet (120 meters) beyond a                           positive rate of climb is established and at a safe
        specified point, with no drift, and the airplane’s                           altitude (at least 200 feet).
        longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway
                                                                         5. Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, after a positive
        centerline.
                                                                            rate of climb has been established.
     7. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control
                                                                         6. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude,
        throughout the approach and landing.
                                                                            then sets power and transitions to the airspeed
                If there is a crosswind:                                   appropriate for the traffic pattern.
                  Slip into the wind using ailerons to keep the         7. Maintains directional control and proper wind drift
                      aircraft on the centerline.                           correction throughout the climb.
                  Use rudder to keep longitudinal axis aligned
                      with the centerline.                                          If a real go-around is initiated due to another
                  After landing full aileron toward the                             aircraft pulling onto runway for takeoff, veer to
                      crosswind.                                                     right of runway to allow visual contact to be
                                                                                     maintained.
     8. Completes the appropriate checklist.
                                                                                    Keep the ball in the middle.
H.     TASK: GO-AROUND                                                   8. Complies with noise abatement procedures as
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                          appropriate.
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a                  9. Flies the appropriate traffic pattern.
        go-around.                                                       10. Completes the appropriate checklist.
     2. Makes a timely decision to discontinue the approach to
        landing.
     3. Applies takeoff power immediately and transitions to the
        climb pitch attitude for VY, +10 / -5 knots.
                VY is 68 knots or 78 MPH.



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                        C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST


V.     AREA OF OPERATION: PERFORMANCE MANEUVER
A.     TASK: STEEP TURNS
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to steep
        turns.
     2. Selects an altitude that will allow the task to be
        performed no lower than 1,500 feet (460 meters) AGL.
                We usually do this stuff at 3,000.
                Don’t forget to do some clearing turns first.
     3. Established VA or the recommended entry speed for the
        airplane.
                VA (at 1600 pounds) is 97 knots or 111 MPH.
                                      o                     o
     4. Rolls into a coordinated 360 turn; maintains a 45 bank,
          o                                        o
        ±5 ; and rolls out on the entry heading ±10 .
                Adding a little nose up trim and a little power
                 helps to maintain the altitude.
                Have to push forward as you roll out of the turn
                 and then take the trim and power back off.
     5. Performs the task in the opposite direction, as specified
        by the examiner.
     6. Divides attention between airplane control and
        orientation.
                Once the bank angle and attitude are
                 established look out the window checking the
                 instruments only occasionally.
     7. Maintains the entry altitude ±100 feet (30 meters) and
        airspeed ±10 knots.




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          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                              C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                               2. Determines the wind direction and speed.
VI.     AREA OF OPERATION: GROUND REFERENCE
                                                                               3. Selects the reference line with an emergency landing
                           MANEUVERS                                              area within gliding distance.
A.      TASK: RECTANGULAR COURSE                                                          Glide distance from 800 ft. is about 1 mile.
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:                            4. Plans the maneuver so as to enter at 600 to 1,000 (180
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a                          to 300 meters) AGL, perpendicular to the selected
         rectangular course.                                                      reference line, downwind, with the first series of turns to
                                                                                  the left.
      2. Determines the wind direction and speed.
                                                                               5. Applies adequate wind drift correction to track a constant
      3. Selects the ground reference area with an emergency
                                                                                  radius half circle on each side of the selected reference
         landing area in gliding distance.
                                                                                  line.
                     Glide distance from 1,000 ft. is only about 1.3
                                                                                          Since the maneuver is entered downwind, the
                      miles with no wind.
                                                                                           initial bank angle will be the steepest.
      4. Plans the maneuver so as to enter at traffic pattern
                                                                                          Reduce the bank angle gradually as the turn
         altitude, at an approximate distance from the selected
                              o                                                            progresses with the shallowest bank angle
         reference area, 45 to the downwind leg, with the first
                                                                                           occurring at the point where you’re going up
         circuit to the left.
                                                                                           wind.
                  
                          o
                        45 heading for LEFT traffic is reciprocal
                                                  o                                       Cross the reference line perpendicular with
                        runway heading MINUS 45 (LEFT is LESS).                            wings level.
                  
                          o
                        45 heading for RIGHT traffic is reciprocal                        Begin increasing the bank angle again so that
                                               o
                        runway heading PLUS 45 .                                           the maximum bank occurs when going
                                                                                           downwind again.
      5. Applies adequate wind drift correction during                         6. Divides attention between airplane control and the
         straight-and-turning flight to maintain a constant ground                ground track and maintains coordinated flight.
         track around the rectangular reference area.
                                                                                          Look for traffic, not at the reference line.
      6. Divides attention between airplane control and the
         ground track and maintains coordinated flight.                        7. Reverses course as directed by the examiner, and exits
                                                                                  at the point of entry at the same altitude and airspeed at
      7. Exists at the point of entry at the same altitude and
                                                                                  which the maneuver was started.
         airspeed at which the maneuver was started, and
         reverses course as directed by the examiner.                          8. Maintains altitude ±100 feet (30 meters); maintains
                                                                                  airspeed ±10 knots.
      8. Maintains altitude ±100 feet (30 meters); maintains
         airspeed ±10 knots.                                              C.     TASK: TURNS AROUND A POINT
B.      TASK: S-TURNS                                                            Objective: To determine that the applicant:
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:                            1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to turns
                                                                                  around a point.
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to S-turns.


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      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

  2. Determines the wind direction and speed.
  3. Selects the reference point with an emergency landing
     area within gliding distance.
             Glide distance from 800 ft. is about 1 mile.
  4. Plans the maneuver so as to enter at 600 to 1,000 feet
     (180 to 300 meters) AGL, at an appropriate distance
     from the reference point, with the airplane headed
     downwind and the first turn to the left.
  5. Applies adequate wind drift correction to track a constant
     radius circle around the selected reference point with a
                               o
     bank of approximately 45 at the steepest point in the
     turn.
             Since the maneuver is entered downwind, the
              initial bank angle will be the steepest.
             Reduce the bank angle gradually as the turn
              progresses with the shallowest bank angle
              occurring at the point where you’re going up
              wind.
             Begin increasing the bank angle again so that
              the maximum bank occurs when going
              downwind again.
  6. Divides attention between airplane control, and the
     ground track and maintains coordinated flight.
             Look for traffic, not at the reference point.
  7. Completes two turns, exits at the point of entry at the
     same altitude and airspeed at which the maneuver was
     started, and maintains course as directed by the
     examiner.
  8. Maintains altitude ±100 feet (30 meters); maintains
     airspeed ±10 knots.




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           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                            C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                                         If ETAs are off re-calculate.
VII.     AREA OF OPERATION: NAVIGATION
                                                                              8. Maintains the appropriate altitude ±200 feet (60 meters)
                                                                                                               o
A.       TASK: PILOTAGE AND DEAD RECKONING                                       and established heading ±15 .
         Objective: To determine that the applicant:                          9. Completes all appropriate checklists.
       1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to pilotage
                                                                         B.     TASK: NAVIGATION SYSTEMS AND RADAR SERVICES
          and dead reckoning.
                                                                                Objective: To determine that the applicant:
       2. Follows the preplanned course solely by reference to
          landmarks.                                                          1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to navigation
                                                                                 systems and radar services.
                  Pick landmarks that are easily identified:
                    Large lakes                                              2. Selects and identifies the appropriate navigation system/
                    Major roads                                                 facility.
                    Islands or recognizable bends in rivers                  3. Locates the airplane’s position using radials, bearings or
       3. Identifies landmarks by relating surface features to chart             coordinates as appropriate.
          symbols.                                                            4. Intercepts and tracks a given radial or bearing, if
       4. Navigates by means of precomputed headings, ground                     appropriate.
          speeds and elapsed time.                                            5. Recognizes and identifies the indication of station
                  Remember to check the heading indicator                       passage if appropriate.
                   against the compass often.                                 6. Recognizes signal loss and takes appropriate action.
       5. Corrects for and records the differences between                    7. Uses proper communications procedures when utilizing
          preflight fuel, groundspeed and heading calculations and               ATC radar services.
          those determined en route.                                          8. Maintains the appropriate altitude ±200 feet (60 meters).
                  Record departure time and all checkpoint times.
                                                                         C.     TASK: DIVERSION
                  If timing is significantly off on any checkpoints,
                   recompute ground speed and then new ETEs                     Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                   and ETAs.                                                  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to diversion.
                  Check planned fuel consumption against new                 2. Selects an appropriate alternate airport and route.
                   total ETE.                                                 3. Diverts promptly toward the alternate airport.
       6. Verifies the airplane’s position within 3 nautical miles of
                                                                                         Turn in the general direction, before fooling
          the flight-planned route at all times.
                                                                                          around with determining the exact heading.
       7. Arrives at the en route checkpoints and destination within
                                                                              4. Makes an accurate estimate of heading, groundspeed
          5 minutes of the ETA.
                                                                                 and arrival time.
                  We assume that this means entering the traffic
                                                                                         Use standard groundspeed computation
                   pattern at the destination, as opposed to landing
                                                                                          approach on E6-B.
                   time.
                                                                                         Time = Distance / Ground Speed


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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                     C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                Compute estimated fuel consumption.                                 if there were no wind.
     5. Maintains the appropriate altitude ±200 feet (60 meters)                    Airplane should be within a circle whose
        and established heading ±15 .
                                      o                                              radius is computed based on the maximum
                                                                                     possible windspeed and the time flown since
D.     TASK: LOST PROCEDURES                                                         the last checkpoint. For example if the last
                                                                                     checkpoint was passed 15 minutes ago, and
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                   the windspeed is known to be 20 knots or
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to lost                           less, the radius of the circle is:
        procedures.                                                                      R = Wind Speed x Time
                Climb                                                                   R = 20 knots x 0.25 hours
                  Landmarks are easier to spot from higher
                     altitudes.                                                          R = 5 Nautical Miles
                  Communications are better at higher               3. Maintains the original or an appropriate heading and
                     altitudes.                                         climbs, if necessary.
                  Navaids are more easy to acquire at higher                   Changing the heading is just going to confuse
                     altitude.                                                   you more.
                Confess                                                        Assume you just didn’t see a checkpoint and that
                  Don’t be afraid to admit that you have no                     you’re pretty much on course while you look for
                    idea where you are!                                          recognizable landmarks.
                Communicate                                         4. Identifies the nearest concentration of prominent
                  Nearest approach control can get a radar fix         landmarks.
                    and give you vectors to some known place.
                                                                     5. Uses navigation systems/facilities and/or contacts an
                  If not too far from an FSS, they can give you
                                                                        ATC facility for assistance, as appropriate.
                    a DF steer.
                                                                     6. Plans a precautionary landing if deteriorating weather
                Comply                                                 and/ or fuel exhaustion is imminent.
                  Follow ATC instructions.
     2. Selects the best course of action when given a lost
        situation.
                Options include:
                  Using navigation aids such as VORs or
                     NDBs.
                  Climb and look for recognizable landmarks
                  Contact an ATC facility for radar positioning
                     or an FSS for a DF fix.
                Circle of error technique:
                  Estimate position using compass heading
                     and airspeed from last known checkpoint as



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                            C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                       B.     TASK: POWER-OFF STALLS
VIII. AREA OF OPERATION: SLOW FLIGHT AND STALLS
                                                                              Objective: To determine that the applicant:
A.     TASK: MANEUVERING DURING SLOW FLIGHT                                 1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to power-off
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                             stalls. This shall include an understanding of the
                                                                               aerodynamics of a stall which occurs as a result of
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to
                                                                               uncoordinated flight. Emphasis shall be placed upon
        maneuvering during slow flight.
                                                                               recognition and recovery from a power-off stall.
     2. Selects an entry altitude that will allow the task to be
        completed no lower than 1,500 feet (460 meters) AGL or                          Uncoordinated is bad!
        the recommended altitude, whichever is higher.                                  If plane is skidding (ball to outside of turn) plane
                We usually use 3,000 ft.                                                might flip over in a stall.

                Do some clearing turns first.                                          Slipping (ball to inside of turn) is not quite as
                                                                                         bad, but plane will tend to roll.
     3. Stabilizes the airspeed at 1.2 VS1, +10 / -5 knots.
                                                                                        When turn is uncoordinated, one wing stalls
             
                           o
                 1.2 VS1 (0 Flaps) = 56 knots or 65 MPH.                                 before the other and you’re probably going to
             
                               o
                 1.2 VS1 (10 Flaps) = 54 knots or 62 MPH.                                spin.
             
                               o
                 1.2 VS1 (40 Flaps) = 50 knots or 58 MPH.                               When turn is coordinated, both wings stall
                                                                                         together and plane drops along its vertical axis.
     4. Accomplishes coordinated straight-and-level flight and
        level turns, at bank angles and in configurations, as               2. Selects an entry altitude that will allow the maneuver to
        specified by the examiner.                                             be completed no lower than 1,500 feet (460 meters)
                                                                               AGL, or at the recommended altitude, whichever is
                Remember to check the heading indicator
                                                                               higher.
                 against the compass often.
                                                                                        We usually use 3,000 ft.
     5. Accomplishes coordinated climbs and descents, straight
        and turning, at bank angles and in configurations, as                           Don’t forget to do clearing turns first.
        specified by the examiner.                                          3. Establishes a stabilized approach in the approach or
     6. Divides attention between airplane control and                         landing configuration, as specified by the examiner.
        orientation.                                                                    Normally this means a 500 ft./minute descent at
     7. Maintains the specified altitude, ±100 feet (30 meters);                         about 55 knots (65 MPH).
                                   o
        the specified heading ±10 ; and the specified airspeed,                         Power back appropriately.
        +10/-5 knots.
                                                                   o                    Carburetor heat on.
     8. Maintains the specified angle of bank, not to exceed 30
                               o                                            4. Transitions smoothly from the approach or landing
        in level flight, +0/-10 ; maintains the specified angle of
                                  o                                            attitude to the pitch attitude that will induce a stall.
        bank, not to exceed 20 in climbing or descending flight
               o                                          o
        +0/-10 ; rolls out on the specified heading ±10 ; and                           Pull back smoothly and hold it.
        levels off from climbs and descents within ±100 feet (30                                                      o
        meters).                                                            5. Maintains a specified heading, ±10 , if in straight flight;
                                                                                                                                        o
                                                                               maintains a specified angle of bank, not to exceed 30 ,



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                            C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST
           o       o
         +0 /-10 , if in turning flight, while inducing the stall.              uncoordinated flight. Emphasis shall be placed upon
                      Keep coordinated.                                        recognition and recovery from a power-on stall.

                      Watch the heading.                                               Uncoordinated is bad!

                      To maintain heading and attitude without looking                 If plane is skidding (ball to outside of turn) plane
                       at the instruments, put your head against the                     might flip over in a stall.
                       side window and line up some outside reference                   Slipping (ball to inside of turn) is not quite as
                       with the lower corner of the window. You can                      bad, but plane will tend to roll.
                       monitor both attitude and heading this way.                      When turn is uncoordinated, one wing stalls
     6. Recognizes and announces the first aerodynamic                                   before the other and you’re probably going to
        indications of the oncoming stall, i.e., buffeting or decay                      spin.
        of control effectiveness.
                                                                                        When turn is coordinated, both wings stall
     7. Recovers promptly after a stall occurs by simultaneously                         together and plane drops along its vertical axis.
        decreasing pitch attitude, applying power, and leveling
                                                                            2. Selects an entry altitude that will allow the maneuver to
        the wings to return to straight-and-level flight with a
                                                                               be completed no lower than 1,500 feet (460 meters)
        minimum loss of altitude appropriate for the airplane.
                                                                               AGL, or at the recommended altitude, whichever is
                      No need to push the elevator control, just              higher.
                       release all the excess back pressure.
                                                                                        We usually use 3,000 ft.
                      Ailerons neutral
                                                                                        Clearing turns first.
                      Full power                                           3. Establishes the takeoff or departure configuration,
                      Carburetor heat off                                     airspeed and power, as specified by the examiner.
                                                                                   
                                               o
                       Flaps immediately to 20 if more than that were                    Slow airplane to rotation speed; 50 knots or 60
                       in.                                                               MPH in level flight.
     8. Retracts the flaps to the recommended setting; retracts             4. Transitions smoothly from the takeoff or departure
        the landing gear, if retractable, after a positive rate of             attitude to the pitch attitude that will induce a stall.
        climb is established; accelerates to VY before the final                        Apply full power smoothly.
        flap retraction; returns to the altitude, heading and
        airspeed specified by the examiner.                                             Carburetor heat off.
                      VY = 68 knots or 78 MPH.                                         Pull back smoothly and hold it.
                                                                                                                      o
                                                                           5. Maintains a specified heading, ±10 , if in straight flight;
                                          o
                       Retract flaps in 10 increments                                                                                     o
                                                                               maintains a specified angle of bank, not to exceed 20
                                                                                 o     o
C.     TASK: POWER-ON STALLS                                                   +0 / -10 , if in turning flight, while inducing the stall.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                      Watch the heading
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to power-on                          Stay coordinated
        stalls. This shall include an understanding of the                              To maintain heading and attitude without looking
        aerodynamics of a stall which occurs as a result of


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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                 at the instruments, put your head against the                     Power off (carburetor heat on)
                 side window and line up some outside reference
                                                                                   Ailerons neutral
                 with the lower corner of the window. You can
                 monitor both attitude and heading this way.                       Full rudder opposite to the rotation to counteract
                                                                                    yaw and stop rotation.
     6. Recognizes and announces the first aerodynamic
        indications of the oncoming stall, i.e., buffeting or decay                Elevator briskly forward to break stall.
        of control effectiveness.                                                  Hold inputs until rotation stops.
     7. Recovers promptly after a stall occurs by simultaneously                   When rotation stops neutralize rudder.
        decreasing pitch attitude, applying power, as appropriate,
        and leveling the wings to return to straight-and-level flight              Pull back smoothly from resulting dive.
        attitude with a minimum loss of altitude appropriate for                   Apply power when starting to climb again
        the airplane.                                                               (carburetor heat off).
                Nose usually drops by itself, just release
                 excessive back pressure.
                Ailerons neutral
                Maintain heading and stay coordinated
     8. Retracts the flaps to the recommended setting; retracts
        the landing gear, if retractable, after a positive rate of
        climb is established; accelerates to VY before the final
        flap retraction; returns to the altitude, heading and
        airspeed specified by the examiner.
                VY = 68 knots or 78 MPH.
                Flaps usually not lowered for this maneuver.

D.     TASK: SPIN AWARENESS
       Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits
                  knowledge of the elements related to spin
                  awareness by explaining:
     1. Flight situations where unintentional spins may occur.
                Stalls with the plane uncoordinated.
                Stalls with lots of aileron in (drag on high wing).
     2. The technique used to recognize and recover from
        unintentional spins.
     3. The recommended spin recovery procedure for the
        airplane used for the practical test.



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          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                                C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                                 4. Demonstrates climbs solely by reference to instruments
IX.     AREA OF OPERATION: BASIC INSTRUMENT                                         at a constant airspeed to specific altitudes in straight
                           MANEUVERS                                                flight.
A.      TASK: STRAIGHT-AND-LEVEL FLIGHT                                                     Use turn coordinator and/or attitude indicator to
                                                                                             keep wings level
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                                                                                            When desired climb speed is attained, trim for
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to attitude
                                                                                             that speed and use airspeed indicator to
         instrument flying during straight-and-level flight.
                                                                                             maintain proper rate of climb.
      2. Maintains straight-and-level flight solely by reference to
         instruments using proper instrument cross check and                                Use attitude indicator, altimeter and rate of climb
         interpretation, and coordinated control application.                                indicator to help maintain proper pitch.

                 Use turn coordinator and/or attitude indicator to                         Heading should stay constant
                  keep wings level.                                                         Can’t check heading indicator against compass
                 Use attitude indicator, altimeter and rate of climb                        in accelerated flight.
                  indicator to maintain proper pitch.                            5. Levels off at the assigned altitude and maintains that
                                                                                                                                           o
                                                                                    altitude, ±200 feet (60 meters); maintains heading ±20 ;
                 Airspeed should stay constant.
                                                                                    maintains airspeed ±10 knots.
                 Heading should stay constant.
                 Remember to check the heading indicator                   C.     TASK: CONSTANT AIRSPEED DESCENTS
                  against the compass often.                                       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                                                                     o
      3. Maintains altitude ±200 feet (60 meters); heading ±20 ;                 1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to attitude
         and airspeed ±10 knots.                                                    instrument flying during straight, constant airspeed
                                                                                    descents.
B.      TASK: CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS
                                                                                 2. Establishes the descent configuration specified by the
        Objective: To determine that the applicant:                                 examiner.
      1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to attitude
                                                                                   3. Transitions to the descent pitch attitude and power
         instrument flying during straight, constant airspeed
         climbs.                                                                      setting on an assigned heading using proper
      2. Establishes the climb configuration specified by the                         instrument cross-check and interpretation, and
         examiner.                                                                    coordinated control application.
                 Pitch up first, let speed fall off, then apply throttle        4. Demonstrates descents solely by reference to
                  smoothly.                                                         instruments at a constant airspeed to specific altitudes in
      3. Transitions to the climb pitch attitude and power setting                  straight flight.
         on an assigned heading using proper instrument                                     Retard power smoothly (carburetor heat if less
         cross-check and interpretation, and coordinated control                             than 2,000 RPM).
         application.
                                                                                            Use turn coordinator and/or attitude indicator to



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                            C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                 keep wings level                                               attitude using proper instrument cross-check and
                When desired descent speed is attained, trim for               interpretation and smooth, coordinated control
                 that speed and use airspeed indicator to                       application in the correct sequence.
                 maintain proper rate of descent.
                                                                       F.     TASK: RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, NAVIGATION
                Use attitude indicator, altimeter and rate of climb                SYSTEMS/FACILITIES, AND RADAR SERVICES.
                 indicator to help maintain proper pitch.
                                                                              Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                Heading should stay constant
                                                                            1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to radio
                Can’t check heading indicator against compass                 communications, navigation systems/facilities, and radar
                 in accelerated flight.                                        services available for use during flight solely by reference
     5. Levels off at the assigned altitude and maintains that                 to instruments.
                                                               o
        altitude, ±200 feet (60 meters); maintains heading ±20 ;            2. Selects the proper frequency and identifies the
        maintains airspeed ±10 knots.                                          appropriate facility.
                                                                            3. Follows verbal instructions and/or navigation systems/
D.     TASK: TURNS TO HEADINGS
                                                                               facilities for guidance.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                                                                            4. Determines the minimum safe altitude.
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to attitude
                                                                            5. Maintains altitude ±200 feet (60 meters); maintains
        instrument flying during turns to headings.                                         o
                                                                               heading ±20 ; maintains airspeed ±10 knots.
     2. Transitions to the level turn attitude using proper
        instrument cross-check and interpretation, and
        coordinated control application.
                Keep turns coordinated.
                Attitude indicator, rate of climb, altimeter and
                 airspeed are used to hold altitude in the turn.
     3. Demonstrates turns to headings solely by reference to
        instruments; maintains altitude, ±200 feet (60 meters);
        maintains a standard rate turn and rolls out on the
                              o
        assigned heading ±20 ; maintains airspeed ±10 knots.

E.     TASK: RECOVERY FROM UNUSUAL FLIGHT
             ATTITUDES
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to attitude
        instrument flying during unusual attitudes.
     2. Recognizes unusual flight attitudes solely by reference to
        instruments; recovers promptly to a stabilized level flight



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         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                                                                                                 only the rudder.
X.     AREA OF OPERATION: EMERGENCY OPERATIONS                                                  Check trend of compass card movement
                                                                                                 and make cautious corrections with rudder
       NOTE: Memorize all emergency procedures in the POH.                                       only to stop turn.
                                                                           4. Demonstrates orientation, division of attention, and
A.     TASK: EMERGENCY DESCENT                                                proper planning.
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                                                                            5. Follows the appropriate emergency checklist.
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to an
        emergency descent.
     2. Recognizes the urgency of an emergency descent.               B.    TASK: EMERGENCY APPROACH AND LANDING

                Necessary with fires, or loss of cabin pressure.           Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                Different technique for flying into clouds and
                     o
                 180 turn doesn’t get you out.                              1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to
     3. Establishes the recommended emergency descent                           emergency approach and landing procedures.
        configuration, and maintains that airspeed ±5 knots.
                For engine fire in flight, the C-150 POH indicates         2. Establishes and maintains the recommended
                 the following procedure:                                      best-glide attitude, configuration, and airspeed ±10
                  Mixture - Idle cutoff                                       knots.
                  Fuel cutoff valve - off
                  Master switch - off                                                      •      When engine fails, immediately pull
                  Cabin heat and air - off (except overhead                                 back to gain any altitude you can until airspeed
                     vents)                                                                  falls off to best glide speed of 60 knots (69
                  Glide at 85 knots (98 MPH)                                                MPH)
                  If fire is not extinguished increase glide
                     speed to an airspeed that will provide an                              •      Lower nose and trim for 60 knots.
                     incombustible mixture. (Keep in mind VNO
                     and VNE, which are 107 KIAS and 141 KIAS)              3. Selects a suitable emergency landing area within
                  Execute forced landing procedure.                           gliding distance.
                POH Also describes an emergency descent
                                                                                            •     Maximum glide distance is about 1.3
                 through clouds as:
                  Mixture rich                                                              miles per 1,000 feet of altitude with no wind.
                  Full carburetor heat                                                     •     Setting up a normal pattern for an
                  Reduce power to set up 500 to 800 ft./min.
                                                                                             upwind landing is optimum, but take what you
                     rate of descent.
                  Trim for 70 KIAS (80 MPH)                                                 can get.
                  Keep hands off control wheel                                             •      Some books suggest that a clear
                  Monitor turn coordinator and correct using


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        C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                             C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                  approach zone is more important that the                                    •      If you’re really in the middle of nowhere,
                  length of the landing area.                                                  or in a ditching situation, transmit MAYDAY on
                                                                                               121.5 and squawk 7700.
      4. Plans and follows a flight pattern to the selected
         landing area considering altitude, wind, terrain and                6. Maintains positive control of the airplane at all times.
         obstructions.
                                                                             7. Follows the appropriate emergency checklist.
                 •      Try to set up a full pattern approach just
                  like for a normal landing,                           C.     TASK: SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS
                 •     If that’s not possible, try for at least a            Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                  base leg and final.                                       1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to system
                                                                               and equipment malfunctions appropriate to the airplane
                 •    If all else fails use direct approach, but              provided for the flight test.
                  be aware, it’s harder to judge accurately.                2. Analyzes the situation and takes the appropriate action
                                                                               for simulated emergencies, such as:
                 •      Upwind landing is better than downwind,
                  particularly on a short field, but take what you              a. partial or complete power loss.
                  can get.                                                                  Use emergency landing procedure.
                                                                                b. engine roughness or overheat.
      5. Attempts to determine the reason for the malfunction
                                                                                            Could be caused by a number of factors:
         and makes the correction, if possible.                                               Bad magneto - try individually. If one works
                                                                                                ok alone use it and divert to nearest airport
                 •     If time permits, check engine affecting
                                                                                                for repairs.
                  controls and try for restart:                                               Overheat can be caused by too lean a
                     - Carburetor heat - on                                                    mixture or too steep a climb; richen mixture
                                                                                                or lessen climb angle.
                     - Mixture - rich                                                        Could be caused by wrong grade of fuel.
                                                                                              Could be caused by contaminated fuel.
                     - Throttle - in
                                                                                c.   carburetor or induction icing.
                     - Primer - in and locked                                              Indicated by a gradual loss of power; carburetor
                                                                                             heat on should cause slight further decrease in
                     - Fuel shutoff - on
                                                                                             power followed by increase as ice melts off. Use
                     - Master switch - on                                                   trial and error approach to find setting that
                                                                                             prevents icing.
                     - Magneto switch - both (use start if                                 Carburetor heat won’t melt ice on air filter, but
                      propeller is stopped).                                                 provides an alternate source of intake air.



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      C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                           C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

      d. loss of oil pressure.                                              h. landing gear or flap malfunction.
              Some books observe this could be caused by a                         Most planes with retractable gear have manual
               malfunction in the monitoring circuit rather than                     operating system to deal with hydraulic system
               by the engine itself.                                                 failures.
              If loss of pressure is accompanied by                                Flap malfunctions could be:
               overheating or rough running, the problem is                           Not working - not a big problem, as you can
               definitely the engine. Shut it down and execute                           land without them, but might need a little
               emergency landing.                                                        more runway than usual.
              If no overheat or roughness, try to make it to                         Uneven operation - can cause rolling
               nearest airport.                                                          tendencies, which is why we lower them in
                                                                                         increments. Can be counteracted with
      e. fuel starvation.                                                                ailerons to a certain extent.
              Most often caused by the pilot.                              i.   inoperative trim.
              Make sure fuel cutoff is on.                                         You needed the exercise anyway.
              Check fuel consumption often.                                        Pressure can be reduced by adjusting airspeed,
      f.   electrical system malfunction.                                            provided you can maintain altitude.
              Over-voltage indication:                                     j.   inadvertent door or window opening.
                Master switch - off (both sides).                                  Close it.
                Master switch - on.
                                                                                    Might have to slow the airplane down to open
                If light stays off - you’re ok (at least for now).
                                                                                     door enough to close it.
                If light comes back on terminate flight as
                  soon as practical.                                        k.   structural icing.
              Ammeter discharge                                                    Cabin heat/defrost - on
                Alternator - off (left side of master switch).                     Pitot heat - on
                Nonessential electrical equipment - off.
                                                                                    Carburetor heat - on
                Terminate flight as soon as practical.
                Note, 10141 did this one day, and we turned                        Turn around, or change altitude to a warmer
                 off both sides of the master switch for a                           layer (which might be a higher altitude).
                 minute then reset it and were ok for the rest              l.   smoke/fire/engine compartment fire.
                 of the flight (about 15 miles).
                                                                                    Engine compartment - use emergency descent
      g. flight instruments malfunction.                                             procedure.
              Loss of vacuum kills heading indicator and                           Electrical fire - shut down electrical systems
               attitude indicator. Use turn coordinator and                          except ignition; close cabin air vents; use fire
               compass instead.                                                      extinguisher if available. After fire is out try
              Pitot-static problems kill airspeed, altimeter and                    electrical systems one at a time; land ASAP
               rate of climb.                                                       Cockpit fire - Electrical systems off; cabin vents


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        C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                          C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST

                 and heat off; use fire extinguisher; land ASAP
        m. any other emergency appropriate to the airplane
           provided for the flight test.
     3. Follows the appropriate emergency checklist.

D.    TASK: EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND SURVIVAL
            GEAR
       Objective: To determine that the applicant:
     1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to
        emergency equipment and survival gear appropriate to
        the airplane provided for the flight test, such as:
        a. location in the airplane.
                All we have is the ELT behind the baggage
                 compartment,
        b. method of operation or use
                Automatically activates when subjected to 6 G
                 force.
        c.   servicing requirements
                Batteries have to be changed at half their shelf
                 life or after one hour of operation.
        d. method for safe storage
        e. equipment and survival gear appropriate for
           operation in various climates and topographical
           environments.
                At least bring appropriate clothing.
                If flying over water - life vests, raft, emergency
                 food and water.
                In cold climates over sparsely populated areas -
                 warm clothing sleeping bags, tent, food, water,
                 etc.
                Use common sense.
     2. Follows the appropriate emergency checklist.




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                                                                              5. Night orientation, navigation, and chart reading
XI.     AREA OF OPERATION: NIGHT OPERATIONS                                      techniques.
A.      TASK: NIGHT PREPARATION                                               6. Safety precautions and emergencies peculiar to night
                                                                                 flying.
        Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits
                   knowledge of the elements related to night                            Be particularly concerned about weather.
                   operations, by explaining:                                            Fly higher - emergency landing sites are hard to
      1. Physiological aspects of night flying including the effects                      find.
         of changing light conditions, coping with illusions, and
         how the pilot’s physical condition affects visual acuity.       B.     TASK: NIGHT FLIGHT
                 Rods and cones                                                Objective: To determine that the applicant:
                 Use off-center viewing - middle of retina is a              1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to night flight.
                  blind spot at night.
                                                                               2. Inspects the interior and exterior of the airplane with
                 Avoid looking directly at bright lights.                        emphasis on those items essential for night flight.
                 Try to get eyes accustomed to low light 30
                  minutes before departure.                                              Check lighting.
      2. Lighting systems identifying airports, runways, taxiways                        Check spare fuses
         and obstructions, and pilot controlled lighting.                     3. Taxies and accomplishes the before takeoff check
                 Green and white beacon - civilian airport                      adhering to good operating practice for night conditions.
                 Green and double white - military airport                   4. Performs takeoffs and climbs with emphasis on visual
                                                                                 references.
                 PCL - 7 clicks to bring everything on at full
                  intensity; 3 clicks low intensity; 5 for medium,            5. Navigates and maintains orientation under VFR
                  when available.                                                conditions.
                                                                              6. Approaches, lands, and taxies, adhering to good
                 Runway lights are white; taxiway edge lights blue
                                                                                 operating practices for night conditions.
                  and taxiway center lights green.
      3. Airplane lighting systems.                                                      Landing light within 10 miles of airport

                 Nav lights:                                                            Avoid blinding other pilots with landing light when
                                                                                          taxiing.
                   Red - left
                   Green - right                                             7. Completes all appropriate checklists.
                   White - tail
                 Strobe, red or white beacon.
                 Landing light
      4. Personal equipment essential for night flight.
                 Flashlights, extra batteries and bulbs



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                                                                                    Tie plane down.
XII.     AREA OF OPERATION: POSTFLIGHT PROCEDURES
                                                                                    Install control lock.
A.       TASK: AFTER LANDING                                             4. Performs a satisfactory postflight inspection.
         Objective: To determine that the applicant:                     5. Completes the appropriate checklist.
       1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to
          after-landing procedures.
                  Clear the runway, stop past hold line (if one
                   there).
                  Clean up plane:
                    Flaps up.
                    Carburetor heat - off
                    Trim - reset for takeoff.
                    After hard landing - check ELT on 121.5.
       2. Taxies to the parking/refueling area using the proper
          wind control technique and obstacle avoidance
          procedures.
       3. Completes the appropriate checklist.

B.       TASK: PARKING AND SECURING
         Objective: To determine that the applicant:
       1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to parking
          and securing procedures. This shall include an
          understanding of parking hand signals and deplaning
          passengers.
       2. Parks the airplane properly, considering other aircraft
          and the safety of nearby persons and property on the
          ramp.
       3. Follows the recommended procedure for engine
          shutdown and securing the cockpit of the airplane.
                  Electrical and radios off.
                  Engine - 1,000 RPM.
                  Mixture - Idle cutoff.
                  Ignition - off.
                  Master switch - off.



JMP                                                        8/23/2010   JMP                                                   8/23/2010
         C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST                                       C-150 PRACTICAL FLIGHT TEST


XIII. AREA OF OPERATION: OTHER POSSIBLE ORAL
                         EXAM STUFF
A.     TASK: NTSB Accident Reporting Requirements
     1. Aircraft operator must immediately notify the NTSB in the
        event of:
                Flight control system malfunction or failure.
                Inability of crew member to perform duties as a
                 result of illness or injury.
                In flight fire.
                Mid-air collision.
                Damage to property (other than the aircraft) over
                 $25,000.
     2. Don’t move wreckage except:
                To free injured or trapped persons
                Protect wreckage from further damage.
                Protect public from injury.
                If have to move things, make sketches or mark
                 locations of items moved.




JMP                                                      8/23/2010   JMP                            8/23/2010