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Tropical Deforestation

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					Environmental Quiz



 Most recent update January 26, 2010
The population of the world in 1950 was
2.6 billion. The world population is
currently about:
     •  3.4 billion
     • 6.8 billion
     • 9.3 billion
     • 11.5 billion
The population of the world in 1950 was
2.6 billion. The world population is
currently about:
     •  3.4 billion
     • 6.8 billion
     • 9.3 billion
     • 11.5 billion
    World Population 1850-2010

         8
         7
         6
         5
Billions 4
         3
         2
         1
         0
             1850
                    1860
                           1870
                                  1880
                                         1890
                                                1900
                                                       1910
                                                              1920
                                                                      1930
                                                                             1940
                                                                                    1950
                                                                                           1960
                                                                                                  1970
                                                                                                         1980
                                                                                                                1990
                                                                                                                       2000
                                                                                                                              2010
                                                                     Year

        Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2010.
The population of the world is currently
increasing at a rate of about 8,600 people
per:
                      • month
                      • week
                      • day
                      • hour
The population of the world is currently
increasing at a rate of about 8,600 people
per:
                      • month
                      • week
                      • day
                      • hour
Rate of Population Increase - 2010
   Time Unit                 Population Increase
       Year                               75,395,378
       Month                                6,282,948
       Week                                 1,445,941
       Day                                    206,563
       Hour                                       8,607
       Minute                                        143
       Second                                            2.4
  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2010.
The estimated world population in the
year 2050 is about:

      • 3.4 billion
      • 6.2 billion
      • 9.3 billion
      • 11.5 billion
The estimated world population in the
year 2050 is about:

      • 3.4 billion
      • 6.2 billion
      • 9.3 billion
      • 11.5 billion
     World Population 1850-2050
(Medium Projection of Growth Assumed After 2000)

         10
          9
          8
          7
          6
Billions 5
          4
          3
          2
          1
          0
         50

                70

                       90

                              10

                                     30

                                            50

                                                   70

                                                          90

                                                                 10

                                                                        30

                                                                               50
       18

              18

                     18

                            19

                                   19

                                          19

                                                 19

                                                        19

                                                               20

                                                                      20

                                                                             20
                                            Year

      Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2010.
The population of the United States
in 1960 was 181 million. The U.S.
population is currently about:
  •   187 million
  •   220 million
  •   308 million
  •   459 million
The population of the United States
in 1960 was 181 million. The U.S.
population is currently about:
  •   187 million
  •   220 million
  •   308 million
  •   459 million
        True (T) or False (F):

United States population growth is near
 zero, with the population expected to
        stabilize by about 2025.
        True (T) or False (F):

United States population growth is near
 zero, with the population expected to
        stabilize by about 2025.
      Growth of U.S. Population,
             1776- 2100
600

500

400

300

200
                                                          Projection
100
                                     History
  0
  80
  00
  20
  40
  60
  80
  00
  20
  40
  60
  80
  00
  20
  40
  60
  80
  00
17
18
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
21
         Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division (2010)
True (T) or False (F). Assuming a growth
rate of 5% annually, the population of the
United States would surpass the current
population of China by 2040.
True (T) or False (F). Assuming a growth
rate of 5% annually, the population of the
United States would surpass the current
population of China by 2040.

                   At a 5% annual growth
                   rate the U.S. population
                   would quadruple in only
                   28 years, bringing the
                   number of U.S. residents
                   to over 1.2 billion.
If the U.S. population were to continue
 its current rate of growth for the next
    700 years, the population would
   increase to over 315 billion! (The
     current world population is 6.8
                 billion).
        True (T) or False (F):

The United States is a net exporter of
most raw materials used by industry
               today.
        True (T) or False (F):

The United States is a net exporter of
most raw materials used by industry
               today.
Due in part to domestic environmental
concerns, the U.S. is a net importer of
most categories of raw materials used
to support our economy and lifestyle.
   Most metals
   Portland and masonry cement
   Petroleum (the basis for plastics)
   Wood and wood products
 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a
Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2008, and
          by Major Foreign Sources
Material         % Imported   Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07)
Niobium             100       Brazil, Canada, Estonia
Manganese           100       S. Africa, Gabon, China, Australia
Graphite            100       China, Mexico, Canada, Brazil
Strontium           100       Mexico, Germany
Bauxite/Alumina     100       Jamaica, Guinea, Brazil, Australia
Fluorspar           100       China, Mexico, S. Africa, Mongolia
Yttrium             100       China, Japan, France
Thallium            100       Russia, Netherlands, Belgium
Rubidium            100       Canada
Asbestos            100       Canada
Quartz (crystal)    100       China, Japan, Russia
Thorium             100       UK, France
Tantalum            100       Australia, China, Brazil, Japan
  Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a
 Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2008, and
           by Major Foreign Sources
Material           % Imported   Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07)
Arsenic (trioxide)     100      China, Morocco, Hong Kong, Mexico
Indium                 100      China, Japan, Canada, Belgium
Rare earth metals      100      China, France, Japan, Russia
Cesium                 100      Canada
Vanadium               100      Czech Rep., Swaziland, Canada, S. Korea
Gallium                 99      China, Ukraine, Germany, Canada
Gemstones               99      Israel, India, Belgium, S. Africa
Bismuth                 97      Belgium, Mexico, UK, China
Diamond (industrial) 92         Botwsana, S. Africa, Nambia, Ireland
Platinum Group          91      S. Africa, Germany, UK, Canada
Stone (dimension)       89      Italy, Brazil, Turkey, China
Rhenium                 87      Chile, Germany, Netherlands
Antimony                86      China, Mexico, Belgium
  Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a
 Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2008, and
           by Major Foreign Sources
Material            % Imported   Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07)
Mica (natural)          86       China, India, Belgium, Brazil
Germanium               85       Belgium, Canada, Germany, China
Cobalt                  81       Norway, Russia, China, Canada
Potash                  81       Canada, Belarus, Russia, Germany
Tin                     80       Peru, Bolivia, China, Indonesia
Barium (Barite)         79       China, India
Titanium concentrates   77       S. Africa, Australia, Canada, Ukraine
Iodine                  74       Chile, Japan, Russia
Zinc                    73       Canada, Peru, Mexico, Ireland
Palladium               72       Russia, S. Africa, UK, Belgium
Tungsten                61       China, Germany, Canada, Bolivia
Silver                  60       Mexico, Canada, Peru, Chile
Peat                    58       Canada
 Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a
Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2008, and
          by Major Foreign Sources
 Material          % Imported   Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07)
 Petroleum             57       Canada, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela,
                                Nigeria, Mexico
 Diamond (indust)       56      China, Ireland, Russia, S. Korea
 Silicon                60      China, Russia, Venezuela, Canada
 Chromium               54      S. Africa, Kazakhstan, Russia, Zimbabwe
 Titanium (sponge)      54      Kazakhstan, Japan, Russia
 Magnesium Cpds         52      China, Canada, Austria, Australia
 Lithium               >50      Chile, Argentina
 Magnesium Metal        50      Canada, Russia, Israel, China
 Nitrogen (fixed)       48      Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, Russia
 Garnet (industrial)    40      Australia, India, China, Canada
 Vermiculite            35      S. Africa, China
 Nickel                 33      Canada, Russia, Norway, Australia
 Copper                 32      Chile, Canada, Peru, Mexico
  Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a
 Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2008, and
           by Major Foreign Sources
Material              % Imported         Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07)
Lumber (softwood)         29             Canada, Germany, Chile, Brazil, New
                                         Zealand
Sulfur                      26           Canada, Mexico, Venezuela
Gypsum                      27           Canada, Mexico, Spain, Dominican Rep
Perlite                     19           Greece
Salt                        17           Canada, Chile, The Bahamas, Mexico
Mica (scrap/flake)          16           Canada, China, India, Finland
Cement (Portland/msry)      12           Canada, China, Thailand, S. Korea
Phosphate rock               9           Morocco
Iron and steel               8           Canada, EU, Mexico, Brazil
Pumice                       6           Greece, Italy, Turkey, Mexico
Lime                         1           Canada, Mexico
Stone (crushed)              1           Canada, Mexico, The Bahamas
     Also significant import dependency for Leather, Natural Rubber, Wool.
         True (T) or False (F):

  The raw material that is used in the
greatest quantity in the U.S. today, and
which accounts for almost one-third (by
weight) of the total raw materials used
           annually is steel.
         True (T) or False (F):

  The raw material that is used in the
greatest quantity in the U.S. today, and
which accounts for almost one-third (by
weight) of the total raw materials used
           annually is steel.
          Annual U.S. Consumption of
          Various Raw Materials, 2007
                        Million
                       Metric tons                                 Million m3
  Roundwood               210                                           473
  Industrial roundwood*   188                                           427
  Cement                  115                                           104
  Steel                   110                                           139
  Plastics                  45.7                                         40.3
  Aluminum                   5.3                                          1.9
 * Roundwood is the volume of all wood harvested. Industrial roundwood is
 the volume of wood used in making forest products; the difference is firewood.

Source: Data for wood from USFS (2008); for cement, steel, and aluminum from the U.S.
 Geological Survey (2008); and for plastics from the American Plastics Council (2008).
In fact, more wood is used in the U.S.
   every year than all metals and all
          plastics combined!
True (T) or False (F):

Consumption of mineral resources
globally has increased sharply
over the past 30years.
True (T) or False (F):

Consumption of mineral resources
globally has increased sharply
over the past 30years.
      True (T) or False (F):

Energy consumption per capita
  (per person) in the United
   States is twice that of the
       European Union.
      True (T) or False (F):

Energy consumption per capita
  (per person) in the United
   States is twice that of the
       European Union.
Per Capita Energy Consumption in the
  U.S. and the E.U. Countries, 2008

                            Energy Consumption
                       (kilograms of oil equivalent per person)
United States                         7885.9
Finland (EU highest)                  6555.0
France                                4396.8
Germany                               4187.0
UK                                    3894.6
E.U. Average                          3773.4
The number one cause of tropical
deforestation worldwide is:
• commercial logging.
• wildfire.
• clearing of lands for
  agricultural use.
• gathering of firewood.
• building of roads and cities.
The number one cause of tropical
deforestation worldwide is:
• commercial logging.
• wildfire.
• clearing of lands for
   agricultural use.
• gathering of firewood.
• building of roads and cities.
 Various estimates indicate that 60 to 85% of
 tropical deforestation today is due to permanent
 and shifting agriculture.
The area covered by forests in the U.S.
today is approximately ____ of the
forested area that existed in 1600.

                     •   72 percent
                     •   50 percent
                     •   33 percent
                     •   17 percent
The area covered by forests in the U.S.
today is approximately ____ of the
forested area that existed in 1600.

                     •   72 percent
                     •   50 percent
                     •   33 percent
                     •   17 percent
Forests now cover 72% of the land area in
   the U.S. that they did at the time of
          European settlement


         1600                       2007
                                         Forest -
             Forest -                      751
             1,100                       million
             million                      acres
             acres




         Source: USDA - Forest Service
True (T) or False (F). The geographic
area that encompasses the United States
today has about the same forest coverage
as the same geographic area did in 1907.
True (T) or False (F). The geographic
area that encompasses the United States
today has about the same forest coverage
as the same geographic area did in 1907.
                        Forest Area in the United States
                                  1630-2007
                 1200
                        1045
                 1000
Thousand Acres




                 800            759     760     756     761     744     738    747     749     751

                 600

                 400

                 200

                    0
                        1630    1907    1938    1953   1963    1977    1987    1997    2002    2007

                        Source: USDA-Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-78. (2009).
True (T) or False (F). Growing trees
capture carbon dioxide from the air and
release oxygen.
True (T) or False (F). Growing trees
capture carbon dioxide from the air and
release oxygen.

           CO2                      O2




                       Carbon
    Which of the following statements most
    accurately describes U.S. forests:

•   Forest harvest exceeds growth by 20 percent.
•   Forest harvest exceeds growth by 5 percent.
•   Forest harvest roughly equals growth.
•   Forest growth exceeds harvest by 29 percent.
•   Forest growth exceeds harvest by 72 percent.
    Which of the following statements most
    accurately describes U.S. forests:

•   Forest harvest exceeds growth by 20 percent.
•   Forest harvest exceeds growth by 5 percent.
•   Forest harvest roughly equals growth.
•   Forest growth exceeds harvest by 29 percent.
•   Forest growth exceeds harvest by 72 percent.
Net Growth/Removals Ratios – U.S.,
           1952-2006
            When net forest growth divided by
          removals = 1.0, timber inventories are
 2.5
             neither expanding or declining.

  2


 1.5
                                                                                 Hardwoods
                                                                                 Softwoods
                                                                                 All Species
  1


 0.5


  0
       1952     1962     1976     1986    1991     1996     2001     2006


Source: Smith, et al., 2004; USDA-Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-78. (2009).
   Growth/Removals Ratios – U.S.,
            1952-2006
     Year              Softwoods             Hardwoods                   Total
     1952                 1.00                  1.50                     1.17
     1962                 1.25                  1.65                     1.55
     1970                 1.23                  2.01                     1.48
     1976                 1.25                  2.25                     1.54
     1986                 1.19                  1.92                     1.42
     1991                 1.15                  1.75                     1.33
     1996                 1.33                  1.71                     1.47
     2001                 1.33                  1.71                     1.47
     2006                 1.55                  2.03                     1.72
Source: Smith, et al., 2004; USDA-Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-78. (2009).
         True (T) or False (F):

 As originally established, it was never
intended that the National Forests of the
U.S. would be periodically harvested to
   obtain timber that would be used in
  meeting the nation’s need for wood.
         True (T) or False (F):

 As originally established, it was never
intended that the National Forests of the
U.S. would be periodically harvested to
   obtain timber that would be used in
  meeting the nation’s need for wood.
True (T) or False (F). At current rates of
deforestation, forty (40) percent of current
forests in the U.S. will be lost by the
middle of this century.
True (T) or False (F). At current rates of
deforestation, forty (40) percent of current
forests in the U.S. will be lost by the
middle of this century.

                  In fact, the area
                  covered by forests in
                  the U.S. is increasing.
         True (T) or False (F):

In the U.S. and globally, more species of
 plants and animals have been driven to
 extinction by logging activity than any
        other activity of mankind.
         True (T) or False (F):

In the U.S. and globally, more species of
 plants and animals have been driven to
 extinction by logging activity than any
        other activity of mankind.
 There is no evidence that even one
  plant or animal species has been
  driven to extinction as a result of
logging activity in the United States.
True (T) or False (F). Under current
United States law, forest harvesting is
allowed in federally designated wilderness
areas.
True (T) or False (F). Under current
United States law, forest harvesting is
allowed in federally designated wilderness
areas.

                   No harvesting is
                   allowed in wilderness
                   areas
True (T) or False (F). Populations of
elk, pronghorn antelope, and wild turkey
have declined significantly in the U.S.
over the past 60 years.
True (T) or False (F). Populations of
elk, pronghorn antelope, and wild turkey
have declined significantly in the U.S.
over the past 60 years.
In fact, populations of each of
these species within the U.S.
have increased by at least 800
to 1,000 percent over the past
50 years.
                       Trends in U.S. Elk Populations                                                             Trends in U.S. Wild Turkey Populations
                                 1930-1990                                                                                      1900-1990
              600                                                                                                        450
                                                                                                                         400
              500
                                                                                                                         350
(Thousands)




                                                                                                              Millions
              400                                                                                                        300
                                                                                                                         250
              300
                                                                                                                         200
              200                                                                                                        150
                                                                                                                         100
              100
                                                                                                                          50
                0                                                                                                          0
                1930      1940   1950   1960                   1970        1980          1990                              1900     1910    1920   1930   1940   1950   1960   1970   1980   1990

                                        Year                       Source: MacCleery, 1992                                                                  Year          Source: MacCleery, 1992




                                                             Trends in U.S. Pronghorn Populations
                                                                          1910-1990
                                                             600

                                                             500
                                               (Thousands)




                                                             400

                                                             300

                                                             200

                                                             100

                                                               0
                                                               1910      1920     1930          1940   1950        1960           1970     1980    1990

                                                                                                       Year                    Source: MacCleery, 1992
       True (T) or False (F):

Considering the total annual harvest
 of forests in the United States and
the total consumption of wood and
 fiber products within our country,
 the U.S. is a net importer of wood
         and wood products.
       True (T) or False (F):

Considering the total annual harvest
 of forests in the United States and
the total consumption of wood and
 fiber products within our country,
 the U.S. is a net importer of wood
         and wood products.
The United States is a Net Importer
  of Wood and Wood Products
Net U.S. imports of
wood and wood
products amounted
to 15-20 percent of
total wood
consumption and
29 percent of
construction
lumber consumed
in 2008.
 When waste paper exports are
   included in the net import
calculation, the U.S. net import
   figure for wood and wood
 products drops to 2-3 percent.
As a percentage of all the paper used in
the United States in 2008 _____ was
recovered for reuse.
                     • 14 percent
                     • 36 percent
                     • 57 percent
                     • 92 percent
As a percentage of all the paper used in
the United States in 2008 _____ was
recovered for reuse.
                     • 14 percent
                     • 36 percent
                     • 57 percent
                     • 92 percent
Recovered paper provided _____ of the
U.S. paper industry’s fiber in 2008.
               • 12 percent
               • 34 percent
               • 51 percent
               • 86 percent
Recovered paper provided _____ of the
U.S. paper industry’s fiber in 2008.
               • 12 percent
               • 34 percent
               • 51 percent
               • 86 percent
True (T) or False (F). More extensive
recycling of paper could reduce harvesting
of forests in the U.S. by 60 percent or
more.
True (T) or False (F). More extensive
recycling of paper could reduce harvesting
of forests in the U.S. by 60 percent or
more.
Were paper recycling in the U.S. to go
to the limit of technology worldwide
the domestic timber harvest could be
      reduced by about 12-13%.
True (T) or False (F). The manufacture
of wood construction materials generally
results in far lower environmental impacts
than when similar construction materials
are manufactured from steel, aluminum,
plastic, or concrete.
True (T) or False (F). The manufacture
of wood construction materials generally
results in far lower environmental impacts
than when similar construction materials
are manufactured from steel, aluminum,
plastic, or concrete.
At a time when Society is seeking to more
effectively harness solar energy, it turns out
that one of our major raw materials – wood –
is totally produced using solar energy.
And, very little additional energy is required
to convert wood into useful products.
The manufacture and use of all
construction materials results in
 environmental impacts. The
   impacts, however, differ
         considerably.
  If, for example, an interior
wall of a house is constructed
 using steel rather than wood
   studs, the result is a large
       increase in energy
consumption and emissions to
          air and water.
Interior Non-Load Bearing Wall,
         Wood vs. Steel

  Comparative Energy Use (GJ)
 Wood                      Steel*             Difference
  3.8                      11.5                 3.0X




                * 30% recycled content.
   Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993.
Comparative Emissions in Manufacturing
  Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall
Emission/Effluent    Wood Wall          Steel Wall          Difference
CO2 (kg)               ,305                 965                3.2X
CO (g)                2,450              11,800                4.8X
SOX (g)                 400               3,700                9.3X
NOX (g)               1,150               1,800                1.6X
Particulates (g)        100                 335                3.4X
VOCs (g)                390               1,800                4.6X
Methane (g)              ,4    ,              45             11.1X



          Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993.
Comparative Effluents in Manufacturing
 Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall
 Emission/Effluent       Wood Wall               Steel Wall Difference
 Suspended solids (g)      12,180                 495,640     41X
 Non-ferrous metals (mg)      62                     2,532    41X
 Cyanide (mg)                 99                     4,051    41X
 Phenols (mg)             17,715                  725,994     41X
 Ammonia (mg)              1,310                    53,665    41X
 Halogenated
    organics (mg)            507                    20,758         41X
 Oil and grease (mg)       1,421                    58,222         41X
 Sulphides (mg)             13                         507         39X

           Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993.

				
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