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									                                                    Draft August 24, 2006




          Republic of the SUDAN

Darfur Joint Assessment Mission (D-JAM)




       Status of Natural Resources and the Environment




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                                     Republic of the SUDAN

                           Darfur Joint Assessment Mission (D-JAM)

                       Status of Natural Resources and the Environment

Background

Darfur was severely hit by the Sahelian drought and its associated impacts leading to the decline
of agricultural production that contributed to the region’s inability to provide sustained support to
its population and to the Sudanese economy. The years 1983/84/85 will be recorded in the
history of Darfur as the years when the famine became a reality. It led to large scale population
movements from the northern parts of Darfur southwards and migration to many parts of Sudan
and neighboring counties. These large scale movements created serious problem in the form of
(a) shortages in food fodder and services, (b) inability of urban areas ( where many of them
moved) to absorb this exodus and thus created a group of marginal people and (c) created and
increased the tribal conflicts over land and water resources.

Following the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) by the Government of National
Unity (GNU) and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) in May 2006, the rapid initiation of
recovery, reconstruction and development efforts in Darfur would be critical to sustain and
consolidate peace. The DPA provides for a post conflict assessment with the assistance of
development partners, and it is expected to be discussed at a donors’ conference which will take
place in October 2006, hosted by The Netherlands.

The UN will focus on “Track One” – namely early recovery needs. The review of development
priorities (“Track Two”) will be co-led with the World Bank and the African Development Bank.
While the focus of Track Two is on development, several of the areas covered (e.g. public
expenditure analysis) are critical to the macro framework, and there will be a need for
coordination with the humanitarian activities of Track One to avoid any inconsistencies and to
minimize duplication.

The work under Track Two would be organized into six clusters with special attention being paid
to inter-linkages and capacity building needs. The focus will be limited to key priorities. Reform
needs will be laid out, and programs and projects defined and costed. The main clusters for the
D-JAM will be governance, agriculture and rural development, water and sanitation,
infrastructure, private sector development, and delivery of basic services. Environment will be
cross cutting all production clusters.


Introduction

Based on the above, it was agreed to develop a report on the above mentioned clusters in time for
the proposed donor conference in October. For the part of the report that would address equitable
growth, agriculture and rural development, an environment report will clearly feature
prominently. This environment report will address the issue of restoration and preservation of
the environment in Darfur, which has suffered from severe degradation, deforestation, and
desertification, as well as repeated droughts over the past decades. The report will draw on
lessons from previous efforts, and provide specifics about relevant future public investment
projects, keeping in mind the potentially large population movements that will occur - now that
peace and security are expected to be restored and large numbers of Internally Displaced Peoples
(IDPs) start returning to their land.

In the light of the above background this environment report is aimed at:

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      (a) Desk review of issues facing the environment, distilling the most important lessons
          from previous investments and efforts by government, bilateral donors, and multi-
          lateral donors (e.g. African Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank and the
          World Bank) in Darfur.

      (b) Develop a strategy and an outline for a clear vision of future environmental restoration
          of the natural resources and the environment in Darfur, based on sustainable
          development, listing the constraints that may be faced in achieving the vision.

      (c) Formulate a plan for medium to long term restoration of the environment, including
          possible programs and projects to meet the above vision, and in particular explore
          options for land use mapping as part of the strategy.

The report will address major issues facing the environment which may have devastating
consequences for todays and future generations and to review lessons learned from previous
initiatives manifested in government, bilateral and multi-lateral donors’ investments. Given the
existing regional resource management imperative which Darfur is facing, the report will attempt
to highlight sites vulnerable to degradation and suggest plans for medium to long term restoration
of the environment and to advocate new directions for mainstreaming environmental concerns in
development. The report will also explore options for land use mapping as part of developing a
land use plan for Darfur.


State of the Environment and Natural Resources

Greater Darfur region occupies the north western corner of the Sudan with boarders with Chad,
Central African Republic and Libya. The region is bordered in the north, east and south with
Northern region, Kordofan and Bahr El Ghazal respectively. The region extends between the
parallels 8ْ to 20ْ north and longitudes 22 ْ to 27 ْ east and spans an area of approximately 490,000
km2 representing a sizable share of the total area of the country.

Climate

Darfur region has a very dynamic climate regime; but recently episodes of drought became more
visible. The region is characterized by short mild dry windy winters and long hot rainy summers
with adequate sunshine and great variations between day and night temperatures. The winter
season begins in December and ends by February. The summer season practically dominates the
rest of the year. The temperature increases from north to south. The yearly normal minimum
temperature is 20ْ and the annual maximum temperature is 36 ْ centigrade. Normal winter
temperatures range between 8ْ and 16ْ centigrade and normal summer temperatures range between
30 ْ and 36 ْ centigrade. The humidity increases from north to south and ranges between 25% and
40%. High humidity values are observed at the hilly areas particularly in Jebel Marra area. The
region includes a number climatic zones ranging from desert in the north to rich Savanna in the
far south.

The rainfall varies between almost zero mm to 800 mm in the high rainfall woodland savannah in
the southern parts of Darfur. The distribution of rainfall is shown in the attached Isohytal map
(figure 1). The rainfall generally begins in June and ends in October with peaks reached in July or
August. However, in recent years a significant delay of rainfall is recorded as well as general
retrogression in the amount of precipitation. The effect of Jebel Marra in rainfall as a watershed
divide is eminently significant and the deformation in the mean annual isohyets of Jebel Marra
elevation is clearly evident. It is worth mentioning that the year 1984 was regarded as the driest
year where the rainfall was far below the long term declining average. Fortunately, in the
following year (1985) good rains were received, nonetheless the full recovery needs a long period

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of consecutive wet years. Although we did not find reliable temporal rainfall information,
nevertheless from anecdotal data it seems that the rainfall is generally decreasing over the years
and the isohyets are moving southwards.




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Darfur region consists of six main climatic zones: (1) the Northern Desert Zone, (2) the Semi-
desert Zone, (3) the Western Upland zone, (4) the Sandy clay low rainfall central zone, (5) the
Sandy Clay Agro-Pastoral Zone and (6) the Raqaba high Rainfall Southern Zone (figure 2):

(1) Northern Desert Zone (zone 1 on the attached map)
The Northern Desert extends for 145000 km2 and covers 28% of the region. This is a typical
desert where the soils and the scarce vegetation evolved under a harsh desert condition, very
meager rainfall and high temperatures during the summer. The population in this zone is mainly
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camel pastoralists. The zone includes some scattered oasis where people practice farming making
use of the limited water resources and better soils.

(2) Semi-desert Zone (zone 2a and 2b)
This zone lies to the south of the desert zone and is divided into two sub zones: (a) areas which
are predominately sandy but support some agriculture in addition to semi settled sheep and camel
raising and gum Arabic production and (b) areas characterized by gravelly soils with annual
rainfall between 100-300 mm that support some vegetation and are inhabited by pastoralist
communities.

(3) Western Upland zone (zone 3a and 3b)
This zone covers the mountainous areas of Jebel Marra and its slopes. The zone is characterized
by a wide spectrum of soils, rainfall and vegetation. It is divided into two sub zones (a) the Jabel
Marra uplands with good soils and rainfall where the population practice silvo-horticultural
farming and forest production and (b) Jebel Marra foothills which is predominately agro-pastoral
zone. The availability of water makes irrigated agriculture possible.

(4) Sandy clay low rainfall central zone (zone 4a and 4b)
This zone is located at the southern fringes of zone 2 and zone 3. It is characterized by the vast
rolling and stabilized sand dunes in the east, and pediplain and mixed hill catena soils in the
centre and the west. Rainfall is relatively good with a long term average between 450 and 550
mm per year. This zone is suitable for traditional crops production; nonetheless it is drastically
affected by the drought conditions and overexploitation. Different land use methods are practiced,
namely shifting cultivation, nomadic and village based livestock raising and gum Arabic
husbandry.

(5) Sandy Clay Agro-Pastoral Zone (zone 5)
Covers the whole Baggara repeating pattern and is characterized by its alternating stabilized
sandy Qozs and clay flats which are called 'atamur' and 'naga' respectively. The rainfall is reliable
and stable in its amount and distribution. It ranges between 600and– 650, and sometimes may
exceed this amount. Nomadic cattle raising, small scale Qoz cultivation, mechanized farming,
gum Arabic and forest production are the practiced economic activities.

(6) Raqaba high Rainfall Southern Zone (zone 6)
This zone is also called the rich Savanna zone with rainfall between 400 and 800 mm and a rainy
season that extends for 4 to 5 months. The zone occupies relatively a small area, is located in the
far most southern part of the region and is characterized by high moisture. Three types of soils are
dominant, non – cracking clay soil (Qardud), dark cracking clay soil (Talha), and inundated
cracking clay (Fau). The types of land use practiced are nomadic – livestock raising during the
dry season and limited cultivation of some staple grains. Illegal wildlife hunting is also practiced
and the game's meat, skins and hides constitute an additional income.

In general Southern Darfur ecological zones are more favorable to varied agricultural activities
due to the better soils and rainfall. This allowed the existing varied land use activities in the area
and will provide a good potential for further economic development..




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Topography

Darfur topography is mainly sandy gozes which occupies more that 65% of the northern parts of
Darfur and about 10 to 15% of southern Darfur. The region is characterized by gently undulating
to nearly level uplands; however, it is interspersed with various hills and mountains. The
mountainous and hilly parts cover areas of middle Darfur and feature the massive of Jebel Marra
and other hills such as Meidoub hills. Clay and Gardud soils occupy the western and south
western parts and some areas in the north. Jebel Marra forms the watershed divide where
seasonal streams and Wadis flow east, west and south of the Jebel. Wadi Barei and Wadi Azoom
flow to the west and south west. Wadi Al Ku, Wadi Taweela, Wadi Kuttum and Wadi Al Kaj flow
to the east and south east. And Wadi Kass and Wadi Bulbul flow to the south and south east.
Although all these Wadis are seasonal, some of them retain surface and subsurface waters where
shallow wells are dug to grow some vegetables and horticultural crops. Examples of these are in
Kabkabiya, Kuttum and Garsila. Deeper water aquifers are in Baggara, Sag Annam and
Umbayada where good drinking water for both human and animals is always available.

Geology

The major geological formations in Darfur are: (a) basement complex rocks covering more than
45% of the area. These do not bear groundwater aquifers and any water found there are only in
some localized fractures, (b) Nawa formations which are rarely found as outcrop on the surface.
These are composed of fine grain and are poor in terms of carrying groundwater; (c) Nubian
Sandstone covers more than 30% of Darfur. This formation bears rich water aquifers, (d)
Tertiary Volcanic which is formed after volcanic eruptions and is mainly found in Jebel Marra
area, (e) Umm Ruwaba Formation lies over the Nubian Sandstone.

Soils

The two main soils in Darfur are the sandy soils and the dark clay soils. The sandy soils are
mainly stabilized sand dunes known locally as qoz lands. These are generally flat to undulating
with various depths. The soils are very permeable, excessively drained and have low water
holding capacity. The clay soils are part of the central plains of the Sudan. These are vertisols
with high clay content. Other than these two soils the Pedi plain soils known locally as gardud
prevail in many parts particularly in southern Darfur and the Naga’a soils which mainly exist in
Southern Darfur.

The general descriptions of the soils and the soil types in Darfur credit their origin to Tothill
(1948) and smith (1949) pioneering work. More recent soil surveys were done by Hunting
Technical Services in 1974 and 1976. Based on these studies the region can be divided into six
main soil classes (See attached Figure 3):

       Desert Soils:
                                 Are found in desert and semi-desert part of the Region which are
                                 characterized by scanty rainfall which varies from almost zero to
                                 200 mm annually and this type of soil is formed by wind erosion
                                 processes and exemplified by gravel pavements, hard non
                                 cracking clays and wind blow sands.

       Stabilized Dune Sand:
                                 These are high dunes formation stabilized by the binding action
                                 of vegetation and are widely spread in the central parts of the
                                 region. In most parts of the semi-desert these dunes have
                                 undergone serious retrogression and hence complete
                                 desertification particularly around the settlement centers is

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                             evident. Since almost 95% of its mechanical composition is
                             coarse and fine sands, the mineral nutrients and organic matters
                             are very poor and ultimately the plant food reserves of the soil
                             are low. However, the stabilized sand dunes occur in the
                             southern part of the region (Qoz Dango) with relatively abundant
                             rainfall (600 – 700 mm) that have encouraged agricultural
                             production in the area.

   Cracking Clays
                             These clays are mainly alluvial in origin and are characterized by
                             high PH values (i.e. alkaline) and fine texture of over 60% clay
                             fraction and relative thickness. It has been reported that the
                             cracking clays which occur roughly in the southern half of the
                             Region, extend from Butana, Blue Nile, Gezira, and White Nile
                             up to Renk, Malakal and Bor. The cracking clays of Darfur differ
                             from the rest of the clay plain, in the sense that they are much
                             more pervious to water, and by reason of their relatively steeper
                             slopes are better drained.


   Riverine Soils
                             These are layers of soft volcanic dust created as a byproduct of
                             Jebel Marra formation. They are re-deposited to form fertile
                             lands in Zalenji, Suni and Shingel Tubai. These fertile soils
                             overlie alluvial deposits of cracking clay of the wadis such as
                             Wadi Azum and Wadi El Ku among others and eventually created
                             favorable conditions for agricultural activities.

   Alternating non-cracking clay and sand dune soils
                            These are known as the Baggara Catena containing two types of
                            contrasting soils, namely flats of non cracking clay (Nagaa) and
                            raised spots of stabilized sand dunes (atamur). The striking feature
                            characterizing this soil type is the collection of run-off water from
                            nagaa into numerous rahads (water points).

   Alternating non-cracking clay soils
                            These are known as (Ragaba) Catena which is encompassing three
                            clay alternating types. Gardud which is the non cracking flats of the
                            (nagaa), Talha which is a dark clay and simultaneously (Fau) which
                            is also a dark cracking clay affected considerably by the flooding and
                            run-in water from the (Gardud).




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As is evident the soils vary from pure sands occupying the desert and semi-desert mainly
confined to the northern half of the region to clay and volcanic deposits which are dominant in
the south and west. The sandy soils in the northern part of Darfur have potential for different
type of agriculture particularly millet and other staple food in addition to groundnut and sesame
as cash crops. The vast alluvial clay plains in the south extending up to Bahr El Arab are

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constrained by marshy conditions near the river. The silt deposited around water courses such as
Wadi Azum represents fertile soils where vegetables, tobacco, fruits and cereals are grown.
Volcanic deposits of Jebel Marra and other massive form enormous potential for different
agricultural products.

Surface Water

The enviable water requirement for Darfur as reported in many documents indicates the region’s
water scarcity can eventually impede the production potential of the available resources. In
addition to rain fall which is highly variable, the water resources include the wadis and
groundwater. These wadis form numerous drain lines, the bulk of them drain ultimately into four
major drain lines, namely wadi Azum, wadi El ku, wadi Hower and Bahr El Arab. Although, the
flow records of most of these wadis are rather scanty, Abdella (2004) has indicated that the total
amount of discharge is estimated to be 993.8 million cubic meters. The surface water is conserved
by dams or in artificially excavated ponds locally known as Hafirs and used for both human and
animal consumption. Water harvesting techniques are also practiced successfully in some parts of
the Region. The long term planning (2000-27) targets about three hundred feddans to be irrigated
from drained water.


Ground Water

Other than Bahr El Arab and the headwaters of the streams of J. Marra, groundwater is the only
permanent source in the Region. Three aquifers can be designated, namely the Alluvial Aquifers,
Um Ruwaba / Nubian Aquifers complex and Nubian Sandstone Aquifer. Groundwater in the
Alluvial Aquifer underlies most of the seasonal streams at shallow depth and is currently utilized
for domestic use as a source of good quality water and for supplementary irrigation. While Um
Ruwaba /Nubian Aquifer Complex, occupies large areas in Southern Darfur and Kordofan. The
Nubian Aquifer is more productive compared to Um Ruwaba sediments and is most extensive
and reliable. It encompasses about 53% of the total area of Darfur. The Nubian Sandstone
Aquifer fills several basins namely:

  I) Sahara Basin
  II) Um Keddada Basin
  III) Wadi El Ku Trough
        a. Shagera
        b. Sag El Naam
  IV) Disa Outlier

To exploit the underground water for agricultural purposes, an initiative was taken in Sag El
Naam Project based on the ground reservoir of Alwana Basin (Sag El Naam). It has been reported
that favorable quantities of ground water are available, however the static water level lies some
90 meters below the surface rendered the project implementation difficult.

Vegetation

Harrison and Jackson’s monumental work on vegetation on the Sudan (1958) is regarded as the
most genuine work for the whole Sudan. Given the broad phytogeographical zonation, North
Darfur is sub-divided into the desert and the semi-desert and Southern Darfur comprised of the
Low Rainfall Woodland Savannah and the associated areas such as the Hill Catena and Baggara
repeating pattern. This categorizing is closely associated with plant species which favor specific
climatic zones. It has been reported that the basic vegetation cover still exists in most areas and
the complete disappearance and extinction of all species has not been reported. However,
overuse and misuse activities such as heavy grazing and over cutting of trees in addition to
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droughts and over population of both man and animals have reduced the densities of plant
species.

Population

The population of Darfur has increased substantially during the last 50 years. In the past three
decades Darfur region has witnessed a significant population movement within the Region and to
the other Regions or even to the neighboring countries. Simultaneously, it has received an influx
of migrants from neighboring countries mainly Chad. The spatial distribution is largely affected
by resource endowment, cultural and historical factors. However, recently political upheavals
have enormously affected the population distribution. According to Abduljabbar (2004) the
population of Darfur has increased significantly as exemplified by the increasing average density
indicated in table (1). No doubt this situation will brisk an increasing potential demand on a
degraded natural resources. The population density increased six folds. .

        Table 1: Population and population density increase

                Year              Population      Density
                                                  Person/ km2
                    1956            1,080,000            3
                    1973            1,340,000            4
                    1983            3,500,000           10
                    1993            5,600,000           15
                    2003            6,480,000           18
        (Source: Population figure, department of Statistics as reported by Abduljabbar (2004))

The increase in population has increased the need for natural resources, the main source of people
livelihood in the area and resulted on pressure on these resources use, misuse and overuse. On
the other hand the environmental conditions deteriorated due to droughts and desertification
putting even more pressure on the natural resources.

The large majority of the population in Darfur is classified as rural, deriving their livelihood from
agriculture and pastoral production (see Haaland 1990). The average population increase is
estimated as about 4%, with great variation in density in certain areas. National population
increase is around 3%. Generally, the population is concentrated in a belt between 11ْ and 14ْ
north. North of this belt, towards 16ْ north the decreasing annual rainfall reduces the importance
of agricultural activities and nomadic pastoralism based on camels, goats and sheep becomes the
dominant subsistence activity.

The population is made up of a multitude of different ethnic groups, often associated with
different economic activities, and integrated in different ways in wider systems of exchange.
Some groups in the middle zone on the qoz, around Jebel Marra are specialized in cultivation,
others, the Baggara, Fulani Umbororo etc. are specialized in cattle rearing, while others are camel
herders, such as the Kababish and Zaghawa. The above broad categorization of population may
no longer be true and an exact one may not be easy. Among the pastoralist groups only a small
percentage are actually involved in animal-rearing, many combine it with cultivation, and yet
others have taken up urban based occupations, without cutting their links to their home areas. The
same is true for cultivators, some of whom (for instance in eastern Darfur) have gone into sheep
farming for export, using hired herders.


Land Use Maps

Annex 4 and 5 are indicative land use maps for North and South Darfur (North Darfur
Agriculture Zone Map and South Darfur Agriculture Planning Map). These were recently
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prepared by the United Nations based on Satellite imagery as base map and old ground land use
surveys. Data sources for the two maps include the Central Biro of Statistics, the United Nations.
The thematic information is provided by FAO. Although the maps provide good information,
their validity is limited due to the fact that they were prepared quickly to respond to the current
relief driven situation, and therefore, they are not suitable to be used for long term economic
planning. Well prepared land use maps based on up-to-date and reliable spatial and temporal data
supported by GIS are hereby recommended (see Annex 1). The maps divide the land into a
number of land systems; namely the Baggara, the Bahr, the Basement, the Laterized Basement,
the Qoz, the Ragaba, and the Volcanic.

The land use systems in Darfur is divided into five major systems as identified (Swift and Gray
1989): (a) the qoz/wadi farming of North and South Darfur, both being similar in household based
millet cultivation and animal keeping, but with the more reliable rains in the south permitting
larger and more stable yields, and more varied crops; (b) in the Jebel Marra area mixed farming is
the main economic occupation. Terracing and concentration of runoff water allow simple
irrigation (shadouf) systems to work. People cultivate millet and sorghum, combined with
irrigated citrus, vegetables and small quantities of wheat and also groundnuts. The pastoral
systems in the region also vary along a north south axis; (c) the pastoralists in the north are
mainly camel owners; (d) cattle pastoralism dominates the south. Two major groups of camel
nomads to the north are Zagahwa and Meidob, the dominant cattle nomads in the south are the
Baggara, such as Rizeigat, Habbaniya and Beni Halba; and (e) the major cultivating tribes in
Darfur are the Fur, the Berti and the Masalit.

The dominant economic unit involved in agriculture is the family. Millet grown on qoz-soil and
sorghum grown on the alluvial soils, were and still are the staple crops. However, the risk of crop
failure is always there, due to drought, locust and pests. Alternative risk avoidance possibilities
are important, primarily livestock, but also other agricultural crops and gum gardens as well as
gathering fruits, seeds and roots from the wild. Due to population increase people are forced to
stay longer on the land, thereby contributing to the processes of degradation. In the areas where
irrigation is possible labor input is divided between more crops and other activities. Livestock
raising was originally a nomadic exercise in Darfur but lately sedentary farmers started raising
livestock to make use of their farming residue in addition to the communal lands in order to
minimize agricultural risks.

The main two staple food crops grown in the Region are millet which is highly preferred by the
indigenous consumers and sorghums which is newly introduced as staple food. The millet is
grown throughout the sandy soils provided that rain fall is sufficient. As a coping strategy, quick
maturing varieties are introduced. Sorghum is grown in gardud and clay soils and it is mostly
grown in South Darfur, while in Northern region it is only grown when water harvesting system
is practiced. Oil crops such as sesame and groundnuts are mainly grown as cash crops. Other
crops such as vegetables and other horticultural crops are grown along the wadis banks and in
some instances farmers use shallow dug wells. It is worth mentioning that Fur people have
developed a very efficient irrigation system by utilizing both surface and groundwater.

   .
The Land Tenure

The land tenure systems in Darfur have evolved over the years (from the colonial era to date)
driven by the changes in the political, social and economic situation in addition to the increase in
human and animal population. Formerly land tenure system was mainly based on the tribal
system. Each tribe occupies areas which they call Dar. The Dar is the property of all the tribe
and the tribal chief is the main custodian of the land on behalf of the community. The chief
allocates land to individual members of the tribe for cultivation and the remaining lands remain
communal. Communal lands were used for pasture. Some of these communal lands are
sometimes granted to outsiders.

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This system goes back to the 19th century and the Fur Sultanate. High ranking members of the
Sultanate, prominent figures in the community and religious leaders were granted large pieces of
land called Hakuras. This system continued under the colonial rule and even after independence
with some modifications where a series of ordinances were issued. These ordinances and policies
divided the land into three categories:

       Government lands with community rights;
       Government lands without community rights; and
       Hawakir (tribal and individual) and lease lands

In 1970 the government issued the Unregistered Land Act which brought about a drastic change
in the land tenure system. The Unregistered Lands Act, 1970, has proved to be even more
repressive and detrimental to the environment. Article 4 (1) of the Act states that:

        all land of any kind whether waste, forest, occupied or unoccupied, which is not
        registered before the commencement of this Act shall, on such commencement, be
        the property of the Government and shall be deemed to have been registered as
        such, as if the provisions of the Land Settlement and Registration Act, 1925,
        have been duly complied with.

Although the Act indicates that all unregistered lands are government property, nevertheless it
gives the locals user rights but not ownership unless the land is actually registered. To add insult
to injury, later on the government abolished the tribal administration which was very influential
in ironing many land conflicts and solving many tenure problems between individuals and tribes
in peaceful way. The disruption of the tribal system and land tenure was further complicated by
the drought of the 70th and 80th where the population started to seek larger parcels of lands to
avoid crop failures and where additional numbers of people migrated southwards searching for
better agricultural land and pasture. Continuous farming of the land safeguards ownership. Long
term abandonment of land may result on loss of ownership and the land may revert to be
considered as communal. One effective way of safeguarding ownership of farm lands is by
growing Gum Arabic particularly Hashab trees on it or on its boarders. Local customary rights
were there, and acknowledged in principle, but the way the system was operated soon produced
negative consequences.

As mentioned earlier, the indigenous land tenure systems have been defined by factors discussed
above: local climate and ecology, the quality of land resources, population density, level of
agricultural technology, crops, markets, kinship organization, inheritance patterns, settlement
patterns, political organization, religious significance of land, and patterns of ethnic conquest,
dominance and rivalry. There are rights within traditional system originating in pre-colonial
states, such as the hakura system. There are also secondary tenures, so-called derived rights, such
as share-cropping arrangements, rights of way and water and rights of wives in their husbands’
land. Many conflicts occur as a result of outsiders’ infringement on the insiders’ rights, but
conflicts may also arise as a result of tension within the group itself.

For both farmers and pastoralists such rights are usually understood as being very concrete and
located in time and space, and have to do with a person’s chances of survival. The time
dimension shows how units are established and how rights are acquired over the generations.
What is a likely outcome of this is a situation full of local compromises, of situational give and
take, rather than strict rule enforcement. This personal basis is important also because land tenure
changes often starts as individual deviance from the norms, as we see in the early establishment
of gardens on communal lands, introducing elements of private ownership rights that later can be
developed. Such systems have been dynamic and have changed with use and time.



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Forests

Previously Darfur Region was classified as the wealthiest in forest resources among other regions
in Sudan with exception of the South. It was also estimated that Darfur comprises an area of
49.64 million hectares of forests. However, neither this estimation nor any other recent estimation
is accurate as there are no good estimates on land use and natural resources. The long prevailing
degradation of the environmental and the community heavy reliance on forest products have
drastically affect forest resources. A separate report will be developed to cover this section under
the D-JAM.

Nomadism, Range and Pasture

Of the varied forms of land use in Darfur pastoralism is mistakenly pointed out by some policy-
makers and decision-takers as the one that is responsible most of environmental degradation.
They misconceive pastoral movement, with its characteristic extensive use of land, as a wasteful
socio-economic adaptation. Pastoralists are also commonly accused of being responsible for
environmental degradation. "Over-grazing" is accordingly pointed out as the primary cause
underlying the disruption of the ecological balance. But such interpretations of the nature and
origins of environmental deterioration are poorly founded and tend to blame the victim. The point
here is not to deny the localized incidence of over-grazing in many regions. It is rather to draw
attention to the point that the observed processes of over-grazing are consequences of the drastic
reduction in grazing areas underlain by rapid agricultural expansion, in addition to growth in
human and animal population. Other factors, such as water scarcity, conflict and bandit activity,
seem to have limited further the effective grazing area accessible to pastoral herds.

Though pastoral Nomadism constitutes a form of production characterized by extensive
utilization of resources, it cannot be justifiably characterized as wasteful or destructive. In the
context of the environmental constraints exposed earlier, the herds cannot be sustained without
movement, or use of resources in a relatively extensive area covering different ecological zones.
But use of an extensive area does not necessarily imply destruction of natural resources. Inherent
to the operation of pastoralism is indeed a mechanism for environmental conservation and
regeneration of natural resources. Pastoral movement is both flexible and selective. Until
recently, movement was usually undertaken by relatively small pastoral camps, with each
comprising a limited number of herding units. Of late, however, camp size started to expand in
response to insecurity in various regions. Each camp has a number of scouts, who move ahead of
herds to explore and collect information on the grazing potentials of the area toward which the
herds are moving. Invariably, decisions concerning direction of movement are based on reports
by the scouts. In other words, herds do not graze at random, but on selected sites known to be the
best available; ipso facto, poorer sites are avoided and left to regenerate.

Regarding the relation between pastoralism and the environment, it is important to begin from
recognition that, all over Darfur, the realities of pastoral ecologies pose a number of serious
constraints on the permanent settlement of herds. Basic among these constraints are the seasonal
fluctuations in the supply of the essential inputs of pastoral production: water and forage. There
are also other region-specific adverse environmental features. The seasonal fluctuations,
combined with varied adverse environmental features, necessitate nomadic movement, varying in
direction, distance and duration depending on the region and/or type of bred animal.

Watering points solve problems but create others. To relieve pressure on both water and grazing
around the watering centers, pastoralists tended to disperse wide in their respective regions during
the rainy season to make use of both the water pools formed by the rain and the extensive grazing
area rendered accessible because of water availability. Various types of pastoral movement
emerged in the rangelands as adaptations to the ecological constraints. These movements ranged
from "pure Nomadism", typically involving camel breeding and long distance movement, to
forms of transhumance, involving cattle, sheep and goats, and entailing relatively shorter

                                                                                                 15
distances. Even sedentary cultivators often find it necessary to move during the dry season with
their village-based small herds. The ecological constraints requiring pastoral movement were
reported as far back as the colonial time as indicated by C.P. Fisher (Report of the Soil
Conservation Committee, 1944, and documented by Galal El-Din El-Tayeb, 1985).

Gum Arabic

Gum trees are multifunctional, providing great benefits to the farming community and act as an
environmental stabilizer within the gum belt. Furthermore, it is utilized for fuel wood, shade,
shelter and the tree provides fodder for livestock feed. It is also included in the rotation to boost
the nitrogen fixation mechanism. It is also allow farmers to make use of their slack period by
acquiring additional income.      A separate report will be developed for this section under the D-
JAM.


Previous and Existing Development Projects

Development in Darfur was not completely on hold though most of the development activities
were those supported by donors and NGOs. Annex 6 which was taken from the Baseline Survey
by IES gives a categorized list of previous and current donor supported projects in Darfur. The
includes: planning projects main among these is the famous Area Development Schemes and the
Baseline Survey mentioned above. Other projects under this category include Integrated Rural
Development project of which Western Savanna and J. Marra Development projects are notable.
In the area of agriculture and forestry there are projects in small holders farming supported by
NGOs, Agricultural Research and Restocking of the Gum Arabic Belt supported by FAO. In the
health sector a number of projects were funded including one on Primary Health Care and another
on Rural Health. The water sector includes Water Resources Development Project, Rural Water
Supply and Community Wells. The list includes a number of relief related projects supporting
refugees and IDPs. Some of these project focus on women and children.


Environmental Threats and Hotspots

Between 1956 and 2003 the population of Darfur increased six folds from 1.08 millions to 6.48
millions. Population density increased from 3 persons/ km2 in 1956 to 18 persons/ km2 in 2003.
This population increase in addition to climatic land degradation and anthropogenic degradation
highlighted the environmental threats in the whole of Darfur manifested themselves clearly in a
number of hotspots where the environment is fragile and the pressure is greatest. The main causes
of land degradation are:

     Increase of acreages under cultivation
     Expansion of farming in areas of limited rainfall
     Uncontrolled use of rangelands
     Extensive tree cutting
In Darfur region rangeland which is a communal entity extend from the extremely desert to flood
zones with its marshy and muddy conditions. The untamed range lands system is widely
practiced. The carrying capacity of pasture has greatly changed. In the Northern Darfur as an
example, the carrying capacity was 40 – 50 animal units per square kilometers in the seventies,
while in a recent survey carried by the Range and Pasture Department 2001/ 2002 indicated that it
was only 9 animal units per year.


Natural Resources Conflicts and the Environment



                                                                                                   16
This general situation in Darfur has produced several types of conflicts. The expansion of
cultivation on the qoz, together with an accumulation of animals in the same area, has produced
over cultivation, overgrazing and deforestation. However, the situation is also affected by other
factors. The various periods of drought have affected the areas of north Darfur badly, pushing
people towards towns, and also southwards into the qoz and gardud belts already under pressure.
The civil war in South Sudan has created pressure from the south, blocking the dry season
migrations of the nomads in Bahr el Arab and other areas, and making them stay longer on the
qoz and gardud areas. The lack of reliable and up to date information on the natural resources
and the environment and the absence of any land use plans for Darfur forced economic
development to be implemented in an ad-hoc, piece meal and reactive mode. This believed to be
one of the reasons that have lead to conflicts over natural resources.

Water resources in particular and natural resources in general are believed to be underlying much
of the conflict in Darfur. As indicated above, water in Darfur is a limiting factor affecting
economic development and contributing negatively to the wellbeing of the population. This
becomes even more drastic noting that water resources are becoming less and less available and
the need for water is increasing. Assessing the status regarding surface and ground water
resources and providing solutions making water available to human and animals as well as water
for agriculture may be one of the most important activities of the D-JAM.

The issue of land degradation, soil erosion and desertification is another resource conflict
problem. The net effect of these problems for a rural economy such as Darfur is reduced capacity
for food production and deteriorating environment leading to devastating human crisis including
famines. Deforestation in Darfur is both the cause and effect of the conflict.

As mentioned earlier, Darfur Region used to be classified as the wealthiest in forest resources
among other regions in Sudan with exception of the South. It was also estimated that Darfur
comprises an area of 49.64 million hectares of forests. Recent assessments indicate that Darfur is
now experiencing widespread unsustainable use of forest resources and many areas are now
completely deforested. It is important that up-to-date and accurate assessments of the forest
resources in Darfur be conducted as part of land use mapping exercise and a proper time series
monitoring program be developed to continually monitor and evaluate this valuable natural
resource. The D-JAM should have activities that develop long term plans for forest management
and rehabilitation (including alternative energy sources since the need for energy seems to be the
main cause of deforestation) based on the assessments.


Land Use Changes in Fashir and Nyala Areas (1987-2000)

To give some idea on land use changes over time in Darfur, 4 Landsat Thematic Mapper ( ™ )
scenes numbers 178/50 and 178/51 covering El Fashir and Nyala areas were selected (see Annex
2 and Annex 3 which show part of the above mentioned scenes) for analysis. The scenes cover
the time periods between 1987 and 2000. Even for this limited area and relatively short duration
in time (13 years), significant changes in vegetation and land use patterns were detected. Usually,
in this type of analysis multi – temporal images supported by ground truth information should be
used. But in this case the analyses were done using false color images without any field
verification which limited the interpretation accuracy. To improve the analysis better data on
longer duration, supported by ground truth should have been done. That is why this paper is
recommending a land use mapping proposal (see Annex 1). Nevertheless, the following
observations are noted:

El Fashir

The first image was taken on 20/10/1987, towards the end of the rainy season and the second
image was taken on 15/10/2000 nearly about the same time of the year. On the first date (1987) a

                                                                                                17
dense vegetation cover was observed in the whole area with significant concentration along Wadi
El Ku banks. Some regular agricultural fields (probably Tombak and vegetables) and large ponds
in both El Fashir town and Wadi El Ku were observed. Minor sand encroachments over the clay
soils especially around El Fashir were also evident. On the second scene (2000) major
encroachment of sand dunes in clay soils and some sand pockets were observed. This change on
the land escape may render the area now more favorable for gum Arabic and millet growing in
clay soils which are now overlaid by a thin layer of sand dunes. It is also noticed that areas
around numerous villages scattered near El Fashir were apparently degraded. Very limited
vegetations in Wadi El Ku and some agricultural fields along the Wadi exist.

Nyala

The first image was taken on 13/10/1987 and the second scene was taken on 12/11/2000 - there
was one month difference, the first was on October while the second was on November. Jabel
Marra features clearly on both images with lush vegetative cover (See images in Annex 3). It is
worth noting that the land use changes in Nyala images were not as significant as those seen on El
Fashir images. Nonetheless the following observations were noted.

 In 1987 image the land appeared relatively degraded on the far north eastern parts of Jabel Marra
and around Nyala town. Vegetation cover appeared denser around Jabel Marra in 1987 compared
to 2000 (although the images were taken with a month difference). Intensive cultivations around
Jabel Marra and Nyala town were observed on 1987 image. In the year 2000 image symptoms of
degradation in the eastern part of Jabel Marra were more evident and more sand pockets were
clear. Extensive cultivations north of Nyala and around Jabel Marra were very clear in the whole
area as seen on 2000 image. This apparently means a reduction of range areas over that period of
time between 1987 and 2000.

Environment and Potential Development

The D-JAM activities are expected to generate both positive and negative effects on Darfur
environment. These effects are summarized below.

Potential Positive Environmental Effects

It is expected that most projects that may be financed under the D-JAM will have positive
impacts on the surrounding environment in Darfur if they were well designed and properly
implemented. For example, fencing Hafirs and providing them with treatment plants can help
decrease the spread of diseases and improve public health conditions. The provision of adequate
potable water supplies through boreholes or hand pumps, if linked to sanitation and health
education, will improve health and socio – economic conditions of local communities. The
implementation of appropriate water – harvesting techniques and Wadi irrigation will have
positive impacts on water and soil conservation and the enhancement of soil fertility leading to
improvement of crop productivity and the generation of employment opportunities. Further, such
activities, if combined with forest protection, can lead to the protection of watershed areas.

New rural roads can have significant economic and social impacts. These roads can facilitate
access to agricultural lands, access to markets, social links and access to basic health, education
and other community services. Beside the above, other environmentally beneficial projects that
may be financed by the D-JAM in the selected localities may include:
        - Community forests to provide energy and building materials.
        - Reforestation of desertified areas.
        - Soil erosion control.
        - Protection of range lands and forests through construction of fire lines.
        - Protection of cultural heritage


                                                                                                      18
        -   Rehabilitation of the existing projects such as Jebel Marra and Western Savanna
            Agriculture Project
        -   Restocking of Gum Arabic belt
        -   Provision of basic agricultural services and techniques
        -   Exploitation of underground water potential in areas such as Umbayada area
        -   Encouraging organic farming
        -   Wildlife conservation

The D-JAM activities may also generate environmental benefits through a variety of other
mechanisms among which include:
       - Generation of environmental assessment guidelines that can be used by other
          organizations or ministries, or could be adopted by the Ministry of Environment and
          other sectors for more general use;
       - Training of government staff, NGOs and local community officials including
          vocational training;
       - Training of environmental specialists, thus increasing the number of environmental
          professionals in the country;
       - Support existing research stations; and
       - Improved environmental awareness in the local communities.


Possible Negative Environmental Effects of Development

The D-JAM may also finance a considerable number of different types of projects throughout
much of Darfur. An important percentage of the funding may be allocated for: infrastructure and
social development including community potable water supply, wells and surface water
protection; small wastewater collection, treatment and disposal schemes; rural and agricultural
roads; small irrigation and drainage schemes; land reclamation and rehabilitation of land terraces;
rehabilitation and upgrading of schools and health centers, and creation of youth, cultural and
sports centers. Though intended to improve environmental and social conditions, these projects
may generate a variety of negative environmental impacts during the construction and/or the
operation. These impacts may be direct or indirect or cumulative.

Under certain conditions, some proposed projects may have considerable irreversible negative
impacts and may not be approved for funding or approved under certain conditions. These may
include:
         - Land terracing on slopes greater than 40%
         - Projects may lead to deforestation
         - Projects that may adversely affect natural habitats and biodiversity.
         - Projects that may affect cultural heritage sites.
         - Projects that include the purchase and use of pesticides and herbicides.

The mitigation of negative environmental impacts may be achieved through various management
routines including Environmental Management Plans (EMP), Operational Manual (OM) and
Contract Clauses. Environmental impacts arising from the operation of the different projects can
be minimized by appropriate site selection, good engineering design and appropriate construction
techniques. The mitigation of construction impacts is usually achieved by ensuring that the
contractor undertakes his work in accordance with good construction practices. Constructions’
negative impacts are best dealt with by incorporating mitigation clauses into the Bidding
Documents. Site supervision staff must check that the works are carried out in accordance with
good practice measures throughout project implementation.


Environmental Safeguard Policies of Potential Development


                                                                                                19
In addition to the shrinking natural resources in Dafur, and the expanding population, a major
cause of natural resource degradation is the weak environmental policies and regulatio ns and the
weak capacity to manage the environment. Although the Sudan Environment Act of 2001
provides some guidance for environmental management, the weak implementation of the Act and
the poor enforcement capacity leaves a lot to be desired. The D-JAM activities should strictly
abide by the national environmental Act in addition to the World Bank Environmental Safeguard
Policies. Moreover, the D-JAM should develop specific programs to address identified
environment issues such as sustainable management of water resources, combating desertification
and developing alternative energy sources as substitute to the use of fuel wood and thus support
reforestation. World Bank’s environmental and social safeguard policies that may apply to the D-
JAM activities are:

       Environmental Assessment (OP4.01)
       Natural Habitats (OP 4.04)
       Water Resources Management (OP4.07)
       Pest Management (OP 4.09)
       Cultural Property (OP 4.11)
       Indigenous Peoples (OP 4.20)
       Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.30)
       Forestry (OP 4.36)


Land Use Mapping Proposal

Natural resources management and development should be based on up to date and accurate land
use mapping which is the prerequisite to good land use planning. Land use mapping now is
mostly based and enhanced through the utilization of Satellite data using remote sensing and
utilizing geographic information system (GIS). GIS capabilities provide ways to integrate
multiple data types (remotely sensed data, topographic maps, censuses data, etc.) makes it
possible to produce alternatives land use options. It has been proven that the successful
implementation of development projects, particularly, projects on the sustainable development
and conservation of the natural resources at any level (county, state or locality) depends largely
on the availability of spatial data infrastructure (Geo information in a GIS context) that includes
environmental data.

The following geo- information limitations are recognized in Darfur region:

                The existing spatial information, e.g. topographic maps produced in 1930s, is
                 inappropriate for development and conservation land use plans. Moreover the
                 data is only available at present in static form (paper form).

                Those revised topographic maps were never revised precisely to include changes
                 in the settlements, infrastructure or any other environmental aspects.

                The Sudan land cover database (from Africover project) is dated back to 1996
                 (noting that the environment is continuously changing mainly due to civil
                 conflicts recently)

                Lack of relevant spatial information (e.g. population) in digital format.

Annex 1 includes a proposal for land use mapping for Darfur.




                                                                                                 20
References

Abdalla Ahmed Abdalla, Environmental Degradation and Conflict in Darfur : Experiences and
Development Options. UN University for Peace, 2004.

Adam Azzain, Indigenous Institutions and Practices Promoting Peace and/or Mitigating
Conflicts: The case of Southern Darfur of Sudan. UN University of Peace, 2004.

Ahmed Hassan Haud (2000), Use of Solar and Wind Energy for Water Pumping at Sag Al na'am.

Environment and Development Services, Development and Planning information for North
Darfur Province

Environment and Development Services, Development and Planning information for South
Darfur Province

Environment and Development Services, Development and Planning information for West Darfur
Province


IES (1987) Baseline Survey for Darfur Region UNDP, Khartoum

Indigenous Knowledge for Sustainable Development in Sudan. Institute of African and Asian
Studies, University of Khartoum – Sudan, 1994.


Integrated Rural Development Study, Dar Al Salaam, Northern Darfur State, Part One, Base Line
Information. Hydromaster,2004.

NCR (1995), Land Tenure Issues in Water Harvesting, the Case of El Fashir Area, Northern
Darfur.

Sustainable Operations and Maintenance of Rural Water Supplies. World Health Organization /
World University Service of Canada,1989.

Yagoub Abdalla Mohamed (1998), Environmental Consideration for Sustainable Development in
Greater Darfur.

---------------------------------- (1992), Environmental Consideration for Development in Darfur.
(Arabic)

--------------------------------- (1994), Indigenous Soil and water Conservation Techniques in
Central Darfur.

--------------------------------- (2000), Towards a State Environmental Plan for North Darfur.

Yousif Tkanna, Report on Tribal Conflicts in Darfur, “Conference on Holistic security and
Peaceful Coexistence in Darfur Province” Nyala 1977. (Arabic)




                                                                                                    21
Annex 1

                      Proposed Land Use Mapping for Planning In Darfur

Introduction

Darfur region includes the three states (North Darfur, West Darfur and Suoth Darfur state) with a
total area of 490000 km2 . The area is approximately equal to 1/5 of the area of Sudan (see figure
bellow, Location Map). Unfortunately very little efforts have been made towards developing any
land use maps or plans for the area. Thus knowledge of Darfur natural resources is not well
documented. It is said that one of the major problems in Darfur is water availability, which is
critical for socio economic development and human wellbeing in the region as well in Sudan in
general. Rainfall availability, despite its seasonality and variability, accounts for the present
human occupation and the present patterns of land use. Agriculture and animal razing are the
major activities that govern the economy in this part of Sudan. These activities and the inhabitants
distribution is governed by water availability and it is a source of hope for development and food
security. Most of the agricultural activities are within the rainfall zone of 225 to 600 mm and this
zone is known for its frequent vulnerability to drought and desertification.


Most of the economic activities in rural areas are based on limited resources and depend fully on
rainfall for crop and fodder production. Settlements are in form of clusters (villages) around water
points. Due to the extensive use of the limited resources the villages, in such dry land, contribute
to land degradation. Uncontrolled practices such as over-cultivation, over-grazing and
deforestation are among the main driving forces.

Many development strategies and programs for natural resources utilization in Darfur lack the
accurate information upon which one should base the vision of sustainability. Land degradation,
desertification, internal displacement and conflicts over the resources are the outcome of the lack
of such information. Generally natural resources information in Darfur in both the urban or rural
sectors is very limited. Natural resources development needs to be based on accurate and up-to-
date land use mapping upon which land use planning need to be based, a concept which is not
well recognized in Sudan.

The state-of-the-art land use mapping now is mostly based and enhanced through the utilization
of Satellite data using remote sensing and utilizing geographic information system (GIS). GIS
capabilities provide ways to integrate multiple data types (remotely sensed data, topographic
maps, censuses data, etc.) and make it possible to produce alternatives land use options. It has
been proven that the successful implementation of development projects, particularly, projects on
the sustainable development and conservation of the natural resources at any level (county, state
or locality) depends largely on the availability of spatial data infrastructure (Geo information in a
GIS context) that includes environmental data.

This proposed land use mapping exercise aims at creation of spatial data infrastructure as a
perquisite for land use planning to support sustainable development.


Available Natural resources information

In order to formulate sustainable development plans for natural resources that are
environmentally sound, land use mapping is essential; and for that spatial data is the main source
of information. In Darfur region limitations in geo- information are recognized, particularly:

                  The existing spatial information, e.g. topographic maps was produced in 1930s,
                   and is now unavailable, out of date and unreliable for development planning.
                                                                                                   22
                 Moreover the data which is available is only in static form (paper form) and
                 represent one point of time which is not useful for monitoring overtime.

                Those topographic maps were never revised to include changes in land use,
                 human settlements, infrastructure or any other natural resources and
                 environmental aspects.

                The Sudan land cover database (which was produced from Satellite information
                 in the Africover project) dates back to 1996 (noting that the environment is
                 continuously changing mainly due to civil conflicts recently)

                There is lack of other relevant information (e.g. population) in spatial and digital
                 formats.

Use of Remote Sensing Data for Land Use Mapping and Planning

 Satellite remote sensing provides fast, compatible and independent overview information on the
extent and the distribution of the resources and basic information for land use mapping and
development planning as it spans both space and time. Some of the key reasons why remote
sensing is essential for land use mapping and planning in Darfur are:
     Darfur covers a large area with some parts that are difficult to access by road and thus
          remote sensing data becomes the only source of reliable data.

       Remotely sensed data can be used effectively for sustainable development in the
        following ways:
        1. It provide direct identification, mapping and monitoring of the natural resources such
             as water resources (rivers, wadis and Sudd, Dams, Hafirs, water points), vegetation,
             land use, soils..etc.
        2. It provide a means for monitoring environmental changes overtime such as
             degradation: gully erosion, sand encroachment, desertification floods and
             sedimentation.

Objectives
The objectives of this proposed land use mapping exercise are to:

           Provide basic land resources data to help decision makers and planners in setting up
            plans for sustainable development and enable development agencies to select the
            most potential areas for feasibility studies for investment and initiation of new
            projects.
           Develop a land use plan that insures sustainable development without exhausting the
            natural resources using remote sensing data. With special focus on highly degraded
            areas.
           Develop human and institutional capacity in remote sensing and GIS fields.


Methodology

The methodology follows an integrated approach using remote sensing, GIS, field survey in
addition to using secondary data from other documents. The methodology includes:
           Using up-to-date satellite imagery which are essential for thematic maps production
            in addition to field surveys to field check present conditions on the ground, e.g.
            geographical features, land use, etc.
           Using GIS to assist in model development and studying all possible scenarios for
            land use planning.
                                                                                               23
Methods that will be used for data collection and analyses include the followings:

Data collection
        (A) Remote Sensing Data:
             Images from ASTER satellite dated 2006
             Image from IKONOS satellite dated 2006 (few selected sites)

        (B) Existing Information from maps:
              Sudan Survey Topographic Map of Scale 1:100.000 dated 1974.
              Sudan land cover information from Afrocover maps of 1996
              Sudan Geological maps
              Any other relevant information from GOV, NGO and UN organizations

        (C) Documents Review (relevant reports and papers)

        (D) Field Observations


Data Analysis
The images, maps and other information will be interpreted (visual image interpretation aided
with digital image processing), and GIS overlays will be used for analysis.

Expected Output

The following products will be produced:

                      A digital natural resources database of the project area based on satellite
                       imagery (ASTER) and the latest GIS technology.

                      A set of thematic maps covering the project area that can be used for land
                       use planning development.

                      Current and time series digital maps that can be to study some hotspots
                       overtime (including settlements, roads, etc), vegetation maps, water
                       resources and hydrology, soil and geomorphology.

                      Capacities to use remote sensing and GIS through training of staff that is
                       expected to use the information.

                      Complete report on the process and methodology.




                                                                                                     24
Estimated Cost

The proposed exercise involves natural resources data analysis using remote sensing data and GIS
techniques, laboratory analysis in addition to field observations and final maps and report
production. Five experts will be selected to conduct the exercise within six months .Four Phases
are proposed in the work plan as follows:


Phase Type of         Duration       Description of Activities                        Cost in
      Work                                                                            US
                                                                                      Dollars
Phase Office          one month      Collection of existing data, compilation and         5000
1     Work            and half       assessment
                                     Purchase of satellite data (ASTER).                 30000
                                     Purchase of satellite data purchasing
                                     (IKONOS).                                           30000
                                     Satellite data preliminary interpretation
                                     Staff training.                                     20000
                                                                                          5000

Phase Field Visit     Two month      Field work and ground truthing ( including
2                                    cars renting).                                      30000
                                     Collection of addition information from
                                     secondary sources (including socio-economic
                                     data).                                              10000

Phase Final Map one month            Map reinterpretation and validation.                30000
3     production and half            Information compilation and integration.
                                     Thematic maps production.                           25000
                                     Compilation and production of the final map.        20000
                                     Staff training.
                                     Equipment (PCs, GPSs) and software.                 20000
                                                                                          5000
                                                                                         25000

Phase Report          one month      Report writing                                      15000
4     writing
Total                                                                                   250000
Cost




                                                                                             25
26
Annex 2




          27
Annex 3




          28
Annex 4




          29
Annex 5




          30
Annex 6



                                         Record of Donor Funded Development Project in Darfur
                                                              Planning Projects
              ODA/Darfur       Darfur Regional Govt. Planning
 1.1. ODA                                                      Technical Assistance in natural Resources Planning        Darfur Region
              Regional Govt.   Project
                               Project Formulation and Aid     Developing Project Proposals Monitoring + Evaluation of
 1.2. UNDP    UNDP (OPE)                                                                                                 Darfur Region
                               Coordination Unit.              ongoing Projects.
                                                               Carrying out baseline Survey of resources of Darfur
 1.3. UNDP    UNDP (OPE)       Baseline Survey                                                                           Darfur Region
                                                               Region.
                                                               Economic and Social Planning at District Levels           Umm Keddada A.C.
 1.4. UNDP    UNDP             Area Development Scheme.
                                                               (planning stage)                                          Idd El Ghanam A.C.
                                                                                                                         Mellit A.C. Umm
                                                                Economic and Social Planning at District and village     Keddada A.C.
                               Regional Finance and Planning
 1.5. USAID   US PVO’s                                          Council Level                                            J. Marra A.C.
                               Project
                                                                (planning Phase)                                         Idd El Ghanam A.C.
                                                                                                                         (Proposed)




                                                                                                                                              31
                                                         Integrated Rural Development Project
                      Executing
  Funding Agency                            Project                         Services Provided/ Activities                   Area Covered
                       Agency
                                                                                                                     Nayala A.C.
                                                                                                                     Ed Daein A.C.
                                                                1) Agricultural and Livestock applied research and
                                                                   extension.
2.1. IDA           Western Savannah
                                    Western Savannah            2) Resettlement and community development.
     IFAD          Development
                                    Project Phase II            3) Rehabilitation and maintenance of water yards.    Buram A.C.
     ODA           Corporation.
                                                                4) Track Improvement.                                Idd El Ghanam A.C.
                                                                5) Support to Govt. Depts.


                                                                                                                     Jebel Marra A.C.
                                    Jebel Marra Rural           1) Agricultural Applied Research and extension
2.2. EEC           JMRDP                                                                                             Garsila A.C.
                                    Development Project.        2) Track Improvement.
                                                                                                                     Rokirroh A.C.
                                                                1) Tree Planting, Restoration of nurseries.
2.3. ODA &
                                                                2) Promotion of Income Generating activities Inc.
      QUAKER                        Integrated Rural                                                                 (Particularly Eishbarra VC &
                   QPS                                             small business Development.
      PEACE &                       Development.                                                                     Aserni).
                                                                3) Improvement of Schools Facilities.
      SERVICES
                                                                4) Small scale agriculture.
2.4. LOWER                                                      1) Well construction and training.
      SIXONY &                                                  2) Rehabilitation of Health center and training.
                   German Agro-     Integrated Rural                                                                 Inderabiro
      GERMAN                                                    3) Rehabilitation of forest nursery.
                   Action           Development.                                                                     (Habila R.C. )
      AGRO-                                                     4) Horticultural & Agricultural Trails.
      ACTION                                                    5) Repair of Primary school.
                                                                1)   Road Construction
                                    Italy-Sudan
                                                                2)   Water yard rehabilitation and Development.
                                    Rehabilitation and
2.5. FAI           UNDP (OPE)                                   3)   Rehabilitation of hospitals                     North Darfur
                                    Development
                                                                4)   Rehabilitation of Schools.
                                    Programme, Darfur.
                                                                5)   Agriculture and Forestry.




                                                                                                                                                    32
                        Kutum Area
2.6. Federal
                        Rehabilitation &   1) Various agricultural and associated activities
    Republic of   GTZ                                                                          Kutum R.C.
                        Development        (Planning Phase).
    Germany
                        Programme.




                                                                                                            33
                                                                   Agriculture / Forestry
                         Executing
  Funding Agency                              Project                          Services Provided/ Activities                      Area Covered
                          Agency
                                                                  1) Various agricultural research and extension
                                                                     activities.
                                                                  2) Establishment of Village seedbank                     Kebkabiya R.C.
3.1. Oxfam                            Kebkabiya Small
                    Oxfam                                         3) Well construction.
     ODA                              holders Project
                                                                  4) Animal traction.
                                                                  5) Assistance to construction and maintenance of local
                                                                     health centers and Schools.
                                                                  1) Extension activities for vegetable & horticultural
                                                                     crop production.
                                      Assistance to small scale                                                            Kebkabiya R.C.
3.2. UNDP           FAO                                           2) Strengthening farmers organizations for input
                                      Irrigated Farming.                                                                   Seraf Umra R.C.
                                                                     provision and marketing.
                                                                     (Planning Phase).
                                                                                                                           El Fasher A.C.
3.3. UNDP                                                                                                                  Mellit A.C.
      UNSO                            Restocking gum belt         1) Distribution of gum Arabic seed                       Idd El Ghanam A.C.
                    R
      Gum Arabic                      Darfur                         (Planning Phase).                                     Nayala A.C.
      Co.                                                                                                                  Buram A.C.
                                                                                                                           Ed Daein A.C.
                    GOS Agriculture   Western Sudan               1) Agricultural research at Ghazalla Gawazat Research
3.4. USAID
                    Research          Agricultural Research          Station proposed for El Fasher Research Station.      Darfur Region.
     WORLD BANK
                    Corporation       Project.
3.5. Federal
                                      Aforestation project,
Republic of        GTZ                                            1) Establishment of forest plantation.                   Jebel Marra forest circle.
                                      Jebel Marra.
Germany
                                      Agricultural credit for
                   Agric. Bank of                                 1) Provision of credit for agricultural and associated
3.6. EEC                              drought                                                                              South Darfur.
                   Sudan                                              activities.
                                      recovery/revival.




                                                                                                                                                        34
                                                                     Health Sector
                        Executing
  Funding Agency                               Project                     Services Provided / Activities                 Area Covered
                         Agency
4.1. EEC                                                                                                           Geneina A.C. (Including
   Irish Govt.                                                 1) PHC Rehabilitation.                              refugee settlement sites).
                     Goal              Primary Health Care.
   Irish Sorting                                               2) Health Service refugee settlement sites.
   Fraternity.
4.2. EEC             MSF (Belgium)     Primary Health Care.    1) PHC Rehabilitation                               South Darfur
4.3. EEC                                                                                                           North Darfur (Excluding
   Dutch Govt.       MSF (Holland)     Primary Health Care.    1) PHC Rehabilitation                               Geneina A.C.)

4.4. LOWER
                     Lower Saxony      Primary Health Care.    1) PHC Rehabilitation and Health Education.         El Fasher Town.
      Saxony
4.5. Sudan Council   Sudan Council of Darfur Health            1) Mother and Child Health Care.                    Kubbum R.C.
      of Churches    Churches         Programme.
                                                               1) Strengthening Regional MOH in management and
                                       Rural Health Support
4.6. USAID           One America                                  planning of Health Care.                         Darfur Region.
                                       Project.
                                                               2) Improvement of EPI & ORT Programmes.
                                       Nutritional Blindness
                                                               1) Baseline Assessment survey.
                                       Prevention/ Control
                     Helen Keller                              2) Activities to reduce vitamin (A) Deficiency.
4.7. USAID                             Programme for                                                               North Darfur.
                     International                             3) Education associated with reducing Vitamin (A)
                                       Drought victims in
                                                                  Deficiency.
                                       Sudan.




                                                                                                                                                35
                                                                       Water Sector
   Funding Agency         Executing Agency           Project                  Services Provided/ Activities                      Area Covered
                                                                                                                         Kass R.C.
                                                                      1) Village Water Supply Programme
5.1. NAT’L Corp. for                                                                                                     S.W. Nayala R.C.
                          NAT’L Corp. for                             2) Water Resources assessment
Rural Water Dev.                             Water Resources and                                                         Rahed El Birdi R.C.
                          Rural Water                                    S. Darfur
(Sudan) & Ground-                            Development Project in                                                      Idd El Ghanam R.C.
                          Development and                             3) Investigation and Drilling Programme in
Water Survey (TNO)                           Sudan (WADS)                                                                Sharia R.C.
                          TNO.                                            Refugee Camps.
                                                                                                                         Kubum R.C.
                                                                      4) Monitoring Hand Pumps.
                                                                      1) Water analysis for El Fasher water supply and
                                             Water Analysis               for samples from elsewhere in Darfur.
5.2. Lower Saxony         Lower Saxony                                                                                   El Fasher Town.
                                             Laboratory               2) Clinical Chemistry and medical microbiology
                                                                          support for El Fasher Civil Hospital.
5.3.                      KEW (Continuing
                                             Rural water supply       1) Shallow Well Development.
       Federal Republic   from Lower                                                                                     Darfur Region.
                                             Programme Darfur.
       of Germany.        Saxony).
                                                                      1) Water Hygiene education.
                       Sudanese Red                                   2) Water Testing and Data Collection re water      El Fasher A.C.
5.4. British Red Cross                       Water Hygiene Campaign
                       Crescent                                          sources and contamination.                      Umm Keddada A.C.

                                                                                                                         Kutum A.C.
5.5. League of Red        Sudanese Red                                                                                   Mellit A.C.
                                             Community wells.         1)   Community well development.
Cross                     Crescent                                                                                       Kebkabiya A.C.
                                                                                                                         Umm Keddada A.C.
5.6. World Relief         Lutheran World                              1) Shallow well development (Family Gardening,
                                             LWR Darfur Programme.                                                       Kutum R.C.
    (USA)                 Relief (Sudan)                                  Small Scale agro Forestry).




                                                                                                                                                36
                                                                     Relief Projects
                         Executing
  Funding Agency                              Project                        Services Provided/ Activities                                Area Covered
                          Agency
6.1. UNHCR                           Maintenance and             1) Distribution of food rations, medical assistance and   Geneina A.C.
                      COR
                                     Assistance to Refugees.         water to refugee centers in Aserni and Anjekoti
                                     Assistance to Refugees in    1) Assistance to Chadian refugee (incl. water, health
6.2. UNHCR                                                                                                                 Geneina A.C.
                      COR            temporary local                  care) in temporary local settlements in Habila &
                                     settlements.                     Mornei.
6.3.
                      Swedish Red                                1) Regular data collection of Early Warning               North Darfur
      Swedish Red                    Sudanese Red Crescent.
                      Cross                                         Indicators.                                            (Excl. Geneina A.C.)
      Cross
6.4. League of Red                                               1) Maintenance of emergency stocks of food in
                      Sudanese Red
      Cross/ German                  Disaster Preparedness.          Darfur.                                               Darfur Region.
                      Crescent
      Red Cross                                                  2) Distribution of relief food as required
                                     Village based cash for      1) Support of small scale                                 Mellit A.C.
6.5. S.C.F.           SCF
                                     work schemes.                  “Cash for Work” village Projects.                      Umm Keddada A.C.




                                                                                                                                                         37
                                                                      MISC / Supporting Agencies
                            Executing
  Funding Agency                                     Project                         Services Provided/ Activities                      Area Covered
                             Agency
                                                                        1) 1 Handicraft & Sewing Teacher Seconded to El-
                        German              Youth Training Centers         Fasher.                                                El Fasher Town
7.1.
                        Volunteers          and teacher Training        2) 1 metal work instructor seconded to Nayala.            Nayala town
                        Service.            Support.                    3) 1 Handicraft and sewing teacher seconded to
                                                                           teacher training college.
                        German
7.2.                                        Support to Horticulture      1) 1 Fruit tree expert / horticulturist seconded to El   Geneina A.C.
                        Volunteers
                                            Nursery El Geneina.              Geneina.
                        Service.
                                                                         1) 1 Community worker, 1 animal traction
                                                                            specialist, 1 mechanic trainer seconded to
                                            Support to WSDC and
7.3. VSO                VSO                                                 WSDC.                                                 South Darfur.
                                            Oxfam (Geneina).
                                                                         2) 1 Mechanic trainer seconded to Oxfam
                                                                            workshop, Geneina.

Funding agency and executing agency only refer to foreign agencies. In most projects, government of Sudan is also contributing to funding and is a partner to
the executing agency.




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